Billeder på siden

Declension of nouns considered in various languages, i. 172.

Whether cases or prepositions were most anciently used,
174. Which of them are most useful and beautiful, 176.
Deities, heathen, probable cause of the number of, i. 376.
Deliberative orations, what, ii. 212.

Delivery, the importance of, in public speaking, ii. 228. 397.
The four chief requisites in, 400. The powers of voice, ib.
Articulation, 402. Pronunciation, 404. Emphasis, 405.
Pauses, 408. Declamatory delivery, 417. Action, 418.
Affectation, 422.

Demetrius Phalerius, the rhetorician, his character, ii. 185.
Demonstrative orations, what, ii. 212.
Demosthenes, his eloquence characterized, ii. 172. His ex-
pedients to surmount the disadvantages of his person and
address, 181. His opposition to Philip of Macedon, 182.
His rivalship with Eschines, 183. His style and action,
184. Compared with Cicero, 194. Why his orations still
please in perusal, 216. Extracts from his Philippics,
231. His definition of the several points of oratory, 397.
Description, the great test of a poet's imagination, iii. 149.
Selection of circumstances, 150. Inanimate objects should
be enlivened, 156. Choice of epithets, 160.
Description and imitation, the distinction between, i. 108.
Des Brosses, his speculations on the expressive power of ra-

dical letters and syllables, i. 119, note.

Dialogue writing, the properties of, iii. 57. It is very diffi-
cult to execute, 58. Modern dialogues characterized, ib.
Didactic poetry, its nature explained, iii. 137. The most ce-
lebrated productions in this class specified, 138. Rules
for compositions of this kind, ib. Proper embellishments
of, 141.

Diderot, M. his character of English comedy, iii. 356.
Dido, her character in the Æneid examined, iii. 236.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, his ideas of excellency in a sen-

tence, i. 293. His distinctions of style, ii. 9. Character of
his treatise on Grecian oratory, 178. His comparison be-
tween Lysias and Isocrates, 179, note. His criticism on
Thucydides, iii. 24.

Discourse. See Oration.

Dramatic poetry, the origin of, iii. 91. Distinguished by its
objects, 272. See Tragedy and Comedy.

Dryden, one of the first reformers of our style, ii. 19. John-
son's character of his prose style, 20, note. His character
as a poet, iii. 106. His character of Shakespeare, 326,
note. His own character as a dramatic writer, 329. 351.
Du Bos, Abbé, his remark on the theatrical compositions of
the ancients, i. 294.

Education, liberal, an essential requisite for eloquence, ii. 402.
Egypt, the style of the hieroglyphical writing of, i. 147. This
an early stage of the art of writing, ib. The alphabet pro-
bably invented in that country, 153.
Emphasis, its importance in public speaking, ii. 405. Rule

for, 407.

Eloquence, the several objects of consideration under this
head, ii. 159. Definition of the term, 160. Fundamen-
tal maxims of the art, 161. Defended against the objection
of the abuse of the art of persuasion, 162. Three kinds of
eloquence distinguished, ib. Oratory, the highest degrees
of, the offspring of passion, 164. Requisites for eloquence,
167. French eloquence, 168. Grecian, 170. Rise and cha-
racter of the rhetoricians of Greece, 173. Roman, 187. The
Attici and Asiani, 193. Comparisons between Cicero and
Demosthenes, 194. The schools of the declaimers, 200.
The eloquence of the primitive fathers of the church, 202.
General remarks on modern eloquence, 203. Parliament,
209. The bar, ib.; and pulpit, 210. The three kinds of
orations distinguished by the ancients, 212. These dis-
tinctions how far correspondent with those made at present,
213. Eloquence of popular assemblies considered, 214.
The foundation of eloquence, 215. The danger of trusting
to prepared speeches at public meetings, 218. Necessary
premeditation pointed out, 219. Method, 220. Style and
expression, 221. Impetuosity, 223. Attention to decorums,
226. Delivery, 228. 397. Summary, 229. See Cicero,
Demosthenes, Oration, and Pulpit.

