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tion for life, or any term not less life from on board of her. Other than seven years; or imprisonment species of injury were left to be for not longer than four years, punished with different periods of with public whipping, in the case transportation and imprisonment; of males, once, twice, or thrice, as and altogether, the number of capital the court might direct. Next offences was considerably diminishcame transportation for any period ed. In many cases, likewise, a not more than fourteen, or less summary mode of proceeding was than seven years, with the altere introduced, which was so far a native of three years imprisonment limitation of trial by jury; but its and whipping; and lastly, trans- effect was to save many petty portation for seven years, with the offenders, or supposed offenders, alternative of imprisonment for from the long imprisonment to not more than two years, and which they were often doomed, whipping. The offences, for which before the charge against them capital punishment was retained, could be sent to a grand jury. were, robbery, whether committed The last statute (c. 31), regulated by personal violence, or by a the relief to be had against the threatened acousation of an in- hundred, by persons whose profamous crime (and an enumeration perty had been injured by rioters, was given of the crimes which, in and laid down the mode of procethis sense, were to be considered dure to be followed in applying for infamous burglary; breaking into, redress. and stealing from, a dwelling-house, On the 27th of February, Sir church or chapel, or stealing in a John S. Copley, master of the church or chapel, and breaking out Rolls, moved for leave to bring in of it; theft in a dwelling-house to “a Bill for the Improvement of the amount of five pounds, or when the Administration of Justice in accompanied by putting in fear the Court of Chancery,” founded within the house; the plundering on the report of the preceding year. of wrecks; stealing of horses, He introduced his motion by a cows, or sheep, or killing them very luminous exposition of the with intent to steal the skin nature of the alterations proposed

Those offences which consist not to be made, and the principles on in feloniously appropriating the which they were founded. It property of another to one's own called forth a number of speeches, use, but in maliciously injuring abounding, as usual, in absurd vituand destroying it, formed the sub-peration of lord Eldon. But the ject of the fourth of this series of changes that occurred, prevented statutes (c. 30). It reserved capi- the bill from going forward. The tal punishment for arson; the greatest judge that England ever demolition of buildings, and de- had, resigned his high office; and struction of machinery by rioters; forth with Mr. Brougham and sir the exhibiting of false lights and James Scarlett discovered, that signals, with intent to bring any lord Lyndhurst, sir John Leach, vessel into danger ; the destroying and sir Anthony Hart, would inany part of the vessel herself, or of fallibly do, and do well, what lord her cargo, when stranded, or in Eldon, sir J. Copley, and sir J. distress, and the impeding of any Leach, had not been able to do. person endeavouring to save his On the 2nd of July the parlia

ment was prorogued. The follow you that his Majesty has given ing was the speech of the lords directions for a careful revision of commissioners :

the Financial State of the Country, My Lords, and Gentlemen; with a view to every diminution “We are commanded by his of expenditure which may be found Majesty to express to you the sa- consistent with the necessary detisfaction which his Majesty feels mands of the Public Service, and in being enabled, by the state of with the permanent interests, good the Public Business, to release you faith, and honour, of the nation. from further attendance in parlia- “ My Lords, and Gentlemen; ment.

“ His Majesty is confident that " His Majesty directs us to in- you participate with his Majesty form you, that he continues to in the pleasure which his Majesty receive from all Foreign Powers, derives from the indications of a assurances of their earnest desire gradual revival of employment in to cultivate relations of friendship the manufacturing districts. with his Majesty; and that his “ His Majesty trusts, that alMajesty's best efforts, as well as though your deliberations on the his Majesty's communications with Corn Laws have not led, during his Allies, are unceasingly directed the present session, to a permanent to the termination of existing hos- settlement of that important questilities, and to the maintenance of tion, the consideration of it will general peace.

be resumed by you early in the “Gentlemen of the House of ensuing session, and that such an Commons;

arrangement of it may finally be "His Majesty commands us to adopted as shall satisfy the reasonthan you for the Supplies which able wishes, and reconcile the sube you have granted for the service stantial interests, of all classes of of the present year, and to assure his Majesty's subjects.”

