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for the purpose of printing and circulating a few tracts, on “Let one take up the question of war in its principle, and the evils of war, and the unchristian character of the whole make the full weight of his moral severity rest upon it, and war-system. Dr. Chalmers's sermon was preached and pub- upon
all its abominations. Let another take up the question lished that same year. It is not at all probable, even if the of war in its consequences, and bring his every power of society had been organised previous to the publication of graphical description to the task of presenting an awakened the discourse, that so obscure a movement could have come public with an impressive detail of its cruelties and its to the knowledge of the great preacher. And yet it will horrors. Let another neutralise the poetry of war, and disbe observed that the Doctor expresses, with eloquent em- mantle it of all those bewitching splendours which the phasis, his conviction of the inestimable service which might hand of misguided genius has thrown over it. Let another be rendered to the cause of universal peace by the formation teach the world a truer and more magnanimous path to of such a society. We really attach no little importance to national glory than any country of the world has yet walked this singular coincidence, and the independent testimony in. Let another tell with irresistible argument how the which this eminent man, following out his own conclusions, Christian ethics of a nation is at one with the Christian in his remote Scottish manse, was unconsciously giving to ethics of its humblest individual. * * * * Let another the necessity and excellence of a project, which at that very pour the light of modern speculation into the mysteries of time was being matured in the minds of a few Christian trade, and prove that not a single war has been undertaken men, of kindred spirit, amid the toils and tumults of the for any of its objects, where the millions and millions more, great Metropolis. And it is very striking, also, how which were lavished in the cause, have not all been cheated Dr. Chalmers notices and refutes, as it were, by anticipation, away from us by the phantom of an imaginary interest. one of the most plausible objections urged against the This may look to many like the Utopianism of a romantic peace movement, regarded as a positive and distinct organi- anticipation—but I shall never despair of the cause of truth sation. “ War will never cease, is the dogmatic and not addressed to a Christian public, when the clear light of very intelligent cry of multitudes, “until the gospel uni- principle can be brought to every one of its positions, and versally prevails. It is useless and absurd to form a separate when its practical and conclusive establishment forms one of society for the purpose. Better use your efforts to preach the most distinct of heaven's prophecies, that men shall beat and spread the gospel, and leave the natural effects of that their swords into ploughshares and their spears into pruning to accomplish the object you desire.” We shall have hooks, and that nation shall not lift up sword against occasion, hereafter, to examine more at large the soundness nation, neither shall they learn the art of war any more.”of this species of argumentation. But in the meanwhile we Chalmers, vol. xi. 83-85. ask the attention of objectors of this class to the following declaration of sentiment from one whom none of them can
UTOPIA. suspect of having been less jealous for the honour or less confident in the power of the gospel than themselves. “It is only by the extension of Christian principle among
"A THOUGHTFUL judge of sentiments, books, and men,” says
John Foster, “will often find reason to regret that the language the people of the earth, that the atrocities of war will be at
of censure is so easy and so undefined. It costs no labour, and length swept away from it ; and each of us is hastening the needs no intellect, to pronounce the words foolish, stupid, dull, commencement of that blissful period, who, in his own odious, absurd, ridiculous. The weakest or most uncultivated sphere, is doing all that in him lies to bring his own heart, mind may thereby gratify its vanity, laziness, and malice, all at and the hearts of others, under the supreme influence of
once, by a prompt application of vague, condemnatory words,
where a wise and liberal man would not feel himself warranted this principle. It is public opinion which, in the long run, governs the world; and while I look with confidence to a
to pronounce without the most deliberate consideration, and where
such consideration might, perhaps, result in applause." There is gradual revolution in the state of public opinion—from the
no term in the language to which these remarks apply with omnipotence of gospel-truth working its silent but effectual, greuter pertinence than that at the head of this article. To way through the families of mankind-yet I will not deny brand a thing as “ Utopian,” is deemed sufficient by many to that much may be done to accelerate the advent of perpetual preclude all enquiry, and to consign the matter so designated, to and universal peace, by a distinct body of men embarking summary and final contempt. And yet, how few among those their every talent, and their every acquirement, in the prose
who troll this term so glibly from their tongues, have any distinct cution of this as a distinct object. This was the way in
conception of what it means, or even any correct idea of its his
torical origin! As “the discerning public” are accustomed frewhich a few years ago, the British public were gained over to
quently to apply this epithet to the Peace Movement, we propose the cause of Africa. This is the way in which some of the
