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Terra

mammas

Porrò sub tuo consulatu, Teque adeò decus hoc ævi, te consule, inibit,

Pollio, gloria illa æta. Pollio : et incipient magni procedere menses. tum inchoabitur, et mag. ni menses incipient cur Te duce, si qua manent sceleris vestigia nostri, rere

. Te auctore, si ali- Irrita perpetuâ solvent formidine terras. quæ nostri eriminis reliIlle Deûm vitam accipiet, Divisque videbit

15 quiæ supersunt, tunc deletæ liberabunt mundum Permixtos heroas, et ipse videbitur illis : æterno metu. Ipse puer Pacatumque reget patriis virtutibus orbem. particeps erit vitæ divi

At tibi prima, puer, nullo munuscula cultu, Dæ, et videbit heroas sociatos diis et ipse videbi- Errantes hederas passim cum baccare tellus, tur ab illis, et guberna- Mixtaque ridenti colocasia fundet acantho.

20 bit mundum pacatum

Ipsæ lacte domum referent distenta capellæ patris virtute. autem ubique sine cul

Ubera :

: nec magnos metuent armenta leones. turâ producet tibi parva Ipsa tibi blandos fundent cunabula flores : munera, o puer ! nempe Occidet et serpens, et fallax herba veneni vagas hederas passim cum baccare et coloca Occidet: Assyrium vulgò nascetur amomum.

25 sia mixta grato acantho. At simul heroum laudes, et facta parentis Ipsæ capræ reportabunt Jam legere, et quæ sit poteris cognoscere virtus:

stabulum lacte tumentes, nec gre

Molli paullatim flavescet campus aristâ, ges timebunt magnos le- Incultisque rubens pendebit sentibus uva, ones: ipsæ cunæ profe. Et duræ quercus sudabunt roscida mella:

30 rent tibi jucundos flores: angues quoque morientur, et morientur plantæ venenatæ, que colligentem decipiunt: amomum Syriacum orietur ubique. Sed statim atque poteris jam legere laudes heroum, et gesta tui patris, ac percipere quid sit virtus ; tunc agri sensim flavescent spicis maturis, et racemi rubentes pendebunt è rubis agrestibus, et duræ quercus stillabunt mel instar roris.

NOTES. 11, Inibit is not an unclassical expres- 22. Leones. It is impossible, says Mr. sion ; and it is more emphatic than any of Wharton, to forbear observing the great sithose which the commentators have substi- militude of this passage and the famous tuted for it: it implies, he shall enter on ones of Isaiah, chap. 11. and also chap. 35. the happiness of his life, and glories of his which see. He adds, “ How much inferior reign.

is Virgil's poetry to Isaiah's. The former 12. Magni menses. About Virgil's time, has nothing comparable to these beautiful Quintilis and Sextilis, or July and August, strokes, that a little child shall lead the lion, (from Julius Cæsar and Augustus,) were and that the trees of the forest shall come to added to the calendar. The high compli- pay adoration. Virgil says only occidet et ment the words convey is easily discovered. serpens ; Isaiah adds a circumstance inimi

17. Pacatum orbem. After the battle of tably picturesque : that the sucking child Actium the temple of Janus was shut, and shall play upon the hole of the asp, and the peace prevailed by land and sea.

weaned child, a little older and beginning 18. Nullo munuscula cultu. So Ovid Met. to make use of his hands, shall put his fin1. 108. sine semine.

gers on the adder's den. There are certain 19. Hederas. He promises him ivy as a critics who would never cease to admire future poet, Ecl. VII, 25.

these circumstances and strokes of nature, Pastores, hederá crescentem ornate poëtam. if they had not the ill-fortune to be placed

19. Baccare. The herb baccar, or ladies' in the Bible.” See Pope's Pollio. glove, thought to have virtue against fasci- 26. At simul, i. e. As soon as you shall ar. nation.

