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The following words are common to the minor writings of Tacitus, but not found in the later works: adligo (c. 13 15 G. 24), ascendo in a figurative sense (c. 7 9 G. 25), attinet impersonal (c. 25 31 Ag. 33), caementum (c. 20 25 G. 16), citra = sine (c. 27 10 Ag. 1 G. 16), colligo computo (c. 17 16 G. 37), cognatio (c. 25 23 G. 38), in commune = in publicum (c. 26 29 G. 27), concentus (c. 15 16 G. 3 virtutis c.), concito (c. 14 1 Ag. 38), confero 'discuss' (c. 42 5 Ag. 15), contentio verbal encounter' (c. 4 2 Ag. 9), contactus 'contaminated' (c. 12 8 G. 10), conversatio = usus familiaris (c. 9 30 G. 30), 110 cura ' research' (c. 16 3 Ag. 10), dominus sc. infans (c. 29 6 G. 20), fas est with acc. and inf. (c. 36 5 Ag. 46), lacertus (c. 10 23 G. 17), liniamentum (c. 33 3 G. 16 but in the non-tropical sense), offensa (c. 3 5 10 30 and in the Histories; in the Annals only offensio, neither form appearing in the Agr. or Germ.), opinari (c. 2 10 G. 3), positio (c. 16 29 Ag. 11), remissio (c. 28 20 Ag. 9). Cp. also the use of cupido and cupiditas (c. 28), eligere and deligere (c. 10 32), the frequency of abstract plurals, use of neut. adj. sing. and plural for nouns, perfect passive part. for abstract nouns, fut. part. for adj. and many other examples commented on in the Notes and in the chapter on Style and Language.' Syntactical illustrations are furnished by the usage of anastrophe of conjunctions and prepositions, et before negatives, et in asyndetic collocations, change and repetition of prepositions, the use of particles and the like.
The cumulative weight of this evidence in proof of a genetic development in Tacitean style is considerable, but it is perhaps most conspicuous in the decreasing frequency of synonymous collocations, discussed above, inasmuch as the fondness for such combinations is equally characteristic of many other writers, Quintilian alone forming a rather remarkable exception, when we consider the length of the Institutio. Now the Agricola (97 A.D.) still exhibits 64 instances of synonymie groupings; in the Germania (98 a. D.) there is a decided falling off, only 28 examples being found, while 110 It is curious to notice that Tacitus in the second part of the Annals occasionally reverts to his earlier usage. conversatio is used in the sense of 'conversation' in Ann. XII 49. Cp. also cum . . . tum (c. 5 6 14 19 Ann. XV 48), damnari improbari (c. 16 15 Ann. XVI 28), denego (c. 10 11 Ann. XV 42), disciplina instruction' (c. 30 8 34 2 Ann. XV 52), divitiae (c. 8 27 Ann. XVI 3 elsewhere opes'), elementum трожɩкŵs (c. 19 21 301 Ann. XIII 3), ergo = igitur (c. 34 1 G. 22. 45 Ann. XIV 3 XV 33), etsi non-at certe (c. 1921 G. 33 Ann. XII 39), intentio (c. 14 3 Ann. XVI 34), licet concessive (c. 9 5 13 3 Ag. 32 Ann. XIV 55), numerare (c. 21 35 G. 7 Ann. XV 41), percontatio (c. 1 7 Ann. XV 58).
the entire historical works (105-115 A. D.) furnish scarcely more than 50 genuine instances in all, the proportion being about 2:1 in favor of the Histories, some particular groupings, however, occurring repeatedly, e. g. discordia, turbae, dissensio; fama, laus, gloria, nomen; quies, pax, otium; vires, arma, manus; inauditus, indefensus. The great majority of instances are met with also in the minor writings, but the following collocations in the Dialogus are exactly paralleled only in the Agricola and Germania: metum ac terrorem (c. 5 22 Ag. 32), tueri et defendere (c. 7 8 G. 14), nemora et lucos (c. 9 32 12 1 G. 9. 10. 45), fortuitae et subitae (c. 10 31 G. 11), gloria... honor (c. 12 14 G. 5), ingenium ac studium (c. 14 10 Ag. 3), caeli siderumque (c. 16 29 Ag. 12), vi et potestate (c. 19 23 G. 42), vim et ardorem (c. 24 2 Ag. 8), severitate ac disciplina (c. 28 11 G. 25), remissiones lususque (c. 28 20 Ag. 3), probitati neque modestiae (c. 29 7 40 G. 36), angustis et brevibus (c. 30 27 G. 6), consilio et auctoritate (c. 36 22 G. 12), quies . . . otium (c. 38 17 Ag. 6. 21. 42). Only about a dozen, finally, apparently lack an exact or analogous equivalent, either in the other writings of Tacitus or elsewhere."11
Lastly, attention may be drawn to the extensive use made of the Oratio so-called oratio bimembris and trimembris, which consists in the amplificata. more or less redundant amplification of a thought and evidently serves the purpose of establishing a stylistic equilibrium or rhetorical libration of clauses. Weinkauff (pp. 89-97) has with great industry, though an excessive zeal, collected 315 (!) alleged instances of this usage from the writings of Tacitus. Unfortunately, by far the greater number, especially in the case of those given under oratio bimembris, exhibits no feature that might not be readily paralleled e. g. from Cicero, Livy, and Pliny. They are, therefore, quite valueless for purposes of comparison of the usage of the Dialogus and the other writings of Tacitus. Nevertheless, there remain not a few illustrations which, by reason of a peculiarity of collocation, are not without some significance in the present discussion. E. g.
