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comparative depression during that corn grown in Great Britain ; yet time; but during the last year or it was not found that we sustained two it had been rallying; and no any injury, for the stimulus given stronger proof could be given that to our manufactures had increased agriculture was worth following our consumption, and with it of at the present time, than that course our demand. As to the capital was flowing towards it. A quantity which we might be exgreat deal of money had lately pected to import under the new been laid out in the improvement law, some idea of it might be of under-draining; and the impor- formed from the quantity which tations of manure were increasing we had hitherto imported. Our every year. A few examples of total importation, during the twenty this last fact might perhaps have years ending in 1815, had been some value.

In the article of eleven million of quarters.' Three bones, our importation in the year of these years had been years of ending in January, 1824, had scarcity, which had consumed four been to the amount of 14,000l. millions of quarters out of the eleven In the year 1825, it was 44,000l. ; millions. It might fairly be calin the next year, it increased to culated, that our yearly importa86,0001. ; and in the last year, it tion would not exceed, upon an amounted to 95,147. In another average of one year with another, article of manure, woollen rags, six hundred thousand quarters. our importation in the year 1824 Just as little ground was there for was three hundred and fifty tons. the apprehension of the agricultuIn the next year, it was three hun- rists, that foreign grain would dred and forty-one tons. In the come in at ruinously low prices. year 1826, it was six hundred and They reasoned, as if, with the most fifteen tons; and in the last year, grievous depression in the price of four hundred and twenty-eight. grain, the prices of all other comIn the year ending January, 1824, modities, freight, navigation, and we imported a hundredand seventy all other charges, would remain thousand five hundred cwts. of the same; they supposed two rape and linseed cake ; in the next things which were incompatible year, four hundred and ninety-five a stagnant market, and high prices. thousand seven hundred; in the But an infallible result of low next, six hundred and eighty-six prices of grain would be that of thousand nine hundred and sixty- affecting the prices of all other three; and in the last year, five commodities. There

were inhundred. and ninety-seven thou- stances of the effect of a demand sand six hundred. But, said the in raising prices abroad, and they agriculturists, foreign grain dis- were such as ought to allay all places British grain; the quantity apprehension of the evils so much imported will be so great, and the dreaded by the agriculturists from price so low, that the market will that frightful part of the world, be glutted. Neither experience the Black Sea, that source of the nor fact justified these anticipa- phantoms which seemed so greatly tions. The four hundred thousand to bewilder the whole of the land

quarters of wheat which we an- ed interest. Mr. Jacob's evidence nually imported from Ireland, had stormed that fortress, by

must necessarily displace so much proving that corn, at one time

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with another, cannot leave Odessa, all powerful. They were also unless the price it produces rises bound to consider, in settling a to 60s., since it cannot be delivered question of this important nature, in England at less than 44s. inde the growing intelligence of the pendent of the duty, whatever age, the enlightened mind of the that may be. By the latest ac- community, and the power of the counts from New York, the cost public press ; and he was greatly of wheat brought to the English mistaken if they would not find market could not be less than 54$. themselves before long under the per quarter, besides the duty. This necessity of viewing it in regard was sufficient to prove, that, if only to the real justice of the ever delusion existed in the world, question. it was shown in the dread enter- The amendment, however, was tained by the agriculturists of a pressed to a division, and the se continual superabundance by the cond reading of the bill was carimportation of foreign corn; and ried by a majority of 243 to 78. It he trusted that the House would passed a committee with no other pot allow itself to be frightened alteration than a clause authorby such phantoms into a determi- izing the king to prohibit, by nation to support a system, of an order in council, the importawhich it was none of the smallest tion of grain from any country evils, that it sowed dissention be- where British vessels should be tween those whom it professed to subject to a higher duty than was protect and the other great in- imposed on the vessels of such terests of the nation. The bill be- country coming hither. Colonel fore the House gave the landed gen. Wood proposed, as an amendment tlemen an opportunity of removing -That foreign wheat should be that animosity, which, beyond a entirely prohibited so long as the doubt, had been awakened against weekly average was under 628.; them. The country was generally and that oats, barley, and other satisfied

the main question inferior sorts of grain, should be there was very little of popular dealt with in the same way, subfeeling upon it-and if the bill ject to the scale of relative values should proceed, there would soon already agreed upon and affixed to be no more heard of those distress them. Sir Edward Knatchbull ing and angry complaints against proposed--that the duty to be paid the landed interest. He entreated by the imported grain should be them not to lose the opportunity, estimated by the amount of the They ought to be aware, that, in home price at the time of its im. times of pressure and difficulty, portation, and not at the time there might come a crisis, in which when it might be taken out of there would no longer be an option bond, and brought into the market; as to the rate and manner of ad- with a proviso, that the duty so mitting foreign grain. There levied should never be more than might come a time of extremity, 20s. a quarter ; and that the duty in which government would find should not be actually paid until itself constrained to attend only the time when the corn was taken to the interests of a starving po- out of bond. It was said, that pulation, when the pleas of hu- without this provision, the effect manity and justice would become of the law would be, to give an advantage wholly unreasonable to amount which he had to pay in the speculators in foreign corn, duty. The opinion of the House, who held their grain in bond. If however, was not taken on either they imported when the price was of these propositions, nor on an 60s., the duty immediately charge amendment moved by lord Alable to them, if they carried their thorp, that the averages should corn to market, was 20s. a quarter. be taken every three weeks, But if they held back, and the instead of weekly. On the 12th price rose to 65s., then, while the of April, the bill was finally read home agriculturist gained an ad- a third time and passed; and, on vance of 58. a quarter on his com- the same day, the House adjourned modity, the foreign speculator for the Easter holidays to the 1st of gained an advance of 15s., for he May, a new writ being ordered to be gained 58. upon the advance of issued for the borough of Newport, corn in price from 60s. to 658., and Mr. Canning having accepted the 10s. more upon the diminished office of first lord of the Treasury.

upon

CHA P. III.