to furnish them with a brief account of its rise and import, so other prophecies of the Bible are at this moment hastening to that, should they be inclined to honour us again in the same way, their accomplishment, and it is in this way, I apprehend, that they may use the phrase with a little more intelligence, if with the prophecy of my text* may be indebted for its speedier ful- a somewhat less contemptuous emphasis. Utopia, then, is the filment to the agency of men, selecting this as the assigned title of a kind of philosophical romance written by the celefield on which their philanthropy shall expatiate. Were each brated Sir Thomas More, one of the most beautiful characters individual member of such a scheme to prosecute his own
that ever lived. On the downfall of Cardinal Wolsey, he was walk, and come forward with his own peculiar contribution,
made Chancellor by Henry the Eighth, and finally perished on
the scaffold, by the will of the same brutal tyrant. His object in the fruit of the united labours of all would be one of the
writing this work seems to have been, to enable him to express finest collections of Christian eloquence, and of enlightened his sentiments on various matters connected with social and morals, and of sound political philosophy, that ever was political science, and the government of states with greater freepresented to the world. I could not fasten on another cause dom, than would have been possible in any other form than that more fitted to call forth such a variety of talent, and to of a fiction. Under cover of describing the constitution, laws, rally around it so many of the generous and accomplished
and administration which prevailed in the imaginary island sons of humanity, and to give each of them a devotedness
of Utopia, More delineates his own ideas of a perfect Common
wealth. The account of this island he purports to have received and a power far beyond whatever could be sent into the hearts of enthusiasts by the mere impulse of literary am
from one Raphael Hythloday, whom he met in Flanders, on
occasion of visiting that country as ambassador for Henry the bition.
Eighth, "for treating and composing some differences of no * Isaiah ii. 4.
small consequence between that monarch and Charles, the most
Serene Prince of Castile.” “This Raphael,” he says, “is a Por- force one against another, in which, as many of them are superior
“Let us go, then, ¡said I, and first dine, and and worthy things.” “ You are doubly mistaken, Mr. More," then we shall have leisure enough." “Be it so," said he.
was the reply, “both in your opinion of me, and in the judgment we went in and dined, and after dinner we came back and sat that you make of things: for as I have not that capacity that you down in the same place. I ordered my servants to take care that fancy to be in me, so if I had it, the public would not be one jot none might come and interrupt us; and both Peter and I desired the better, when I had sacrificed my quiet to it. For most Raphael to be as good as his word; so when he saw that we princes apply themselves more towarlike matters, than to the were very intent upon it, he paused a little to recollect himself, useful arts of peace; and in these I neither have any knowledge, and began in this manner:"_" The island of Utopia, in the nor do I much desire it. They are generally more set on middle of it, where it is broadest, is two hundred miles broad, acquiring new kingdoms, right or wrong, than on governing and holds almost at the same breadth over a great part of it; those well that they have; and among the ministers of princes, but it grows narrower towards both ends." He then describes there are none that either are not so wise as not to need any the form of the island, and the nature of its coasts, and adds: assistance, or at least that do not think themselves so wise that “But they report (and there remain good marks of it to make they imagine they need none.
Now, if in such a court it credible) that this was no island at first, but a part of the one should but propose anything that he had either read in Continent. Utopus, that conquered it (whose name it still car- history, or observed in his travels, the rest would think that ries, for Abraxa was its first name), and brought the rude and the reputation of their wisdom would sink, and that their inuncivilized inhabitants into such a good government, and to that terests would be much depressed, if they could not run it down; measure of politeness, that they do now far excel all the rest of and if all other things failed, then they would fly to this, That mankind,-having soon subdued them, he designed to separate such and such things pleased our ancestors, and it were well for them from the Continent, and to bring the sea quite about them, us if we could but match them. They would set up their rest on and in order to that he made a deep channel to be digged fif- such an answer, as a sufficient confutation of all that could be teen miles long, * * * and having set vast numbers to work, said; as if this were a great mischief, that any should be found he brought it to a speedy conclusion, beyond all men's expec- wiser than his ancestors ; but though they willingly let go all the tations. * * * There are fifty-four cities in the island, all large good things that were among those of former ages, yet if better and well built." He then proceeds to give a full account of the things were proposed, they cover themselves obstinately with laws, manners, customs, and institutions of the Utopians, in this excuse of reverence to past times. I have met with these doing which, he contrives to introduce many enlightened views proud, morose, and absurd judgments of things in many places, on government and society, together with some speculations that particularly once in England." would be deemed bold and daring even in our own day.
