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medical student needs it, and most physicians will profit by its perusal. It is the fruit of extended experience in teaching and writing, and it is a credit to its author. The plan and scope of the book are both unique. It is the best primer of medicin that we have seen. The thoroly educated physician will find it a handy method of remembering primary principles easily forgotten, and the imperfectly qualified physician will find it indispensable. The illustrations are diagrammatic. Special attention is given to histology, the point upon which most of the older practitioners are very weak. There are some valuable directions as to the use and care of the microscope. It is a book that once read will be treasured for future perusal.A. L. R.
The Diseases of the Respiratory Organs, Acute and Chronic. Arranged in two parts and interleaved for supplemental notes. By William F. Waugh, A.M., M.D., Professor of Practise and Clinical Medicin, Illinois Medical College, The Clinical Publishing Co., Chicago. 1901.
The interleaving feature will be found valuable by such physicians as study and record their experience, but would have been better if the paper had been of such quality as would have permitted the use of ink. Much valuable information is incorporated here which cannot be found in any other work extant. While binding, paper, editing, and general mechanical execution could have been greatly improved, we will say that we have here a jewel in the rough, which every physician of every school should own and study. The phraseology and the author's habits of expression are forceful and impressiv. We know of no other single work which will so greatly aid the practitioner in the treatment of diseases of the respiratory organs. It is broad, complete, and thoro; embracing the tenets of all schools where the interests of the patient demands it.-A. L. R.
Sexual Hygiene. Compiled from books, articles and documents, many not heretofore publisht. By the Editorial Staff of the Alkaloidal Clinic. Publishing Co., Chicago, Ill. 1901. Price, $1.00. Publisht by The Clinic
This is a wonderful and unique work. It claims to be only a compilation, but it reveals great discrimination in the line of editorial judgment and ability. The language is easily understood, yet coucht in chaste, scientific phraseology. It tries to avoid beastly sensuality, and sees in the sexual relation something elevating and refining. It has competent articles on 66 Religion and Love,' "Sexual Frauds," 66 Sexual Excess." " "Legal Aspects, "Educational Aspects," "Continence," "Masturbation," "Prevention of Conception," "Married Courtship," "Restriction of Marriage," "Posture," "Artificial Fecundation," etc., and each is handled delicately, yet thoroly. It treats of those niceties ignored by the average text book. It bridges the chasm between the holy love and the beastly passion of humankind, and sheds an honest light on the way in which they are related. Well studied by true physicians, it will create anew lost happiness and reduce the number of divorces. We commend it to every reader. If it be studied and digested, and then modified by cool and pure thought and competent judg
Atlas and Epitome of Ophthalmoscopy and Ophthalmoscopic Diagnosis. By Prof. Dr. O. Haab, Director of the Eye Clinic in Zurich. From the Third Revised and Enlarged German Edition. Edited by Geo. E. de Schweinitz, Professor of Ophthalmology, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia. With 152 colored lithographic illustrations and 85 pages of text. Philadelphia and London: W. B. Saunders & Co., 1901. Price, $3.00 net.
The great value of Prof. Haab's Atlas of Ophthalmoscopy and Ophthalmoscopic Diagnosis has been fully establisht and entirely justifies an English translation of his latest edition. Not only is the student made acquainted with carefully prepared ophthalmoscopic drawings done into well-executed lithographs of the most important founders changes, but in many instances, plates of the microscopic lesions are added. The whole furnishes a manual of the greatest possible service. Perhaps no better man could have been selected to edit the American edition of this work than Dr. De Schweinitz, and certainly no man could have put out ready has more than a national reputation, and the book in any better shape. The doctor althis will enhance his fame. We always advise every doctor to understand the eye and the technic of its therapy and minor surgery; this book fills our idea of what the general practitioner most needs to know.-A. L. R,
juries to the eye by traumatism and the ocular symptoms and lesions of general diseases have now been given a consideration proportioned to the great importance they assume in the work of the general practitioner. There has been added also an account of the application of the tests of vision required in the army, navy and railway service.