rive at youth. 20. Colocasia fundet acantho. The colocasia 26. Facta parentis. This is referred to is without doubt an Egyptian plant. Dios. Augustus, the adoptive father of Marcellus. corides affirms that it is the root of the 28. Molli aristá. Mr. Wharton says the Egyptian bean. Ruæus says the root and ancients used to sow bearded or prickly stem are used for food, and the leaves for wheat, which deterred the birds from pick. chaplets. When this eclogue was written, ing the ears. But in this golden period no the colocasia was a rarity newly brought such vallum aristarum, as Cicero calls it, from Egypt, its native soil. The poet speaks no such fortification or palisade will be of its spread through Italy as one of the needed. glories of the approaching age of gold. The 29. Sentibus. Sentes imports not any par. acanthus here meant is the Acacia, an Egyp. ticular plant, but is a general word for all tian tree, from which we obtain the gum- shrubs of a wild and spinous character. It arabic.

corresponds with the English word shorn.

naves

Pauca tamen suberunt priscæ vestigia fraudis, Tamen latebunt nonpolls

reliquiæ malitiæ veteris, quæ Quæ tentare Thetim ratibus, quæ cingere muris

cogant adire navibus mare, Oppida, quæ jubeant telluri infindere sulcos.

et claudere urbes manibus, Alter erit tum Tiphys, et altera quæ vehat Argo et sulcare terram. l'unc erit Delectos heroas: erunt etiam altera bella,

35

alter Tiphys, et altera Argo,

quæ portet electos duces : Atq; iterum ad Trojam magnus mittetur Achilles.

erunt quoque bella alia, et Hinc, ubi jam firmata virum te fecerit ætas,

ingens Achilles rursus ibit

adversus Trojam. Deinde, Cedet et ipse mari vector : nec nautica pinus

postquam ætas jam robusta Mutabit merces : omnis feret omnia tellus.

te reddiderit virum, ipse etiNon rastros patietur humus, non vinea falcem : 40 am nauta recedet è mari, nec

è pinu fabricate Robustus quoque jam tauris juga solvet arator.

transferent merces : omnis Nec varios discet mentiri lana colores :

terra producet omnia : nee Ipse sed in pratis aries jam suavè rubenti

ager seindetur rastris, nec

vitis falee. Tum quoque for Murice, jam croceo mutabit vellera luto :

tis agricola auferet jugum Sponte suâ sandyx pascentes vestiet agnos. 45 bobus ; nec assuescet lana siTalia sæcla suis dixerunt, currite, fusis

mulare diversos colores ; sed

aries ipse in pascuis tinget Concordes stabili fatorum numine Parcæ.

vellus purpurâ suaviter ruAggredere, ô magnos, aderit jam tempus, honores, benti, et croco luteo : Sandy. Cara Denm soboles, magnum Joves incrementum !

ultro induet agnos inter pasAspice convexo nutantem pondere mundum, 50

cendum. Parcæ, firmo fato

rum ordine unanimes dixeTerrasque, tractusq; maris, cælumq; profundum : runt suis fusis : O talia temAspice venturo lætentur ut omnia sæclo.

pora, currite. Accede o ad

magnos magistratus, mox veO mihi tam longæ maneat pars ultima vitæ,

niet tempus accedendi : Spiritus, et quantum sat erit tua dicere facta ! dilecta proles deorum, magNon me carminibus vincet, nec Thracius Orpheus, 55 De Jovis alumne! Vide munNec Linus : huic mater quamvis, atq; huic pater adsit ; tem, terramque,

dum rotundâ mole vacillan

et spatia Orphei Colliopea, Lino formosus Apollo.

maris, et altum eælum. Vide, ut cuneta exultent ob adventum ætatis aureæ. Utinam restet mibi pars extrema tam prolixæ vitæ, et anima, quantum sufficiet ut tua gesta celebrem. Non me cantu superabit, aut Orpheus Thracius, aut Linu: licèt huic Orpheo mater faveat Calliopea; et huic Lino pater pulcher Apollo.