Mr. More and his friend Mr. Peter Giles continuing still their We regret to say, however, that the inhabitants of this model
importunate exhortations, that he would betake himself to political commonwealth do not prohibit war, or abstain from warlike ex- affairs, he further replies, in the following extract, in which the ercises and preparations. On the contrary, we are told, that they reader will observe there is a fine ironical reference to the long
accustom themselves daily to military exercises and the discipline and sanguinary wars, which the English kings had been waging of war, in which not only their men, but their women likewise, against France, on some pretence of a presumptive title to the are trained
that so in cases of necessity they may not be French crown, and which had left nothing to the nation, after quite useless. This proves, among other things, with what an enormous expenditure of blood and treasure, but the barren little comprehension of its meaning the word Utopiau has been nominal glory of Agincourt and Poictiers: applied as a term of reproach to the advocates of permanent “And if, after this, I should propose to them (that is, to the and universal Peace. Nevertheless, on this very subject of war, princes and courtiers) the resolutions of the Achorians, a people these islanders entertained some views which would be still re. that lie over against the isle of Utopia to the south-east, who baving garded by most Christian nations as very eccentric and pecu- long ago engaged in a war, that they might gain another kingdom liar. The chapter “ Of their Military Discipline," begins thus: to their king, who had a pretension to it by an old alliance, by
“ They detest war as a very brutal thing, and which, to the which it had descended to him; and having conquered it, when reproach of human nature, is more practised by men than by they found the trouble of keeping it was equal to that of gaining any sort of beasts; and they, against the custom of almost all it, for the conquered people would be still apt to rebel, or be other nations, think that there is nothing more inglorious than exposed to foreign invasions, so that they must always be in that glory that is gained by war.” And again, “ They would war, either for them or against them, and that therefore they be both troubled and ashamed of a bloody victory over their could never disband their army; that in the mean time taxes lay enemies, and think it would be as foolish a purchase as to buy heavy on them, that money went out of the kingdom, that their the most valuable goods at too high a rate. And in no victory blood was sacrificed to their king's glory, and that they were do they glory so much as in that which is gained by dexterity nothing the better by it, even in time of peace; their manners and good conduct without bloodshed. They appoint public tri- being corrupted by a long war; robbing and murders abounding umphs in such cases, and erect trophies to the honour of those everywhere, and their laws falling under contempt, because their who have succeeded well in them, for then do they reckon that a king, being distracted with the cares of the kingdom, was less man acts suitably to his nature when he conquers his enemy in such able to apply his mind to any one of them: when they saw there a way that no other creature but a man would be capable of it, could be no end of those evils, they by joint counsels made an and that is, by the strength of his understanding, Bears, lions, humble address to their king, desiring him to choose which of the boars, wolves, and dogs, and other animals, employ their bodily two kingdoms he had the greatest mind to keep, since he could
not hold both; for they were too great a people to be governed by moved for. We need not say, that it will exceed ten times a divided king, since no man would willingly have a groom that the amount of the litigated sum ; while the injury inflicted should be in common between him and another: upon which the
on Greece, by the total suspension of its commerce for several good prince was forced to quit his new kingdom to one of his
months, has been estimated at least two millions of pounds friends (who was not long after dethroned) and to be contented
sterling. And this was for the recovery of £10,000! Yes,' with his old one. To all this I would add, that after all those warlike attempts, and the vast confusions, with the consumptions
it will be said, 'but it will not do to judge such matters by both of treasure and of people that must follow them, perhaps,
sordid principles of pecuniary loss or gain. Other consideraupon some misfortune, they might be forced to throw up all tions of higher moment are involved. The national honour at last; therefore, it seemed much more eligible that the king must be maintained and vindicated. Well, take the transacshould improve his ancient kingdom all he could, and make it tion on that ground. And we ask of the most punctilious flourish as much as possible; that he should love his people and stickler for national dignity, How much glory have we gained be beloved of them; that he should live among them and govern
in the eyes of Europe and the world by this valiant and them gently; and that he should let other kingdoms alone, since that which had fallen to his share was big enough, if not too big
magnanimous exploit? Was it a gallant and honourable thing for him. • Pray, how do you think would such a speech as this be
for the most powerful maritime nation on earth to employ its heard?' 'I confess,' said I, 'I think not very well.'”