This work has long since proved its usefulness to the beginner in ophthalmic work, to the student, and to the busy practitioner. Dr. Jackson, its author, is well known as a successful teacher. The entire ground is covered, and the points that most need careful elucidation are made clear and easy.-A. L. R.
American Text-Book of Physiology. Edited by William H. Howell, Ph.D., M.D, Professor of Physiology in Johns Hopkins University. Vol. II, royal octavo, of nearly 600 pages, fully illustrated. Cloth, $300 net: sheep or halfmorocco, $3.75 net. Philadelphia and London: W. B Saunders & Co., 1900.
Even in the short time that has elapst since the first edition of this work there has been much progress in Physiology, and in this edition the book has been thoroly revised to keep pace with this progress. The result is that the American Text-Book now represents the most modern work on Physiology. Statements and theories that have been shown to be wrong or improbable have been eliminated, and the new facts discovered and the newer points of view have been incorporated. The chapter upon the Central Nervous System has been entirely rewritten in the light of the latest knowledge, with the intention of rendering this important branch of the subject suitable to the needs of students and practitioners. A section on Physical Chemistry forms a valuable addition, since these views are taking a large part in current discussions in physiological and medical literature. The first edition of this work was pronounced to be the best exposition of the present status of the science of physiology in the English language, and in its revised form the book will doubtless remain the leading work on Physiology for students and practitioners. The Subjects comprised in this volume are: Muscle and Nerves; central Nervous System; Special senses; Special Muscular Mechanism, and Reproduction.
History of Medicin. A brief outline of medical history and sects of physicians, from the earliest historic period, with an extended account of the new schools of the healing art in the nineteenth century, and especially a history of the American Eclectic Practice of Medicin never before publisht. By Alexander Wilder, M.D. Publisht by New England Eclectic Publishing Co, New Sharon, Maine, 1901. Price, $2.75 net.
It contains 946 pages, and at this price could not be expected to be of the best in printing or mechanical execution; but it is interesting and instructiv. The author has delved deeply and perfectly into every nook of sacred, secular and professional history, and has given a review of facts which must interest every physician. The work is thoro, broad and honest, and is therefore of the best of its class. No one will regret reading it, and every physician will be a better doctor for having read it.-A. L. R.
A Syllabus of New Remedies and Therapeutic Measures; With Chemistry, Physical Appearance and Therapeutic Application: By J. W. Wainwright M.D, Member of the American Medical Association: New York State Medical Association, United States Pharmacopial Convention. 1900; American Chemical Society, etc. Pages, 229. Price $1.00 net. G. P. Engelhard & Co., 355362 Dearborn St,, Chicago. 1901.
Cloth bound, and neatly printed; with uncut edges, uniform with works from this house we have reviewed previously. It deals with all late drugs and compounds, whether ethical or proprietary, and seems to present the claims of all fairly. It is thus of particular interest to the practitioner who cares to venture outside official remedies. Free references are made to current literature. It is well printed, and has been carefully edited. We have verified the statements made regarding many of the headings, and find that the author has compiled and arranged the latest knowledge in such a manner as to make it most conveniently obtainable by the general practitioner, even tho he has but a meager library.-A. L. R.
It is more than a practical hygiene; it is one of the most complete books of the kind extant. No subject one could expect to find in such a work is missing, yet the author apologizes for not including the construction of aqueducts and sewers; the nature and strength of building materials; the arrangement of hospitals; etc. This would have weakened the work. He has wasted no space on chemistry or elementary bacteriology, and he does not try to teach pathology. He notes that heavy explosions are futil for producing rainfall. He commends the farming method of disposal of sewage, but admits that epidemics of typhoid fever have occurred from the use of vegetables from such farms improperly managed. Two pages are devoted to cremation, and four to earth burial; but the reader is not able to learn the author's preference. Vital statistics, personal hygiene, clothing, vaccination, army and navy hygiene on board ship and in the field and in quarters, quarantine laws, disinfection, light, heat, irrigation, filtration, foods, milk, and poisons have full and exhaustiv mention. It is complete, authoritativ, and in every way suited to the practitioner who, if he have this book, needs no other on hygiene. We advise its purchase b every physician.-A. L. R.