a. The amplifying clause is preceded by a parenthetical phrase : c. 2 10 purus et pressus et, in quantum satis erat, profluens 98
111 Cp. e. g. notes to veteres et senes (c. 6 11), iuvenes . . . adulescentes (c. 7 13), paupertas et angustia rerum (c. 8 12), notitiae ac nominis (c. 11 11 36 18), poetis et vatibus (c. 12 12), adfluens et vagus (c. 20 8), tristem et inpexam (20 10), ossa... maciem (c. 21 4), lentitudinis ac teporis (21 26) locupletem ac lautum (c. 22 17), in publicum et in commune (c. 26 29).
egregium poetam vel, si hoc honorificentius est, praeclarissimum vatem 12 11 felix illud et, ut more nostro loquar, aureum saeculum 12 17 Orphea et Linum ac, si introspicere altius velis, Apollinem.G. 2 inmensus ultra, utque sic dixerim adversus Oceanus 33 non armis telisque Romanis, sed quod magnificentius est, oblectatione oculisque Ann. I 13 [eum] non indignum et si casus daretur, ausurum. Ag. 46 admiratione . . . et immortalibus laudibus et si natura suppeditet, similitudine G. 40 (Weink. and Jansen 12!) vehiculum et vestes et, si credere velis, numen ipsum H. I 51 f. odio, metu et, ubi vires suas respexerant, securitate II 80 dum quaeritur tempus, locus, quodque in re tali difficillimum est, prima
b. The amplifying phrase is a negative clause, generally ET NULLUS: c. 12 8 in illa casta et nullis contacta vitiis pectora 28 24 sincera et integra et nullis pravitatibus... detorta natura-Ag. 16 innocens Bolanus et nullis delictis invisus G. 10 candidi et nullo mortali opere contacti 28 promiscuas adhuc et nulla regnorum potentia divisas H. IV 42 ignotum adhuc ingenium et nullis defensionibus expertum Ann. II 25 invictos et nullis casibus superabiles Romanos III 37 solus et nullis voluptatibus avocatus.
c. The last member preceded by ET TANTUM: c. 6 19 illa secretiora et tantum ipsis orantibus nota G. 4 (cited as H. IV f. by Wkf.!) magna corpora et tantum ad impetum valida 29 exempti oneribus ... et tantum in usum proeliorum sepositi H. II 45 expeditis et tantum ad proelium egressis-or by ET CETERI c. 21 25 Caesaris pro Decio Samnite aut Bruti pro Deiotaro rege ceterosque... libros 25 27 et livore et ceteris . . . vitiis adfici 3711 Lentulos et Metellos . . . ceteram procerum manum Ag. 12 oleam vitemque et cetera ...sueta 32 tributa et metalla et ceterae . poenae H. I 22 II 16. 71 III 20. 49 IV 5. 10. 14. 26. 71. 74 V 17. 25 Ann. I 7 II 73 IV 6. 9. 71 XI 6. 30 XII 46 XIII 6 XIV 3 XV 53. 55 XVI 26, 'omnia' or 'alia' often taking the place of 'cetera' in the Annals.or by a RELATIVE PRONOUN: c. 10 15 iucunditatem et . . . lascivias et. . . lusus et quamcunque aliam speciem 15 15 Nicetes et si quis alius 18 3 Galbae aut C. Carboni quosque alios 19 11 series et . . . ostentatio et... gradus et quidquid aliud 21 3 Canuti aut Atti . . . quosque alios 25 5 sive illos antiquos sive maiores sive quo alio mavult nomine 35 18 praemia aut . . . electiones aut . . . remedia aut incesta. . . aut quidquid aliud 112 H. I 63 feminis puerisque