enormous naval superiority against so feeble and helpless a And now, in taking our leave for the present of Utopia, we ask kingdom as Greece? Did any Englishman feel proud of his our readers whether they think it would be a great reproach upon country while that huge squadron was vapouring, and blusterthe wisdom of our statesmen, or injure very seriously the happi: ing, and playing the bully in the Piræus in order to terrify, ness of mankind, if there were to be a slight infusion of some of
by a cheap display of courage, a Government which all the these Utopiapisms we have quoted into the sentiments and
world knew had not the smallest means of resistance ? Did measures of those who rule the world?
other nations look on with feelings of admiration and envy, or with those of unmitigated indignation and disgust, at
this glorious spectacle? Why, surely, no one can doubt, that THE GREEK QUESTION.
heavily as we are mulcted in purse by these “ fantastic Now that the dispute between our own Government and
tricks,” we suffer a yet more grievous damage in character; that of Greece has been adjusted, it may be well to examine
and we do heartily rejoice to believe that there is a public the case a little, in order that we may see how wisely and
opinion now forming among the brotherhood of nations, temperately states are governed. The facts, or such at least which Governments, however irresponsible to legal control, as are patent and prominent to the eyes of all Europe, are
cannot afford long to despise.* these :-A few years ago, during some popular émeute at
There is, however, another pretence, sometimes half-hinted, Athens, the house of a Portuguese Jew, who wears the sin
rather than openly avowed, in vindication of this miserable gularly inappropriate name of Don Pacifico, was attacked and
Greek business. It is said, or insinuated, that though the pillaged by a foolish and fanatical mob. We have never been
claims of Don Pacifico were, no doubt, sufficiently conable clearly to understand what process of metamorphosis it
temptible in themselves, yet there were secret reasons of was that converted this person into an English citizen, so as
State which rendered it expedient to take advantage of these to bring him under the august protection of the Foreign
as a ground of quarrel with Greece, in order that England Office. Such, however, seems to have been the case ; and by might have an opportunity of making a great demonstration virtue of this privilege, he has succeeded in inducing Lord
of power in the Mediterranean Sea. To establish and enforce Palmerston to undertake the task of collecting the debts
British influence in opposition to the pretensions of Russia, is which he affirms are owing to him by the Greek Government
believed by many to have been the object of this expedition. for the above outrage. Associated with this, was the case of
If this be so, then the justification is, if possible, worse than a Mr. Finlay, an Englishman residing in the same city, on
the deed itself. It is founded on the grossest political imwhose grounds King Otho is said to have trespassed a few feet,
morality. The little kingdom of Greece was intended, it in order to enlarge his garden. He also claims a pecuniary
seems, to suffer the part of the whipping-boy formerly kept compensation for the value of his ground. Out of these two
in attendance on youthful princes, whose miserable doom it cases, mainly, have the two Governments contrived to fabri- was to undergo vicarious castigations for all the misdeeds and cate the “
very pretty quarrel” which at one time seemed shortcomings of young royalty; so that the latter, whose not unlikely to embroil all Europe in war. The whole sum
own person was too sacred to be touched by the pedagogic in dispute did not amount to £10,000, and the question, one
birch, might, nevertheless, be admonished into obedience and would think, might have been settled without much trouble,
wisdom by witnessing the writhings and hearing the screams of by the adjudication of two or three men of business of ordi
his unfortunate substitute. And thus, it seems, the peace, the nary capacity. It is said, indeed, that the Greek Government dignity, and the entire commerce of a feeble and friendly repeatedly proposed to refer the matter to arbitration. But
nation, largely engaged in trade with our own people, must so simple a method of solving international difficulties, finds
suffer the most serious detriment, not for any demerit of its no favour in the eyes of diplomatic wisdom. And mark the
own, but to enable us to read an indirect and menacing lesson result. After considerable correspondence respecting these
to Russia, and maintain our status and power in the adclaims, which are generally allowed to have been grossly ex
ministration of European affairs.
