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1686. therefore Mr. Johnson being try'd for this high

Misdemeanour, was sentencd * by the Court of * Nov. 16. King's-Bench, Sir Edro. Herbert being Chief Justice,

to fand Three times in the Pillory, and to be

whipt from Newgate to Tyburn, which was sevete† Nov. 20. ly executed upon him after he had been + degraded

from performing his Office as Minister of the Gofpel, by the Bilhops of Durham, Rochester and Peterborough, appointed Commiflioners to exercise all manner of Ecclefiaftical Jurisdiction during the Suspension of the Bishop of London. This fea. sonable Advice began to fow the Seeds of that Defection which happend Two Years after in the King's Army.

It appear'd a little while after how fondly King James was poffefs'd with his Delign of reconciling his Proteftant Subjects to the Church of Rome, Over and above the Tie of Affinity, and the grateful Remembrance of Services paft, His Majeity ever had a particular Affection and Esteem for the Earl of Rochester, his Brother-in-law, on whom therefore he beftow'd the important and beneficial Place of Lord High-Treasurer of England upon his first Advancement to the Throne ; but yet nothing was able to maintain the Earl in his Post, but the changing his Religion, and embracing the King's, wbich, by this time, was become the onlý Step to Preferinent. My Lord Rochester being pressd and fatigued by the King's Solicitations, told His Majesty, that to let him fee 'wis not through any Prejudice of Education or Obftinacy thar he

perseverd in his Religion, he consented to hear Conference fome Proteltant Divines diffute with his Popish between Two

Priests, and promisd to fide with the Conquerors. Prosesi ant

Thereupon the King appointed a Conference to be and more on hield at White-Hall, at whicti His Majesty, the Benedi

Earl of Rochester, and several Perfons of Diftinction, tines. állilted. The Protettant Champions were Dr. Stil

ling flect, á Man of univerfal Literature, and Đr. Jane, a Person of deep Learning, but chiefly famous for Polemick Divinity; Two Benedictine Monks food up for the Popith Cause, and the Subject of their Difpute was, The Rutle of Faith, and the propée


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Judge in Controversie. This Conference was long 1689
and tedious, as it always happens where Debates
are managʻd with Strength of Reasoning on one
side, and Obstinate Ignorance on the other; but at
laft the Romish Sticklers were forc'd to leave the
Field to their Antagonists; whereupon the Earl
of Rochester openly declar'd, that the victory the
Protestant Divines had gain'd, made no Alteration
in his Mind, being beforehand convinc'd of the
Truth of his Religion, and firinly resolv'd never to
forsake it. His Majesty going off abruptly was

Túe Earl of heard to say, He never saw a bad Cause so well

, nor a

Rgood one so ill maintain'd. Not many Days after the

Surrenders King fent to the Earl for his Coinınillion of High-bis CarTreasurer which he presently refign'd; and mission. which was bestow'd * on the Lords Bellasis and * Jan. s. Dover, two Roman Catholicks, and on the Lord 1687. Godolphin, Sir John Earnly, and Sir Stephen Fox. To alleviate his Disgrace, His Majesty allign'd hiin an Annuity of Five Thousand Pounds upon the Post-Office, which fo engag‘d the Earl, that he afterwards" went over to Holland to take care of the King's Interest there, and give a fair Intérpretation of his Designs. Several other Proteftants of Distinction were closeted upon account of their Religion, and turn'd out of their Employments for not coinplying with His Majesties. Delire. In short, the King acted in so despotick a mariner, and Popery made so rapid a Progress, that fome of the Roman Catholicks complaind of the violent Methods, and unpolitical Conduct of the leading Men of their Party: And as the ftill Sea is generally observ'd to be the Fore-runner of a Storm, the wiféft and moft discerning amongst 'em began to suspect some sudden Change from the quiet and moderate Behaviour of the Proteltants.

The Governing Party about King James were Embassie to so eager to inake a Shew of their Chymerical Tro Rome. phies, that towards the latter end of the Year: 1686. the Earl of Castlemain was dispatch'd to Rome in Quality of Extraordinaty Ambassador, where he made his publick Entry * with a magnificent * Jan. 3 Train, and inoft fplendid Equipage. His Infini- 1687.