English language, the arrangements of words in, more refined
than that of ancient languages, i. 139. But more limited,
140. The principles of general grammar seldom applied to
it, 159. The important use of articles in, 165. All sub-
stantive nouns of inanimate objects, of the neuter gender,
168. The place of declension in, supplied by prepositions,
174. The various tenses of English verbs, 187. Historical
view of the English language, 196. The Celtic the primitive
language of Britain, 197. The Teutonic tongue the basis
of our present speech, 198. Its irregularities accounted
for, 199. Its copiousness, 200. Compared with the French
language, 201. Its style characterized, 202. Its flexibility,
204. Is more harmonious than is generally allowed, ib.
Is rather strong than graceful, 205. Accent thrown far-
ther back in English words than in those of any other lan-
guage, ib. General properties of the English tongue, 206.
Why so loosely and inaccurately written, 207. The funda-
mental rules of syntax, common to both the English and

[ocr errors]

Latin, 209. No author can gain esteem if he does not write
with purity, 210. Grammatical authors recommended,
211, note.

Epic poetry, the standards of, iii. 14. Is the highest effort of
poetical genius, 190. The characters, obscured by critics,
191. Examination of Bossu's account of the formation of
the Iliad, ib. Epic poetry considered as to its moral ten-
dency, 195. Predominant characters of, 197. Action of, 198.
Episodes, 199. The subject should be of remote date, 203.
Modern history more proper for dramatic writing than for
epic poetry, 204. The story must be interesting and skilfully
managed, 205. The intrigue, ib. The question considered,
whether it ought to end successfully, 206. Duration of the
action, 207. Characters of the personages, 208. The
principal hero, 209. The machinery, 210. Narration, 213.
Loose observations, 214.

Episode, defined with reference to epic poetry, iii. 199. Rules
for the conduct of, 201.

Epistolary writing, general remarks on, iii. 62.

Eve, her character in Milton's Paradise Lost, iii. 268.
Euripides, instance of his excellence in the pathetic, iii. 313,
note. His character as a tragic writer, 318.

Exclamations, the proper use of, i. 413. Mode of their ope-
ration, ib. Rule for the employment of, 414.
Exercise improves both bodily and mental powers, i. 22.
Exordium of a discourse, the objects of, ii. 343. Rules for the
composition of, S47.

Explication of the subject of a sermon, observation on, ii. 367.

Face, human, the beauty of, complex, i. 99.
Farquhar, his character as a dramatic writer, iii. 353.
Fathers, Latin, character of their style of eloquence, ii. 202.
Fenelon, Archbishop, his parallel between Demosthenes and
Cicero, ii. 197. His remarks on the composition of a ser-
mon, 358. Critical examination of his Adventures of Tele-
machus, iii. 259.

Fielding, a character of his novels, iii. 77.
Figurative style of language defined, i. 316. Is not a scholas-
tic invention, but a natural effusion of imagination, 318.
How described by rhetoricians, 319. Will not render a cold
or empty composition interesting, 322. The pathetic and
sublime reject figures of speech, 324. Origin of, ib. How
they contribute to the beauty of style, 330. Illustrate des-
cription, 333. Heighten emotions, 334. The rhetorical names
and classes of figures frivolous, 337. The beauties of com-
position not dependent on tropes and figures, ii. 1. Figures

must always rise naturally from the subject, 2. Are not
to be profusely used, 4. The talent of using derived from
nature, and not to be created, 6. If improperly introduc-
ed, are a deformity, 5, note. See Metaphor.
Figure, considered as a source of beauty, i. 194.
Figures of speech, the origin of, 129.

of thought, among rhetoricians, defined, i. 320.
Fitness and design, considered as sources of beauty, i. 101.
Fleece, a poem, harmonious passage from, i. 313.
Fontenelle, character of his Dialogues, iii. 61.
French, Norman, when introduced into England, i. 197.
writers, general remarks on their style, ii. 15. Elo-
quence, 168. 203. French and English oratory compared,


Frigidity in writing characterized, i. 89.

Gay, a character of his pastorals, iii. 124.
Gender of nouns, foundation of, i. 167.