And have we succeeded aggerated, especially those of M. Pacifico, an enormous arm
even in this direction? Are the Greek Government and people, ament, consisting of thirteen or fourteen largest-sized steam
smarting with mortification and shame at the indignity we ers and ships of the line, are ordered to blockade the Piræus,
have inflicted upon them in the face of all Europe, more or to seize and detain all Greek vessels engaged in commerce.
less likely now than they were before to accept our patronLet our readers carefully remember that the object of this ex
age and counsel, in preference to throwing themselves into pedition was to recover a debt of something more than £8000.
the arms of Russian influence and protection ? And have we How much expense will be occasioned to the tax-paying people improved onr position in regard to this latter power? Will of this country by the employment of this immense fleet,
* We have seen it stated that the cost of a first-rate man-of-war acting the part of a bum-bailiff for Don Pacifico, we cannot
of 120 guns, when afloat with its full complement of men, and ascertain, as the Government, evidently out of very shame, including the interest on the original outlay, cannot be less than have refused the returns to that effect which Mr. Cobden £100 a day.
not this assault upon Greece be regarded as a sign of British selfish purposes, and accepted with insincerity and distrust, insolence and ambition, and treasured up, as a convenient could not do otherwise than come to a "lame and impotent pretext for fresh encroachments, by the Emperor of Russia? conclusion.” One thing, however, it is most gratifying to We do solemnly believe, that, in every possible respect, we observe, that this diplomatic squabble, though designed, on are as a nation worse off for this sinister and cowardly one part at least, as an appeal to the basest and most irraintervention, furnishing another illustration of the truth, tional popular prejudices, in order to effect a diversion from which statesmen are so slow to learn, that
political difficulties at home, utterly failed, on both sides of “Human intelligence bent on deceit
the channel, in kindling those old international antipathies Becomes a midnight fumbler; human will,
which have heretofore so often served the purposes of embarOf God abandoned, in its web of snares
rassed statesmen when entangled in their own toils. This is Strangles its own intent.”
a most happy omen. If the people of both countries only We wish particularly to fasten the attention of our readers learn resolutely to laugh at these tricks and strifes of their on the singularly appropriate and convincing illustration rulers, which, under an affectation of much solemn mystery, which this case affords of the advantage and urgent necessity frequently involve matters to the last degree puerile and conof such International Treaties of Arbitration as Mr. Cobden temptible, they will be far less frequently repeated. This is proposes. The peculiarity, and, in our judgment, the special one palpable advantage we anticipate from the formation of value and excellence of the Arbitration Scheme, consists in International Peace Committees, in constant friendly comthis :That it binds the parties to submit the disputed point munication with each other:—That when any crisis of danger to competent adjudication as soon as it arises, so as to avoid arises they should be ready to guide public opinion into a the aggravated artificial difficulties with which such ques- pacific channel, and be the organs, not less authentic or tions become surrounded as soon as they are made matters effective because unofficial, through which real national of public discussion—the pride, pique, jealousy, and irrita- feeling and will on questions in which national interests are tion, personal and national, which grow with such alarming so vitally involved, should find intelligent and emphatic rapidity to augment twofold the original embarrassment. expression. We believe that this every way small misunderThere are some who hold that the friendly mediation or good standing is not yet fully adjusted, but continues still to be offices of a third party, to be called in at the time, is the best the subject of notes and dispatches, and endless ambasmethod of adjusting misunderstandings between Governments. sadorial interviews. They may as well hasten the dénouement But what has been the result of the recent experiment in of the farce: for, if they do not, we believe that there are regard to that matter? Why, just this:—That the attitude that myriads of voices in both countries ready to chant, with had been already taken, and the extent to which the national united and hearty enthusiasm, in the ears of Lord Palmerston honour had been committed by the measures adopted by our and Sir Thomas Wyse, of Baron Gros and General de la Government, is expressly assigned by Lord Palmerston as a Hitte, the burden of the old songreason why he could not submit the question in dispute to any
" Let the men that make the quarrels arbitration, however just and impartial. The statement of our
Be the only men to fight." Foreign Minister, as given in the following note from M.
