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Parables, eastern, their general vehicle for the conveyance of
truth, iii. 180.

Paradise Lost, critical review of that poem, iii. 265. The
characters in, 267. Sublimity of, 269. Language and
versification, 270.

Parentheses, cautions for the use of them, i. 258.
Paris, his character in the Iliad, examined, iii. 224.
Parliament of Great Britain, why eloquence has never been
so powerful an instrument in, as in the ancient popular as-
semblies of Greece and Rome, ii. 209.

Parnel, his character as a descriptive poet, iii. 153.
Particles, cautions for the use of them, i. 265. Ought never
to close sentences, 281.

Passion the source of oratory, ii. 164.

Passions, when and how to be addressed by orators, ii. 381.
The orator must feel emotions before he can communicate
them to others, 385. The language of, 388. Poets ad-
dress themselves to passions, iii. 80.

Pastoral Poetry, inquiry into its origin, iii. 107. A threefold
view of pastoral life, 110. Rules for pastoral writing, 111.
Its scenery, 113. Characters, 116. Subjects, ib. Com-
parative merits of ancient pastoral writers, 121. And of
moderns, 122.

Pathetic, the proper management of, in a discourse, ii. 380.
Fine instance of, from Cicero, 389.

Pauses, the due uses of, in public speaking, ii. 408. In
poetry, 410. iii. 99.

Pericles, the first who brought eloquence to any degree of
perfection, ii. 173. His general character, 174.
Period. See Sentence.
Personification, the peculiar advantages of the English lan-
guage in, i. 170. Limitations of gender in, 171. Objec-
tions against the practice of, answered, 375. The disposi-
tion to animate the objects about us, natural to mankind,
This disposition may account for the number of
heathen divinities, 376. Three degrees of this figure, 377.
Rules for the management of the highest degree of, 386.
Caution for the use of, in prose compositions, 388. See

Persius, a character of his Satires, iii. 144.

Perspicuity essential to a good style, i. 214. Not merely a
negative virtue, 215. The three qualities of, 216.
Persuasion, distinguished from conviction, ii. 161. Objec-
tion brought from the abuse of this art, answered, 162.
Rules for, 214.

Peruvians, their method of transmitting their thoughts to each
other, i. 148.

Petronius Arbiter, his address to the declaimers of his time,
ii. 200.

See Lucan.

Pherecydes of Scyros, the first prose writer, i. 133.
Philips, character of his pastorals, iii. 123.

Philosophers, modern, their superiority over the ancient un-
questionable, iii. 9.

Philosophy, the proper style of writing adapted to, iii. 54.
Proper embellishments for, 55.

Pictures, the first essay toward writing, i. 145.
Pindar, his character as a lyric poet, iii. 134.

Pisistratus, the first who cultivated the arts of speech, ii. 173.
Pitcairn, Dr, extravagant hyperbole cited from, i. 374.
Plato, character of his Dialogues, iii. 59.

Plautus, his character as a dramatic poet, iii. 343.
Pleaders at the Bar, instructions to, ii. 249. 363.
Pliny's Letters, general character of, iii. 65.
Plutarch, his character as a biographer, iii. 51.
Poetry, in what sense descriptive, and in what imitative, i.
108. Is more ancient than prose, 132. Source of the
pleasure we receive from the figurative style of, 382. Test
of the merit of, 404. Whence the difficulty of reading
poetry arises, ii. 410. Compared with oratory, 425. Epic,
the standards of, iii. 14. Definition of poetry, 80. Is ad-
dressed to the imagination and the passions, ib. Its origin,
82. In what sense older than prose, ib. Its union with
music, 85. Ancient history and instruction first conveyed
in poetry, ib. Oriental, more characteristical of an age
than of a country, 88. Gothic, Celtic, and Grecian, ib.
Origin of the different kinds of, 90. Was more vigorous
in its first rude essays than under refinement, 92. Was
injured by the separation of music from it, 93. Metrical
feet, invention of, 96. These measures not applicable to
English poetry, 97. English heroic verse, the structure
of, 99. French poetry, ib. Rhyme and blank verse com-
pared, 101. Progress of English versification, 105. Pas-
torals, 107. Lyrics, 128. Didactic poetry, 137. Des-
criptive poetry, 148. Hebrew poetry, 165. Epic poetry,
190. Poetic characters, two kinds of, 208. Dramatic
poetry, 272.

Pointing cannot correct a confused sentence, i. 258.
Politics, the science of, why ill understood among the ancients,
iii. 28.

Polybius, his character as an historian, iii. 21.

Pope, criticism on a passage in his Homer, i. 78.
specimen from, consisting of short sentences, 240.
specimens of his style, 273. 284. Confused mixtures of
metaphorical and plain language in, 354. Mixed metaphor
in, 360. Confused personification, 387. Instance of his
fondness for antithesis, 411. Character of his epistolary
writings, iii. 67. Criticism on, 68. Construction of his
verse, 100. Peculiar character of his versification, 106.
His pastorals, 118. 123. His ethic epistles, 146. The
merits of his various poems examined, ib. Character of
his translation of Homer, 228.



Precision in language, in what it consists, i. 219. The im-
portance of, 242. Requisites to, 234.

Prepositions, whether more ancient than the declension of
nouns by cases, i. 174. Whether more useful than beau-
tiful, 176. Dr Campbell's observations on, 179, note.
Their great use in speech, 193.

Prior, allegory cited from, i. 365.

Pronouns, their use, varieties, and cases, i. 179. Relative
instances, illustrating the importance of their proper position
in a sentence, 246.

Pronunciation, distinctness of, necessary in public speaking,
ii. 403. Tones of, 414.

Proverbs, book of, a didactic poem, iii. 183.