Genius distinguished from taste, i. 46. Its import, 47. In-
cludes taste, 48. The pleasures of the imagination, a strik-
ing testimony of Divine benevolence, 51. True, is nursed
by liberty, ii. 167. In arts and writing, why displayed
more in one age than in another, iii. 2. Was more vigor-
ous in the ancients than in the moderns, 10. A general
mediocrity of, now diffused, 13.

Gesner, a character of his Idylls, iii. 123.

Gestures, in public oratory. See Action.

Gil Blas, of Le Sage, character of that novel, iii. 76.

Girard, Abbé, character of his Synonymes François, i. 234, note.
Gordon, instances of his unnatural disposition of words, i. 272.
Gorgias of Leontium, the rhetorician, his character, ii. 175.
Gothic poetry, its character, iii. 88.

Gracchus, C. his declamations regulated by musical rules, i.

Grammar, general, the principles of, little attended to by wri-
ters, i. 158. The division of the several parts of speech, 159.
Nouns substantive, 161. Articles, 163.
Articles, 163. Number, gender,
and case of nouns, 166. Prepositions, 174. Pronouns, 179.
Adjectives, 181. Verbs, 184. Verbs, the most artificial
and complex of all the parts of speech, 189. Adverbs, 192.
Prepositions and conjunctions, 193. Importance of the

study of grammar, 195.

Grandeur. See Sublimity.

Greece, short account of the ancient republics of, ii. 170.
Eloquence carefully studied there, 172. Characters of the
distinguished orators of, 173. Rise and character of the
rhetoricians, 175.

Greek, a musical language, i. 125. 294. Its flexibility, 203.
Writers distinguished for simplicity, ii. 34.
Guarini, character of his Pastor Fido, iii. 125.
Guicciardini, his character as an historian, iii. 46.

Habakkuk, sublime representation of the Deity in, i. 70.
Harris, explanatory simile cited from, i. 399.
Hebrew poetry, in what points of view to be considered, iii.
165. The ancient pronunciation of, lost, 166. Music and
poetry early cultivated among the Hebrews, 167. Construc-
tion of Hebrew poetry, 168. Is distinguished by a concise,
strong, figurative expression, 170. The metaphors employ-
ed in, suggested by the climate and nature of the land of
Judæa, 174. 180. Bold and sublime instances of personifi-
cation in, 181. Book of proverbs, 183. Lamentations of
Jeremiah, ib. Book of Job, 187.

Helen, her character in the Iliad examined, iii. 223.
Hell, the various descents into, given by epic poets, shew the
gradual improvement of notions concerning a future state,
iii. 260.

Henriade. See Voltaire.

Herodotus, his character as an historian, ii. 11. 14.
Heroism, sublime instances of, pointed out, i. 60.
Hervey, character of his style, ii. 28.

Hieroglyphics the second stage of the art of writing, i. 145.
Of Egypt, 147.

Historians, modern, their advantages over the ancient, iii. 10.
Ancient models of, 14. The objects of their duty, 17.
Character of Polybius, 21. Of Thucydides, 23. Of Hero-
dotus and Thuanus, 25. Primary qualities necessary in an
historian, 27. Character of Livy and Sallust, 29. Of Taci-
tus, 30. Instructions and cautions to historians, ib. How
to preserve the dignity of narration, 34. How to render
it interesting, 35. Danger of refining too much in drawing
character, 43. Character of the Italian historians, 45. The
French and English, 47.

History, the proper object and end of, iii. 17. True, the char-
acters of, 18. The different classes of, 19. General His-
tory, the
proper conduct of, 20. The necessary qualities of
historical narration, 23. The propriety of introducing ora-
tions in history examined, 42. And characters, ib. The
Italians the best modern historians, 45. See Annals, Bio-
graphy, Memoirs, and Novels.

Hogarth, his analysis of beauty considered, i. 96.
Homer, not acquainted with poetry as a systematic art, i. 42,
Did not possess a refined taste, 49. Instances of sublimity
B b


« ForrigeFortsæt »