The Crime of Credulity, By Herbert N. Casson. Publisht by 'eter Eckler, 35 Fulton St., New York, N. Y. Price 25c., May, 1901.
A paper backt book of 254 pages dealing especially with quackery as viewed from the intelligent layman's standpoint. The language is stern, historical references correct, and the book is one that any doctor will read with interest, and may place in his patients' hands with benefit to all concerned.-A. L. R.
In making incisions about the face, follow the natural lines and wrinkles as closely as possible, and close wound with surgeon's plaster, and thru this pass your sutures in the interrupted manner. This will often avoid scar, even in extensiv incisions.
Our Monthly Talk.
There is one thing about anarchy of the Czolgosz kind that we must recognize, and that is this: it is easy to get hold of, as soon as an attempt is made to put it in practise. In less than sixty days from the date of the act of Czolgosz, he was executed, Herr Most was sentenced to imprisonment for one year, and anarchy of the violent kind, and anarchists of the violent kind, were in disrepute in every part of the land. The act that was intended to help anarchy has proven to be the severest blow that it has ever received, from which we hope it will
The enemy from which there is real danger, however, is anarchy of the insidious kind, of which we spoke last month: that kind of anarchy works in secret; not for principles, but for unlawful gain. The wealthy and powerful corporations are largely escaping taxation in every State. As an illustration (Ohio), see "Talk" of last month, page 496. We now have the satisfaction of giving a report of another kind. The Teachers' Federation of Chicago brought suit against twenty-three public service corporations for the purpose of securing equitable taxation of corporations doing business in Cook county. The case was carried to the Supreme Court of Illinois, and that court has rendered a decision for just taxation, and against the "insidious anarchy "that has heretofore been practised in Illinois and that is now practised in Ohio, as we saw last month, and doubtless to a greater or less extent in every State in the Union. Concerning the Illinois decision the Philadelphia Ledger for October 28, says, editorially :
THE ILLINOIS TAX DECISION.
The tax decision of the Illinois Supreme Court on the proper and equitable method of assessing the value of public service companies is of the highest importance. In defiance of the statutes, the State Board of Equalization had for twenty years followed methods of its own for determining the assessable value of the franchises and capital stock of corporations which paid taxes on merely nominal sums. The law required the Board to find the fair cash value of the capital stock and franchises. The local tax boards first taxed the fangible property of corporations and then these figures were submitted to the State Board of Equalization, which made an estimate of the value of the capital stock, from which they subtracted the value of the tangible property, using the remainder as the assest value of frau
chise and good will. Huge sums, represented by bonded indebtedness, were uniformly disregarded. with the result, as the Court says, that the assessment was practically no assessment or so trivial as to be in effect fraudulent. The Court rules that in fiuding a basis for assessing franchises and capital stock, particularly of public service corporations, the Board shall add together, on April 1 of each year, the market value, and not a vague estimate, of both capital stock and bonded indebtedness, and, after deducting from this aggregate the assessment already fixt for tangible property, shall assess the remainder like any other property. This suit was brought to enforce taxation against twenty-three public service corporations which had, under the old assessments, escaped taxation on capital stock and franchises estimated to be worth $368,000,000. The Court ruled that the assessments on non-iranchise corporations shall be determined in the same way, and the far reaching decision subjects to taxation a multitude of companies which have hitherto escaped tax burdens. No Federal point of law has been as yet raised in connection with the case, and the decision is final. The importance of the case is very great. It appears that among its very first inciden al effects will be to discourage the wild inflation of corporations by "stock watering," and if the law is enforced, a large part of the tax burden will be shifted from householders and owners of real estate to the powerful corporations. There is always danger in checking progress and discouraging business by taxing unduly great business enterprizes, and if such be the effect of the Court's decision, the remedy must lie with the Legislature. On the other hand, it is eminently reasonable and just that corporations which enjoy franchises, and by reason of those franchises derived from the public earn enormous divi. dends, should bear their fair proportion of taxation. Many persons have been inclined to believe that some great corporations or trusts have reacht the point where they are beyond the reach of the public and are uncontrolable. The Illinois decision will go far to modify that notion. All corporations are subject or may be made subject to just taxation, and to investigation; and the taxing power is in the hands of the people.