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NOTES. 31. Pauca vestigia. Men will still cherish such happy ages. The expression seems avarice and ambition.

borrowed from Catullus, who has, currite 32. Thetim. Here taken for the sea. She ducentes subtemina, currite fusi. The poet was the daughter of Nereus, or, as others represents the Destinies well pleased in say, Neptune,

spinning such happy events, and hastening 35. Delectos heroes. The Argonauts, so to bring forth the glorious schemes of fate. called because they sailed in the ship Argo. 48. Aggredere expresses the greatness of These heroes accompanied Jason in his ex- mind with which he was to rise to honour, pedition to Colchis to fetch the golden and surmount all difficulties that opposed Aleece. Tiphys was the pilot in this expe. his advancement; the assumption of that dition.

power to himself with which he was to sub. 37. Firmata virum, &c. Literally, When due vice and establish virtue. confirmed age shall now have made thee a man, 50. Aspice convexo nutantem pondere. i. e. When thou art now arrived at the years Some explain it thus : Look with compassion of full maturity.

on a world, nutantem mole vitiorum, labour. 38. Nautica pinus. Ships used to be built ing and oppressed with guilt and misery. of the pine tree.

55. Non me carminibus vincet. Such will 44. Murice. The murex was a shell-fish be the glory of thy actions, that though de. set about with spikes, from which the Ty. scribed by me, an humble poet, my verse rian purple was obtained.

shall be unrivalled. Moses gives a fine idea 44. Luto. Lutum is an herb with which of the eloquence of the speaker, arising not they dyed yellow.

from himself, but from the dignity of his 45. Sandyx. A fine red colour, answering theme. “My doctrine shall drop as the to our red orpiment. Pliny describes it as rain, my speech shall distil as the dew, as a cheap material for painting.

the small rain upon the tender herb, and as 46. Talia secla, currite. Some make the the showers upon the grass, BECAUSE I will construction to be, currite talia secla, or per publish the name of the Lord." Deut. xxii, talia secla ; i. e. interrupt not the course of 2, 3.

mecum

60

Si Pan ipse contendat Pan etiam Arcadiâ mecum si judice certet,

Arcadiæ arbi- Pan etiam Arcadiâ dicat se judice victum. trio ; ipse Pan fatebitur se superatum esse, Arca. Incipe, parve puer, risu cognoscere matrem ; diæ arbitrio. Incipe, par- Matri longa decem tulerunt fastidia menses. ve puer, agnoscere ma: Incipe, parve puer, cui non risere parentes,

ipsius risu : deeem menses attulerunt Nec Deus hunc mensâ, Dea nec dignata cubili est. matri diuturna tædia. Incipe, parve puer: cui parentes non arrisere, hunc nec Deus ad menam, nec Dea in lectum, excipere dignata est.

NOTES. 60. Risu cognoscere. Some explain it, Be. Or it may be interpreted thus: Begin, gin to distinguish thy mother by smiling on her. sweet boy, to know thy parents by their smile ;

63. Nec Deus, &c. The meaning seems for thy parents must smile upon thee before thou to be this : Begin, sweet boy, to know thy pa- canst be honoured with the table of a god, viz. rents by their smile ; for thy parents must smile Augustus, or bed of a goddess, viz. Julia. upon thee before thou canst be advanced to that Both which honours Marcellus attained, as life of the gods mentioned verse 15. Ille De- Augustus adopted bim for his son, and gave um vitam accipiet, &c. For no god or god. him Julia his daughter in marriage. dess ever promoted any to their society on whom their parents did not smile.

ECLOGA V.

DAPHNIS.