112 These passages are omitted in Weinkauff's list.
quaeque alia 89 oriens occidensque et quidquid II 6 III 52 Ann. I 32 vigilias, stationes et si qua alia 35 II 33 III 28 XII 36 XIV 3. 5. or by an ADVERB: c. 16 18 veteres et olim natos 24 10 more vetere... saepe celebrato Ag. 14 vetere et iam pridem recepta G. 2 vocabulum recens et nuper additum 5 veterem et diu notam 13 robustioribus ac iam pridem probatis 41 inclutum et notum olim H. II 38 vetus et iam pridem insita 53 (for Ann. II 53! in Wkf.) novus adhuc et... nuper adscitus Ann. IV 34 (43 Wkf.) novo ac tum primum audito XIII 19 non vetera et saepius iam audita XV 5 vetus et penitus infixum 24 priora et totiens iactata.
d. sine with subst. followed by adj.: c. 40 11 sine obsequio, sine severitate, contumax, temeraria G. 35 sine cupiditate, sine impotentia, quieti secretique.
e. The last member is amplified: c. 6 11 veteres et senes et totius orbis gratia subnixos 9 22 amicitiam . . . clientelam . . . mansurum in animo beneficium 13 18 sollicitudinibus et curis et necessitate cotidie aliquid contra animum faciendi 30 9 labor . . . meditatio et in omni genere studiorum adsiduae exercitationes 31 22 ff. adstrictum et collectum et singula statim argumenta concludens dicendi genus... fusa et aequalis et ex communibus ducta sensibus oratio Ag. 13 delectum ac tributa et iniuncta imperii munera 41 vigorem et constantiam et expertum belli animum G. 33 superbiae odio... praedae dulcedine . . . favore quodam erga nos deorum H. I 18 tonitrua et fulgura et caelestes minae ultra solitum III 25 miraculum et questus et saevissimi belli execratio 41 vis et pecunia et ruentis fortunae novissima libido IV 44 ingenia et opes et exercita malis artibus potentia Ann. I 41 pudor . . . miseratio et patris Agrippae, Augusti avi memoria II 14 pila et gladios et haerentia corpori tegmina 69 carmina et devotiones et nomen Germanici plumbeis tabulis insculptum XIII 8 corpore ingens, verbis magnificis et super experientiam sapientiamque etiam specie inanium validus XV 6 tributa ac leges et pro umbra regis Romanum ius.
We may now briefly summarise the arguments in favor of the Summary. Tacitean authorship of the Dialogus, presented in the preceding pages. It has been shown:
(1) That the testimony of the MSS. is unimpeachable.
(2) That the treatise cannot possibly have been composed after the reign of Titus (79-81).
(3) That this date, examined in the light of the ascertainable facts of the life of Tacitus, is free from all chronological or internal objections, and therefore no obstacle to the assumption that the Dialogus was written by the author to whom the MSS. assign it.
(4) That the Dialogus and the admittedly genuine writings of Tacitus reveal an attitude of mind and heart in the judgments and criticisms passed upon men and measures so remarkably similar, as to be explicable only on the supposition of identity of authorship. (5) That by the side of palpable stylistic divergencies, there exist equally palpable coincidences.
(6) That these differences in no sense militate against the genuineness of the Dialogue, being demonstrably the necessary result of certain natural and well ascertainable causes which combined to shape as well as to change or even to destroy many stylistic features characteristic of the earliest publication of the future historian.
Under these circumstances, we might be free to dispense with a discussion of the rival claims of QUINTILIAN or of PLINY THE YOUNGER to the authorship of the Dialogue. But inasmuch as their cause, notably that of the former, has from the days of Lipsius found staunch adherents among scholars of repute, we must needs enumerate, as briefly as possible, the reasons on the basis of which their case would have to be summarily rejected, even if the Tacitean authorship of the Dialogus were less firmly established than it is.
The Plinian hypothesis 113 need not occupy us very long, for the reasons which Nast, Hess, Wittich and Kramarczik have advanced are either ridiculously absurd or absolutely gratuitous. The spuriousness of the treatise was of course taken for granted and the numerous insuperable obstacles in the way of their theory persistently and disingenuously ignored. We are told, among other things, that the dramatic date of the Dialogue admirably agrees with the ascertainable data in Pliny's life, that Pliny was by virtue of his oratorical training and talents peculiarly fitted to discuss the problem dealt with in the Dialogue, that in fact the method of treatment of the subject is quite in the manner known to us from his correspondence! Fabius Iustus also, to whom the treatise is addressed, is repeatedly and significantly mentioned in the letters as a friend.
Cp. Crome II pp. 13-20 Eckstein pp. 46-52 Vogel pp. 266-271.