The people should rise against this insidious anarchy, just as they rose against the Czolgosz anarchy. The former is the more dangerous, because it is sly and cunning; and also the most damnable, because it is done by "prominent and respectable" citizens, from whom we expect better. However, it was eminently respectable" citizens that stole the Philadelphia gas works; and franchises of various kinds and of great value in this city and in perhaps all our large cities have been stolen by "prominent and respectable" citizens; and by cunning they have largely escaped taxation on these stolen values. Czolgosz's act gave them an opportunity to add hypocrisy to their crimes. They loudly condemned anarchy," and were among the chief mourners for the dead President-yet at the same time guilty of a form of anarchy far more dangerous than that which they so loudly condemned. Without their kind of anarchy, insidious and hypocritical, perhaps anarchy of the violent type would not have existed-it would have had no excuse to exist.
Fellow citizens, now that Czolgosz is dead, Herr Most in prison, and their whole outfit discredited and under public condemnation, shall we stop? Shall we not continue the war on anarchy of every sort, and compel justice from all, and to all? Last month I pleaded for a patriotism more to be relied on than a patriotism born of impulse; we want a patriotism that will manifest itself in a constant year-after-year effort to serve our community, state or Nation. Our first duty is to be law-abiding citizens ourselves, and pay our just taxes; second, to help to maintain law and order, and to contribute to
a vigorous and effective demand that all citizens and corporations shall pay their just taxes; third, contribute in money or service to the public good, without waiting for war, panic or pestilence.
We see above what the Teachers' Federation of Chicago did for Chicago and Illinois. Are there not organizations in every city and state as patriotic as the teachers of Chicago? The Grangers in every state should take up the same subject, in the same way, and compel the railroads to pay the same rate of taxation as the farmers. Why can't the doctors be as patriotic as the teachers of Chicago? If the teachers of Chicago can do so much, why can't the Masons or Odd Fellows of other places do something in the same line? It wouldn't be "going into politics," but it would be going into patriotismand that is the duty of every individual citizen, and every organization of citizens.
The following, from the lips of Mayor Johnson, of Cleveland, Ohio, will be of interest in this connection:
I would not advocate any disregard of existing rights or any confiscation of existing property. It wold be no violation of existing rights for cities to se their tax powers so as to compel the present pri vate owners to bear the same proportion of public burdens, according to the value of their property. including franchises, which owners of other kinds of private property have to bear.
It would be no violation of existing rights, where the power had not been bartered away, for the cities or the states to regulate fares and rates of compensation, so as to make them yield only a fair return on the actual investment made, rather than upon a Ectitious capitalization based mainly upon franchises or special privilege values.
In short, municipalities ought not to hesitate to do what private persons in business do as a matter of course.
Every taxpayer ought to be interested in just and equal taxation, for the happiness and welfare of the people and the prosperity and safety of the state depend upon just and equal taxation. Under the existing laws and the methods of executing them in Ohio we now have farm lands assessed at 60 per cert. of their real value. The homes of the small owners of city real estate are taxt at 60 per cent. of their real value. Steam railroads are assest at about 22 per cent. of their real value, and hence pay ouly about one-third of their fair share of taxes as compared with the farmers and smail property owners of the state.
Street railroads and other public service corporations use the property of the people, and, by keeping p the price for service, make immense profits, but they value their property as "junk" when returning it for taxation, and so pay about one-tenth of their fair share of taxes as compared with farmers and small property owners. By reason of the fact that so much of the taxable property in the state unjustly evades taxation, the property of the honest and helpless is taxt at a much higher rate than it would be if all property was honestly assest as the constitution of the state demands. The property of great corporations is almost untaxt, and thus the burden of taxation is not borne on all property slike, but is unjustly thrown upon the property of the farmer and small home owner.