MEXALCAS, Mopsus,

Men.

mus inter ulmos mixtas

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INTERPRETATIO. CUR non, Mopse, boni quoniam convenimus ambo,

Men. Mopse, siquidem Tu calamos inflare leves, ego dicere versus, una sumus : periti uter. que, tu fistula canere,

Hìc corylis mixtas inter consedimus ulmos ? ego canere versus; cur Mop. Tu major : tibi me est æquum parere, Menalca : nondum hic procubui. Sive sub incertas Zephyris motantibus umbras,

5 corylis ? - Mop. Tu natu

Sive antro potiùs succedimus : aspice ut antrum major, justum est ut tibi Sylvestris raris sparsit labrusca racemis. obediam, 0 Menalca : seu subimus umbracula fluctuantia ventis agitantibus, seu potiùs cavernam. Vide quomodo vitis agrestis prætexit cavernam uvis raris.

NOTES. Two shepherds, Menalcas and Mopsus, chronology does not agree ; for Quintilius celebrate the funeral eulogium of Daphnis. Varus died A. U. C. 730, and Virgil wrote Virgil himself is Menalcas, as appears from this eclogue fifteen years before : others verse 85, &c.; Mopsus, some other poet of therefore, with more probability, refer it to reputation in Rome, but young, and who the death and deification of Julius Cæsar. had probably been Virgil's disciple. Daph. Mopsus laments his death ; Menalcas celenis some suppose to have been a brother of brates his apotheosis or deification. his, who died in the prime of his age; others 7. Labrusca. This was the wild vine of Quintilius Varus, of whom Horace says, the ancients. * zilli flebilior quam tibi, Virgili: but here the

in antrum.

functum fera

morte:

MEN. Montibus in nostris solus tibi certet Amyntas. Men. Amyntas unus teMOP. Quid si idem certet Phæbum

cum potest contendere canendo? superare

in montibus nostris.-Men. Incipe, Mopse, prior, si quos aut Phyllidis ignes, 10 Mop. Quid mirum, cùm Aut Alconis habes laudes, aut jurgia Codri.

ipse contendat vincere

Phæbum cantu ?- Men. Incipe : pascentes servabit Tityrus hædos.

Mopse, incipe primus, si MOP. Immò hæc, in viridi nuper quæ cortice fagi

habes, aut aliquos amoCarmina descripsi, et modulans alterna notavi,

res Phyllidis, aut laudes Experiar: tu deinde jubeto certet Amyntas.

15

Alconis, aut rixas Codrj.

Incipe : Tityrus custodiMEN. Lenta salix quantùm pallenti cedit olivæ,

et hedos pascentes. Puniceis humilis quantùm saliunca rosetis :

Mop. Meditabor potiùs Judicio nostro tantùm tibi cedit Amyntas.

illa carmina, quæ nuper

scripsi in cortice fagi, et MOP. Sed tu desine plura, puer: successimus antro.

per vices canens insculpExtinctum Nymphæ crudeli funere Daphnim

20 si: tu posteà fac ut conFlebant : vos coryli testes et flumina Nymphis :

tendat Amyntas.-Men.

Quantò salix flexilis inCùm, complexa sui corpus miserabile nati,

ferior est olivå, quantu Atque Deos atque astra vocat crudelia mater.

parva saliunca rubenti

bus rosis, tant) tibi inNon ulli pastos illis egêre diebus

ferior est Amyntas, meâ Frigida, Daphni, boves ad flumina : nulla neq; amnem 25 quidem sententia.- Mop. Libavit quadrupes, nec graminis attigit herbam.

At tu, puer, omitte pla. Daphni, tuum Pænos etiam ingemuisse leones

ra loqui, ingressi sumus

Nymphæ Interitum montesque feri sylvæque loquuntur.

Jugebant Daphnim deDaphnis et Armenias curru subjungere tigres

vos, coryli et fluvii, testes fuistis Nympharum luctis. Dum mater amplexa miserandum cadaver filii sui, et Deos et sidera fera appellaret. O Daphni, nullus boves deduxit e pastu ad fluvios frigidos, per illos dies ; nulla quadrupes nec degustavit aquam, nec attigit herbam graminis. O Daphni, et montes inculti, et sylvæ, dicunt leones ipsos Africæ doluisse mortem tuam. Daphnis etiam induxit morem subligandi tigres