EXTRACT FROM THE SPEECH OF THE REV. W. Drouyn de Lhuys to General de la Hitte, is most significant and instructive :
Missionary from India, at the Meeting of the London Missionary “ I have seen Lord Palmerston this morning. I told him that
Society, May 9, 1850. you were very anxious that the acceptance of our good offices
“I wul conclude with one remark respecting India's liberty. should take, as soon as possible, the body and consistence of an
We wanted to build a Mission House. How was it to be done? official act, and that I waited impatiently for an answer to my I will tell you what the natives did. One Indian convert, a
Lord Palmerston agreed with me; only he told me Coolie, a man whose glory it was to wear a sword-a man, the that he would introduce into his note a paragraph for the purpose privilege of whose tribe it was to travel armed-such a man, a of well determining the nature of our intervention, which would Christian man of but two years' standing, came with his sword in be, not an arbitration, but a friendly mediation, an interposition of hand, and said, “Let that be sold for the Mission House.' My good offices. . . . . I thought it my duty to testify to the Principal remark • What will you do without a sword?' The answer Secretary of State the regret I felt at seeing our róle enclosed in
was, “ They that take the sword, shall perish by the sword.' The such narrow limits. It is not,' I said to him, “ less than your
man that travels armed is always in danger, and the man that promises, but it is less than my wishes and my hopes. Besides,
travels unarmed is the only safe man.' And then came the Indian whatever name you give to the thing, the important matter is, that it will have the effect of immediately stopping rigorous
women, and upon their necks hung the silver necklaces, and on
their ankles hung the silver anklets, and on their arms the silver measures, and substituting friendly proceedings for them. This
armlets; and the women brought their nose-rings, and their earMinister, in explaining to me, in the most amicable tone, that it
rings, and their anklets, and cast them into the treasury of the would be impossible for the British Cabinet, after having taken the advice of the advocate of the crown, and having engaged itself pounds' worth of ornaments, which would correspond, at least, to
Lord; so that amongst a poor people we collected about five in the commencement of execution, to blot out all that had been
fifty or one hundred pounds' worth of our own ladies' ornaments. done, and to submit to the decision of an arbitrator all its claims,
• Warriors of England! I wish there were some here, but I do renewed to me,” &c.
not see them. I would say to them, When will you give up your And what shall we say to the pitiful quarrel between swords?”—Patriot, 13 May, 1850. England and France that has sprung out of this Greek
Ambition.—Cineas was an excellent orator and statesman, and question? What can we say, but to deplore, with a mixture of principal friend and counsellor to Pyrrhus; and falling in inward indignation and shame, that the peace of nations should be talk with him, and discoursing the king's endless ambition, placed at the mercy of ambitious and intriguing diplomatists, Pyrrhus opened himself unto him, that he intended, first, a war more intent upon over-reaching each other, and gratifying upon Italy, and hoped to achieve it. Cineas asked him, Sir, their miserable personal vanity by a superior display of
what will you do then ?" " Then,” said he, we will attempt trickery and finesse, than on acquitting themselves gravely
Sicily." Cineas said, “Well, sir, what then?" Said Pyrrhus, “ If
the gods favour us, we may conquer Africa and Carthage.” and carefully of the solemn responsibility that devolves upon
What then, sir?" saith Cineas. Nay, then,” saith Pyrrhus, them? We greatly fear, that there has been throughout this
we may take our rest, and sacrifice and feast every day, and make seemingly friendly negotiation an utter want of honesty and merry with our friends.” “Alas! sir,” said Cineas, “may we not good faith on both sides. An offer of mediation made for
do so now, without all this ado?"-Lord Bacon's Apothegms.
But if they find us deliberately avowing, that a certain course of conduct is indeed theoretically enjoined by our
religion, but that in the present state of the world it is The Herald of Peace, JULY, 1850.