These are not party questions. They are questions of honesty, fairness and justice, and the people will answer them aright. No cause that is true can lose. This cause is true and therefore must prevail.
When I assumed the mayoralty of Cleveland I saw the strange inequalities in matters of taxation and I establisht a so called tax school in the muni
pal building. I found that not half of the personal property and hardly any of the privileges had been appraised in Cuyahoga county.
Nearly all the real estate, however, is appraised. But little of the property I found to be taxt according to its true value in money. Some property like houses and lots, which cannot be hidden, is taxt for nearly its true value in money.
The two street railroads in this city are worth in
money $26,410,000. The stock quotations show this They were listed for taxation in 1901 at $1,883,800 The city board of equalization which I appointed raised the appraisal of the two street railroad companies from $1,883,860 to $14,780,560. It also increast the appraisal of the two gas companies from $827,900 to $4,416,10). It raised the electric light company from $250,500 to $1,122,620.
It has added a total of $17,879,390 of property to the tax duplicate which had always before escaped taxation and this has caused the tax commissioner to reduce the rate of taxation in the city from 3 per cent. last year to 2.67 per cent for the year to come
I have endeavored to compel the auditors of the state to appraise steam railroad property the same as farms and small homes are appraised, which would have added $10,000,000 to the tax duplicate in this county and would have further reduced the tax rate. but they would give me no heed.
Some of them rode on railroad passes and said nothing; others said I was trying to make political capital. All refused to make any substantial increase in the valuation of the steam railroads above what the railroad officers themselves had appraised their own companies.
I intend to try my best to have the law amended that railroad properties shall be appraised as going concerns at their market value.
I shall require that all public service corporations, such as street railroads, gas, electric light and telephone companies, must make public report to the auditing officers of municipalities, so that the people may know the value of public franchises and the amount of money these corporations have invested.
I propose that a law be past by which the officer who takes passes from railroads will be deemed guilty of bribery.
This is not a partisan question. It is a ma of common honesty and justice. People wi vote right on this question in spite of part affiliations, when given an opportunity. Th was proven in the recent election. The fac are so well given in an editorial in the Philade phia North American (a Republican paper) fc November 9, that I cannot do better than quo it here:
A FIGHT FOR TAX REFORM.
While the general results of this week's election in Ohio were overwhelmingly in favor of the Republicans within his own personal sphere of influence Mayor Tom L. Johnson, of Cleveland, scored a signal victory. Ever since his induction into office he has carried on an aggressiv campaign for the taxation of public corporations on the same basis as private property holders. In his own city he found that the street railways and gas and electric companies, thru official negligence or corruption, had enjoyed practical exemption from taxation. To a large extent he succeeded in having matters righted on more equitable lines. Turning to the railroads of the state, he discovered an even worse state of discrimination. The State Board of Equalization and the Attorney General, however, were opposed to him and found technical grounds for refusing to disturb the corpor ations. The entire questioh of the assessment ard taxation of these corporations operating under public franchises is now before the Ohio courts, where it was brought at Mayor Johnson's instance.
In the meantime Mayor Johnson determiy the matter of uniform taxation before the topic. In spite of strenuous opposition from within his own party, he had his ideas embodied in the Democratic State platform. Even then Kilbourne, the Democratic candidate for Governor, dodged the question. and, following the lead of the Republicans, made the Campaign on National issues. He was easily beateu by some 60,000 majority. Against the advice of the leaders of his party, Mayor Johnson determined to make the fight in his own way in Cleveland. His only condition was that he should not be interfered with. The Republicans, who normally control Cuyahoga county by a safe majority, nominated an excellent ticket, and the fight was made solely on Johnson's equal taxation platform. As a result the entire Democratic delegation of twelve to the Legis lature was elected, only one other county in the State going Democratic.
In one sense Mayor Johnson has won follow victory, since his Legislative following will be in a hopeless minority. But he has demonstrated that (Continued over next leaf.)