NOTES. 8. Tibi certet, a Grecism, for tecum certet. 20. Daphnim. Daphnis signifies a laurel; 10. Phyllidis ignes. Phyllis, queen of and is well applied to Cæsar, who demandThrace, fell in love with Demophoon, the ed no higher honour from the senate than son of Theseus, and married bim. Some permission constantly to wear a laurel time after, Demophoon having gone to Athens, and being detained there beyond the 23. Mater. Ruxus is of opinion, that time when he had promised to return, Phyl. Rome is here meant; the poet calling that lis, tortured with the pangs of a jealous city the mother of Julius Cæsar. Professor lover, grew impatient under his absence, Martyn belieres Venus intended, and adduand at last hanged herself in despair. ces in confirmation of the sentiment an al

11. Alconis. A famous Cretan archer, who most parallel passage from the 15th book aimed an arrow so dexterously at a serpent of the Metamorphoses. wreathed about his son as to kill the animal 24. Non ulli. To this Ruæus refers these without touching the boy. Servius says he words of Suetonius, in Jul. Cæs. 81. Proxicould shoot through a ring placed on a mis diebus equorum greges, quos in trajiciendo man's head ; split a hair with the point of Aumine Rubicone consecrarlıl, ac vugos et his dart ; and stick an arrow without a head sine custode di miserat, comperit pertinacissimè on the point of a sword or spear.

pabulo abstinere, ubertimque flere. 11. Jurgia Coilri. Codrus was king of the 25. Nulla neque. La Cerda observes, that Athenians, and signalized himself by dying this is a Grecism; because in Greek two for his people. For in a war between them negatives make the negation stronger; but and the Lacedemonians, hearing that an in Latin they make an affirmative. So in oracle had promised the victory to that peo- Propertius, in the 19th elegy of book II. ple whose king should die, and the enemy Nulla neque ante tuas orietur rira fenestras. being strictly enjoined not to kill the Athe- 26. Quadrupes. This word is used in senian king; he disguised himself in the habit veral other places in Virgil, and in almost of a peasant, went in among the enemy, every one of them plainly signifies a horse. picked a quarrel with some of them, and The only place where quadrupes is used for was slain in the scuffle. The enemy no soon

mal is in the 7th Æneid, where er found out who he was than they threw it signifies a stag. down their swords.

Saucius at quadrupes nota inter tecta refugit. 16. Lenta salir, &c. The most remarka- 29. Armenias tigres. Yoked tigers drew ble property of the willow is its flexibility, the chariot of Bacchus. Cæsar vanquished bence called lenta : the epithet pallenti is no Pharnaces, the king of Pontus. Pontus was less proper for the olive ; for its leaves are contiguous to Armenia. of a yellowish green,

29. Curru, for currui. The genitive and 17. Humilis saliunca. Perhaps the French dative of the 4th declension used to be uis

Crown.

2

any othera

tuorum;

Armenias ad currum, et Instituit: Daphnis thiasos inducere Baccho,

30 celebrandi choreas in ho Et foliis lentas intexere mollibus hastas. morem Bacchi, et induendi flexiles hastas tene

Vitis ut arboribus decori est, ut vitibus uvæ, sis frondibus. Ut vitis Ut gregibus tauri, segetes ut pinguibus arvis ; est ornamentum arbo

Tu decus omne tuis : postquam te fata tulerunt, rum, ut racemi vitium, ut tauri armentorum, ut Ipsa pales agros, atque ipse reliquit Apollo.