quite out of the question to attempt to embody it in actual life; with what an emphasis of triumphant scorn will they
denounce the miserable hypocrisy of those who pretend CHRISTIANITY IMMEDIATELY PRACTICABLE. to have a revelation from God, to which they loftily exact
the submissive homage of the world, which is nevertheless For thousands of years the world has been groaning according to their own confession too fine and good to be beneath the crimes and miseries of war. The earth has
of any present practical use? been laid waste by its ravages—entire countries have been But perhaps it will be said, that though this Christian depopulated-mighty empires overthrown-cities and standard is not yet practicable, it is intended to become so, towns reduced to ruin-countless myriads of human beings when the world itself is converted to Christianity. In slain in every conceivable form of terror and agony—the reply to this form of the objection, we have two or three progress of civilization arrested—the relations of commerce remarks to offer. In the first place we affirm, that it deranged—the name of religion dishonoured—the moral appears on the face of it, unless some reasons, not obvious sentiments of mankind debauched—the foulest passions of to ordinary minds, can be assigned to prove the contrary, man's nature fostered and invoked into preternatural Christianity was designed by its Author to be a sysstrength and fierceness, and an amount of crime, guilt, and tem which was to come into immediate operation ;suffering produced, which is appalling to contemplate. But that it was meant to apply to and act upon the world, not how comes it to pass that the great majority of Christian at some future time, when it had become elevated and men should so contentedly acquiesce in the presence of purified by a previous process, but in its present, actually an evil so enormous, as though a state of war were the existing condition ;-that it is not a supplemental and normal and inevitable condition of humanity? It is ad- finishing grace, or ornament with which the world is to mitted on all hands, that the ferocious spirit in which war be beautified, after it has been raised out of its depravity originates, and the manifold and gigantic iniquities to and degradation, but that it is to be itself the instrument which it is, are in diametrical opposition to the whole in accomplishing that regeneration. And if it is to be the character of the Gospel. It is admitted, also, that in pro. means of regenerating the world, it surely can be so in no portion as the latter prevails will the former be abominated
other way than by the application of its truths and prin and driven from among men.
It is admitted, moreover, ciples to the world, while it is yet in a state of moral perthat no assurances contained in God's Book are more un- verseness and corruption. The Gospel proclaims itself as equivocal and explicit, than those which declare the final a remedy, but that must be esteemed a singular kind of and utter extinction of the entire system, through the ad- remedy, which only becomes applicable to the patient after vancing influence of Christianity. And yet it is an unques
his recovery. tionable fact, that, with these strong convictions, and these If we are told that in regard to the doctrines of Christilofty and animating hopes, the Christian world has hitherto anity, they are undoubtedly of immediate application, put forth no earnest and united efforts to bring this abomi- and ought to be pressed directly and universally upon all nation of desolations to a perpetual end. And why is this? men's acceptance, but that it is not so in regard to its There are various reasons, no doubt, assigned, to account precepts; we take leave to ask, On what authority is this for so remarkable a fact. The soundness of such reasons distinction drawn between two parts of a system, which we shall endeavour to examine from time to time. We
seems to the eye of an unsophisticated observer to be shall for the present confine ourselves to one of the most singularly homogeneous and coherent, by which one porplausible of those pretexts, on the ground of which many tion of it is made immediately and universally applicable, Christians not only abstain from rendering help to this and the other portion only provisionally and remotely so? enterprise, but throw upon it the cold shadow of their dis- We are not aware of any intimation given in the New pleasure or contempt. It is this :-“The abstract truth of Testament, absolving Christians from the duty of exemthe doctrines of Peace is not denied, nor is their theoreti- plifying in their own conduct, and of enforcing on the cal excellence and beauty questioned. The Christian idea observation and obedience of mankind, those principles of loving our enemies, of overcoming evil with good, of not which their religion inculcates on questions of social and resisting evil, is all very fine, no doubt, but it is utterly national morality, or entitling them to conclude that the impracticable in the present condition of the world.” reducing to practice of this part of the Christian system is
Now, our argument, for the present, is with those who postponed to some indefinite and hypothetical futurity. really accept and reverence the Gospel as an authoritative It would appear, indeed, on the contrary, that there are 'revelation from God; and we submit with all due respect special reasons why those Christian precepts which refer to such, that by the use of such an objection as we have to the social relations of mankind—that very class of precited, they are putting into the hands of infidelity a most cepts which some describe as only coming into force in perilous weapon. And is Christianity, then, after all, an the Millennium-must, if they are to be of any use at impracticable religion? Is the scheme of life which it all, be applied to the present condition of the world, for depicts, and, apparently at least, enjoins, designed merely to no other condition can they be imagined to have any as an imaginary model, fit only for one of those Utopian adaptation. If we are to love our enemies, it surely must worlds which poets and philosophers have loved to create be while there are enemies to love, and not after they have in their day-dreams; but far too impracticable and all been converted into friends. If we are ever to pay any visionary to think of its being applied to the actual and heed to the precept, Resist not evil," must it not be “work-a-day world” which men are now doomed to in- while evil exists, and abounds, and not after it has been habit?
chased out of the world by the brightness of the MillenThe enemies of our faith are already keen enough to nial day? detect and expose the practical inconsistency between the But, in the second place, when we are told that it will be conduct of Christians and the principles they profess. time enough to talk of abolishing War, when Christian