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CHA P. VII.

Death of Mr. CanningFormation of a New Ministry under Lord

Goderich-Changes in the Cabinet —COLONIES—INDIA-FOREIGN RELATIONS.

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NHE session, which was thus mind, and tact, and confidence,

more than sufficient to bear the little business had been done, but weight of them all. It was the the events of which had excited unexpected loneliness in which he more hopes and fears, and had given found himself, that irritated, perit a character of more lively and plexed, and exhausted. At the very intense interest, than would have moment when he reached the pinbeen called forth by the usual nacle of his fortunes, he found himroutine of political discussion. It self left almost alone by those whom had borne, in a great degree, a he had hoped to use as coadjutors, personal character; it was and of whom the vulgar abuse by to man, the soldier and his sword.” the rabble rout could not prevent It was destined to be speedily fol- him from knowing, that, when they lowed by an event which stretched left his side, they carried with them that interest to its fullest bent, and much of the confidence, and respect, taught one of the most impressive and attachment, of the country. lessons, that the history of politics At the head of such a ministry as presents, of the vanity and uncere he had wished to form, his power tainty of ambition.

would have been inexpugnable, his The health of Mr. Canning had influence despotic, his situation been in a very delicate state even enviable. As it was, he found himat the commencement of the session, self forced, in some measure, to and the mental anxiety which accept of favour, rather than to followed was but little favourable command-to negociate for the to its restoration. It was not the kind looks of ancient foes, instead mere ordinary contests of politics of moving on, in the proud spirit that now claimed his attention: to of independence, surrounded by these he had been too long and too ancient friends, who in many a consuccessfully habituated, to regard test had battled by his side against them as any thing but scenes of these very men. He saw himself triumph; in that arena, there was driven, as it were, into the arms of a no weapon of which he was not coalition, whose very name excited master, no opponent whom he jealousy and distrust, while the could need to fear. Neither was multifarious differences of its memit the cares of empire, which the bers might call upon him at any triumph of his talents and his moment either to maintain his ambition had now laid upon him, place by compromising his own that depressed his spirits, and consistency, or to leave himself deharassed his feelings; he possessed fenceless, by insisting on the sacris

fice of theirs. His pride could not cessful exertion, join in calling but be deeply wounded, when he forth almost involuntary regrets, found that his power in any degree that one who has just gained a depended upon the good pleasure of splendid, and a hard-earned, prize, those whom it had long been his should be snatched from it for ever, boast and his delight to confound when he has scarcely been allowed by his eloquence, or make the to grasp it. Mr. Canning, too, poslaughing-stock of the country by sessed in his own character, enough his wit: much more must “ the to justify the admiration which iron have entered into his soul,” attended him when living, and the when he found that his very fate regrets that followed him to the was placed in their hands. Mr. Can- grave. Europe lost in him the ning, too, was a man of kindly and ablest statesman, and the Commons amiable feelings; and the rupture of England the finest orator of his of old intimacies, and the necessity day. Imbued with the very of conciliating old enmities, where spirit of the classics, he was a no cordial confidence could ever be most accomplished scholar; and reposed, brought with it an irrita- though early introduced into publie tion and disappointment a thousand life, and almost constantly oceupied, times more annoying and exhaust- from the entrance of his manhood, ing, than, to such a head, the mere in the details of official business, anxieties of government could ever and the bickerings of party politics, have become. His care-worn ap- the practical wisdom which he thus pearance betrayed that the mind treasured up, never impeded the was ill at ease within : mind and felicity with which, on all occasions, body panted equally for repose. Soon he brought into play the favourite after the rising of parliament he was subjects of his youthful studies. visited by an attack of illness, which His fancy was elegant and prolifie ; seemed, however, to yield to medi- his taste was exquisite ; and to it, cal treatment, and he went down much more than to strict logic, to the duke of Devonshire's seat at were his orations indebted for their Chiswiek, to seek tranquillity and charms and their effect. He seldom enjoy a purer air. The disease followed closely out any regular returned ; inflammation had com- train of argumentation ; he never menced; it proceeded with a vio- trammelled his reasoning in the lence and rapidity which set art at stiff forms of the dialectician; but defiance; and Mr. Canning expired he caught with facility the general at Chiswick (the same house in bearings, and striking relations of which Mr. Fox had breathed his ideas : with never-failing tact he last), on the morning of the 8th of seized those views of his subject August, after having been prime which were sure to tell most imminister for only four months. mediately upon his auditory, and