35 messes agrorum fertili- Grandia sæpe quibus mandavimus hordea sulcis, um : sic tu eraso urma: Infelix lolium, et steriles dominantur avenæ. ex quo mors te abstulit

, Pro molli violâ, pro-purpureo narcisso, ipsa Pales, atque ipse A-Carduus et spinis surgit paliuris acutis. arva. Sæ

40 pe miserum lolium, er Spargite humum foliis, inducite fontibus umbras, infæeunda avenæ reg-Pastores : mandat fieri sibi talia Daphnis. nant in suleis, quibus Et tumulum fascite, et tumulo superaddite carmen. commisimus magna hordea. Carduus, aut pa

Daphnis ego in sylvis hinc usque ad sidera notus : diurus armatus spinis a. Formosi pecoris custos, formosior ipse. eatis nascitur pro dulci Men. Tale tuum carmen nobis, divine poëta,

45 violâ, et narcisso

Quale sopor

fessis in gramine, quale per æstum pureo. Spargite frondes per terram, tegite fontes

saliente sitim restinguere rivo. umbraculis, o pastores! Nec calamis solùm æquiparas, sed voce magistrum. Daphnis jubet hæc sibi præstari : et slaluite se

Fortunate puer, tu nunc eris alter ab illo : pulchrum, et adjicite se

. Nos tamen hæc quocunq; modo tibi nostra vicissim 50 pulchro epitaphium : E. Dicemus, Daphninq; tuum tolemus ad astra : go Daphnis hic jaceo, ce

Daphnin ad astra feremus; amavit nos quoq; Daphnis. lebris in sylvis hinc usque ad cælum, magister MOP. An quicquam nobis tali sit munere majus? pulchri pecoris, ipse pul- Et puer ipse fuit cantari dignus, et ista chrior.-Men. Tales miJampridem Stimicon laudavit carmina nobis.

55 hi sunt versus tui, o divine poëta, qualis res est fatigatis somnus in herbis, et qualis res est æstuontibus sedare sitim scaturiente rivo dulcis aquæ.

Nec tantùm æquas magistrum fistulá, sed etiam voce. Felix juvenis, tu modd eris primus

Nos tamen vicissim tibi qualicumqne modo canemus hæc nostra, et Daphnim tuum tollemus in eælum : Daphnim tollepus in cælum : Daphnis nos etiam dilexit.- Mop. An ulla res mihi sit pretiosior, quàm hoc munus ? et puer ipse meruit celebrari, et jamdudum Suimicon laudavit mibi tuos istos versus.

pur

Dulcis aquæ

post eum.

NOTES. was diminished lou. So Æn. 1. 261. parce upon our Saviour's head. This shrub grows metu for metui. See also 6. 465. and 9. 605. abundantly in Italy.

35. The contrast in the appearance of 40. Spargite humum foliis. It was a cusnature, on the birth of the child in the pre- tom among the ancients to scatter leaves ceding eclogue, and the death of Cæsar in and flowers on the ground, in honour of the present, is exquisitely beautiful.

eminent persons. 37. Lolium, or cockle-weed, Virgil calls it 52. Amavit nos quoquè Daphnis. Virgil infelix, or hapless; because, says Wharton, was obscure and little known in the time of its nature is malignant. The modern Ita- Julius Cæsar; but Ruæus thinks that it may lians suppose it the cause of melancholy be explained of the Mantuans in general, madness. It is common with them to say of wbo, with the other people of Cisalpine any such person, he has eaten bread with lo. Gaul, were cherished and protected by Cælium in it. A mangiato pane con loglio.

38. Purpureo narcisso. There are many 54. Et puer ipse. Hence Servius infers, different kinds of the narcissus or daffodil; that the Daphnis here celebrated cannot be Dioscorides particularly mentions one that Julius Cæsar, since puer ill agrees to a man is no pupouusns, of a purple hue.

of fifty-six years. Ruæus contends that he 39. Paliuris acutis. Professor Martyn may be called puer, as being now a god, says we can hardly doubt that the paliuris whose privilege is to preserve immortal of the ancients is the Rhamnus folio subro. youth. But these refined criticisms are very fundo fructu compresso, which is cultivated superfluous; Virgil, in the style of pastoral in our gardens under the name of Christ's poetry, represents Daphnis, whoever he thorn; and is supposed to be the thorn of was, as a swain ; and puer is the word conwhich the crown was made, that was put stantly used by him in that sense, Ecl. III.

ult. VI, 14, &c.

sar.

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