Tlness of the Earl of Liverpool-State of the Cabinet-Difficulties in

the way of appointing a Premier Interregnum of the Ministry Mr. Tierney opposes a Vote of Supply on that ground-Sir Thomas Lethbridge gives Notice of a Motion for an Address to the KingDissolution of the Ministry~Mr. Canning is made Minister-The greater Number of his former Colleagues immediately resign--New appointments Mr. Canning's Coalition with the Whigs.

A

S the fate which awaited the effects of the disease yielded to the

Corn-bill in the House of power of medicine, but its permaLords was affected, or was believed nent consequences were of such a to be affected, by the changes nature as to remove the minister which took place in the interim for ever from public life. The among the members of the go- office of premier was thus unoccuvernment as it was only on the pied; the government was left adjournment of parliament that without a head; and, unfortunately, the extent of these changes was the difficulties of appointing a publicly known as it was during successor, which are never small the adjournment that the new where so splendid an object of arrangements were formed and honourable ambition awakens the as these arrangements in a great desires of rival statesmen, were degree deprived the proceedings of greatly increased by the very nature the legislature, after parliament of that cabinet over which lord had reassembled, of all interest Liverpool had presided. For some which was not connected with their years, it had not been characterized causes and history, we here sus- by perfect unanimity of sentiment pend our detail of parliamentary regarding more than one of the business, to mention the dissolution most important public questions. of the old government, and the Catholicemancipation was a known formation of a new ministry. and acknowledged source of differ

The Earl of Liverpool had been ence of opinion amongst its mempresent, apparently in good health, bers; mutual forbearance regarding at the opening of the session; had it, and an understanding that every on the 12th of February moved minister should follow upon it his the Address to the king on the own private convictions, without death of the duke of York; and attempting to lend to his opinion had given notice that he himself the influence and patronage of his

would introduce the intended alter- particular department, were suffiations of the Corn-laws into the cient to prevent wrangling and disHouse of Lords. Within a few sention at the council table, but could days afterwards, he was suddenly not supply the want of that perfect attacked by a paralytic stroke. and mutual confidence, which arises The immediate and more violent only from unanimity of sentiment.

Some, at least, of the cabinet, who of it, whenever occasion called for it. were most steadily and honestly Above all, the country trusted in opposed to the Catholic claims, had his pure and unquestioned integrity. not much trust in those of their He was never suspected of governcolleagues, who, though formerlying to serve party purposes; he hostile, had for some years been never made a speech for the pleafavourable to the furtherance of sure of victory; he never entered those claims. The latter, on the into an intrigue to acquire or to other hand, coquetted with and retain power. He was as open courted the good opinion of the and manly in his conduct, as he opposition; and assumed to them- was honest and prudent in his selves the praise of having intro- resolves. He was confessedly most duced what were called liberal prin- disinterested ; every man knew ciples into our foreign and our com- that he cared little to day though mercial policy. It was the weight he should lose his place to-morrow, of lord Liverpool alone, which and therefore felt assured that he had kept these discordant ma- would do nothing unworthy to terials together. Himself immov- retain it. The result was, that able in his hostility to the de- his opinions carried with them mands of the Catholics, it was much more weight than those of still he who had introduced into even his most brilliant colleagues ; the office which he now held, Mr. and it was to him the public looked Canning, who, since 1812, had as their security, that, whatever thought it prudent to exert his differences of feeling and opinion eloquence in supporting them. The might prevail in the interior of alterations in the Silk-trade, the the cabinet, its general policy, so Navigation-laws, the Corn-laws, in long as it was guided by lord the whole system, in short, of Liverpool, would display pruduties and prohibitions, had taken dence, consistency, and integrity. place under lord Liverpool's au- By his removal from office, these thority and with his approval. His differences were freed from the character, at the same time, was to weight which had hitherto comthe public a sufficient pledge, that pressed and restrained them. The Sthe love of novelty and theory men who had acted in willing would not be allowed to run into subordination to lord Liverpool, extravagance -- for seldom has a were by no means equally inclined minister, not distinguished by any to yield to each other. None of striking brilliancy of genius, and them, except the duke of Wellinggreatly inferior as he was to more ton, could lay claim to such grounds than one of his colleaguesin popular of pre-eminence as Jord Liverpool oratory, gained so much weight, had possessed ; but none of them and conciliated such universal would recognize any decided claims · favour, by the mere force of his to superiority in his rival ; and, alpersonal character. He possessed though the necessity of keeping the a sound, cautious, business mind; cabinet together might have made a long political life had stored it them all willing to remain where with all the political knowledge they were, the selection of a head to which a minister requires; regular that cabinet was matter which inand confirmed habits of business volved not merely their party prehad given him a complete command dilections, but, tá a certain extent,

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