This unexpected event produced his opponents; and his thoughts a much more lively sensation in the flowed from him in a stream of uncountry, than the stroke which, in interrupted fluency, in periods of the beginning of the year, had the most sounding and graceful driven lord Liverpool from public declamation. Yet he was never life. All our kindly feelings, all inflated or inane; it would scarcely our respect for intelleetual power, be possible to select from his all our admiration of high and suc speeches a single sample of bome

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bast. Accomplished in the use of There were parts of his publie
all the arms that the rhetorician life in which his steadiness of pur-
wields, bis wit was the most glit pose and consistency of conduct
tering and piercing of his weapons. might be questioned ; there were
There he had no rival ; that never others in which it might be doubt
failed him : though it excited ed whether perfect good faith to his
against him many enmities, he was fellow-labourers had not been
indebted to it for as many triumphs. sacrificed to ambition; and the last
He was a matchless debater. As act of his life, that coalition, by
a practical statesman, his views which he chose to be first, through
were always clear and manly. He the support of former opponents,
was the most unyielding opponent rather than to remain second in
of all the schemes which, for more name among former friends, was
than thirty years, had thrown the more than questionable. Mr. Can.
world into confusion under the ning's best and widest fame will
name of reform : and he had done always rest, like that of lord
his country much good service in Chatham, on what he performed
maintaining the integrity of her ex- as a Foreign Secretary. English-
isting institutions. He possessed, men will always remember him as
moreover, the high merit of never a public servant, who, in that
being seduced, by fondness for any capacity, proudly maintained the
set of ideas, into forgetfulness of honour, and asserted the dignity,
the necessities and relations of the of the country among the nations ;
actual world: rich as he was in and they will remember him as
fancy, he seemed to use it only as having done that, than which the
the hand-maid to practical wisdom. world presents no nobler exploitas
The later acts of his public life, having made himself, by the mere
before he became minister, had, in force of talent, Prime Minister of
an especial manner, strengthened England.
his hold on the admiration and It was not unnatural to expect,
favour of the country. The spirit that, on the removal of Mr. Can-
with which he broke loose from any ning, whose influence alone seemed
suspicious connection with the to have brought, and to have kept
Holy Alliance, the recognition of together, the heterogeneous ma-
the South American republics, and, terials of which the cabinet was
above all, the energy and manliness composed, its discordant elements
with which, in maintenance of the would again fly asunder. Very
national faith, he stretched forth few changes, however, took place,
the national arm to the defence of and their effect was, to bring back
Portugal, had completely fallen in into office a portion of Mr. Can-
with the feelings of the public, and ning's former friends. The duke
had identified him, in some mea- of Wellington, who had felt him-
sure, with the dignity and character self personally slighted by the de-
of the empire. On the other hand, ceased premier in the formation of
it is true, that there were circum- his ministry, almost immediately
stances, which prevented a large resumed the command of the army,
and influential portion of the but without any seat in the ca-
people from giving him as niuch of binet. Lord Goderich took the
their confidence as they willingly. reins. of government, as First Lord
gave him of their admiration of the Treasury, and Mr. Huskis-

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