Psalm xviii. sublime representation of the Deity in, i. 70.
lxxxth, a fine allegory from, 365. Remarks on the poetic
construction of the Psalms, ii. 169. 177.

Pulpit, the eloquence of, defined, ii. 165. English and French
sermons compared, 206. The practice of reading sermons
in England disadvantageous to oratory, 210. The art of
persuasion resigned to the Puritans, ib. Advantages and
disadvantages of pulpit eloquence, 277. Rules for preach-
ing, 281. The chief characteristics of pulpit eloquence,
284. Whether it is best to read sermons, or deliver them
extempore, 296. Pronunciation, 297. Remarks on French
sermons, 298. Cause of the dry argumentative style of
English sermons, 301. General observations, 305.

Quinctilian, his ideas of taste, i. 20, note. His account of
the ancient division of the several parts of speech, 160, note.
His remarks on the importance of the study of grammar,
195. On perspicuity of style, 214. 226. On climax, 276.
On the structure of sentences, 282. Which ought not to
offend the ear, 288. 302. His caution against too great
an attention to harmony, 304. His caution against mixed
metaphor, 356. His fine apostrophe on the death of his

son, 391. His rule for the use of similes, 406. His direc-
tions for the use of figures of style, ii. 5. His distinctions
of style, 9. 26. His instructions for good writing, 46, 47.
His character of Cicero's oratory, 192. His instructions
to public speakers for preserving decorum, 226. His
instructions to judicial pleaders, 251. His observations on
exordiums to replies in debate, 355. On the proper divi-
sion of an oration, 358. His mode of addressing the pas-
sions, 386. His lively representation of the effects of
depravity, 428. Is the best ancient writer on oratory, 445.

Racine, his character as a tragic poet, iii. 322.
Ramsay, Allan, character of his Gentle Shepherd, iii. 127.
Rapin, P., remarks on his parallels between Greek and Roman

writers, ii. 196.

Retz, Cardinal de, characters of his memoirs, iii. 50.
Rhetoricians, Grecian, rise and character of, ii. 175.
Rhyme, in English verse, unfavourable to sublimity, i. 77.
And blank verse compared, iii. 103. The former, why
improper in the Greek and Latin languages, 104. The first
introduction of couplets in English poetry, 105.
Richardson, a character of his novels, iii. 77.
Ridicule, an instrument often misapplied, iii. 333.
Robinson Crusoe, character of that novel, iii. 77.
Romance, derivation of the term, iii. 73. See Novels.
Romans derived their learning from Greece, ii. 187. Com-
parison between them and the Greeks, 188. Historical
view of their eloquence, 189. Oratorical character of
Cicero, 191. Era of the decline of eloquence among,


Rousseau, Jean Baptiste, his character as a lyric poet, iii.

Rowe, his character as a tragic poet, iii. 329.

Sallust, his character as an historian, iii. 29.
Sannazarius, his piscatory eclogues, iii. 122.

Satan, examination of his character in Milton's Paradise
Lost, iii. 265.

Satire, poetical, general remarks on the style of, iii. 143.
Saxon language, how established in England, i. 197.
Scenes, dramatic, what, and the proper conduct of, iii. 295.
Scriptures, sacred, the figurative style of, remarked, i. 123.

The translators of, happy in suiting their numbers to the
subject, 309. Fine apostrophe in, 393. Present us with
the most ancient monuments of poetry extant, iii. 165.
The diversity of style in the several books of, 166. The

Psalms of David, 169. No other writings abound with
such bold and animated figures, 173. Parables, 180. Bold
and sublime instances of personification in, 181. Book of
Proverbs, 183. Lamentations of Jeremiah, ib.
Scuderi, Madame, her romances, iii. 75.
Seneca, his frequent antithesis censured, i. 410. Character
of his general style, iii. 15. 56. His epistolary writings, 62.
Sentence, in language, definition of, i. 237. Distinguished
into long and short, 238. A variety in, to be studied, 241.
The properties essential to a perfect sentence, 242. A
principal rule for arranging the members of, 243. Position
of adverbs, ib. And relative pronouns, 246. Unity of a
sentence, rules for preserving, 251. Pointing, 258. Paren-
thesis, ib. Should always be brought to a perfect close,
260. Strength, 262. Should be cleared of redundancies,
264. Due attention to particles recommended, 265. The
omission of particles sometimes connects objects closer
together, 268. Directions for placing the important words,
271. Climax, 279. A like order necessary to be observed
in all assertions or propositions, 279. Sentences ought not
to conclude with a feeble word, ib. Fundamental rule in the
construction of, 286. Sound not to be disregarded, 288.
Two circumstances to be attended to for producing harmony
in, 289. 299. Rules of the ancient rhetoricians for this
purpose, 292. Why harmony much less studied now than
formerly, 294. English words cannot be so exactly mea-
sured by metrical feet as those of Greek and Latin, 298.
What is required for the musical close of a sentence, 303.
Unmeaning words introduced merely to round a sentence,
a great blemish, ib. Sounds ought to be adapted to sense,

Sermons, English, compared with French, ii. 205. Unity an
indispensable requisite in, 285. The subject ought to be
precise and particular, 287. The subject not to be ex-
hausted, 288. Cautions against dryness, 290; and against
conforming to fashionable modes of preaching, 292. Style,
293. Quaint expressions, 295. Whether best to be written
or delivered extempore, 296. Delivery, 297. Remarks
on French sermons, 298. Cause of the dry argumentative
style of English sermons, 303. General observations, 305.
Remarks on the proper divisions of, 358. Conclusion, 394.
Delivery, 397.

Sevigné, Madame de, character of her Letters, iii. 69.
Shaftesbury, Lord, observations on his style, i. 223. 241.
256. 273. 275. 306. 362. His general character as a writer,
ii. 39.

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