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1682: ctions were, to reconcile the Kingdoms of

England, Scotland, and Ireland, to the Holy See, from which,

for more

than they had fallen off by the Northern Herefie. Innocent XI. receiv'd this Embassie as 'one who faw further than those who lent it. The Am

baslador had but a cold Reception from the Holy Foldly re- Father; and none of the Cardinals, but those of a eiv'd.

particular Faction, took any further Notice of him, than what form and good Manners oblig'd them to. The Court of Rome were too retin d Politicians to be impos'd upon by Shew and Noise, and were too well acquainted with England to expect great Matters from such precipitated Advances as the King made in his Deligns. Besides, Innocent being not only strongly prepossess'd in Favour of the House of Austria; but having an Aversion to the French, (ever since he was worst ed by one of that Nation in a single Combat, when he was a general Officer in the King of Spain's Army) and a fresh Pique, besides, againit the Court of France, on account of the Regale, and the Bombarding of Genoa, He'was not over-fond of an Embassie from a Prince who was in an Intereft he wish'd to see humbled. 'Catlemain had several Audiences of the Pope, but to little Purpose; for whenever he began to talk of Business, this Holiness had a Fit of Coughing at command, to rid himself of the Ainbaffador's Conversation. These Audiences and Fits of Coughing' continued from time to time, while Castlemain fiaid at Rame, and were the Subject of Diversion to all, but a particular Faction at that Court. At length he was advis'd to threaten to be gone, fince he could not have an treat with the Pope about the Bufuess he came for. The good old Father was so little concern'd at the Ambassador’s Refentments, that when they told him of it, he answer'd with his usual Coldness:' E' bene; se vuoi andarsene,

ditegli adunque che fi levi di buona matina al fresco, é ? ché nel mezza giorno si ripost, perche in questi paesi men bilagna viiggiare al calda del giorno," Well, since

be 1

be will be gone, tell him he had best to rise early in 1689
the Morning, and rest himself at Noon; for in these
Countries it's dangerous to travel in the Heat of
the Day. In short, King James met with nothing
but Mortification at Rome, in the Person of his
Ambassador, whom he foon after recall’d, being
able to obtain of the Pope but Two inconfiderable
things, viz. a License for the Mareschal d'Humieres's
Daughter to marry her Unkle; and the other
a Dispensation of the Statutes of the Jesuits Or-
der, that Father Peter's might be a Privy-Counsel-
lor, and enjoy a Bishoprick; the want of which
was suppos'd to be the Reason of the Vacancy of
the Archbishoprick of York. As for the Supplies
which Castlemain had private Orders to ask, his
Holiness excus'd himself_upon Account of the
vaft Sums he gave the Emperor and the Vene-
tians to carry on the War against the Infidels,
The Jefuits at Rome made the Earl of Castlemain
fome Amends for the cold Treatinent he receiv'd
from the Pope ; for indeed they paid him the
highelt Respect imaginable, and entertain'd him
with the greatest Magnificence,

The Privy-Council of Scotland having acquain- Letter ted the King, that his Commands were exašly obey'd,

from the and that his Royal Proclamation for Liberty of Con- Council science wus printed and publishd; and afprød His Ma. Scotland jesty, that they believ'd his Promise to be the bijt and 24th Feb. greatest Security they could have, that he would main. 168. tain the Church and their Religion us it was establish'd by Law; This ready Compliance of the Scots was very acceptable to His Majesty, and gave him Hopes to find the same Docility in his English Subjects. Thereupon having assembled 'his PrivyCouncil,' he declared to thein, “ That he had re- K. James? < folv'd to issue out a Declaration for a general Speech to

Liberty of Conscience to all Persons of what his Council,

Persuasion foever: which he was mov'd to do March is

by having observ'd, that altho’an Uniformity in 18th, ૮૮

Religious Worship had been endeavour'd to be 168%.
" establish'd within this Kingdom in the fuecef-

five Reigns of Four of his Prodecessors, affifted
by their respectiye Parliaments, yet it had


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prov'd altogether ineffectual. That the Restraint upon the Consciences of Diffenters in order thereunto, had been very Prejudicial to the Nation, as was sadly experienc'd by the horrid Re

bellion in the Time of His Majesties Father. “That the many Penal Laws made against Dillen

ters, had rather encreas'd than lellen'd the Num“ber of them; and that nothing could more

conduce to the Peace and Quiet of that Kingdom, " and the Encrease of the Nuniber, as well as of

the Trade of his Subjects, than an entire Liberty of Conscience ; 'it having always been His Majesties Opinion, as most suitable to the Princi

ples of Christianity, that no Man should be per" fecuted for Conscience Sake, which His Majelty

thought are not to be forcod; and that it could ne“ ver be the true Interest of a King of England to

endeavour to do it. And at the same Time, he gave Directions to his Attorney and Solicitor-Ge

neral, not to permit any Process to issue in his 66

Name against any Dillenter whatloever.

This Speech seem'd ro Plausible that it met with no manner of Opposition in the Council ; or racher the Council was so fram'd to the King's Will, and so blinded by Ambition and Interelt, that they neither would nor could see the Drift of that Speech ; fo that His Majesty thinking the Nation was now ready to undergo a Yoke, he impos'd upon them with all the Gentleness imaginable, and with the Pomp and Shew of an Indulgence, he caus'd his gracious Declaration for Liberty of Consci

ence to be publish'd, * being much the same with 4tb 1687. that of Scotland; Tave only that the Expreslions Declaration for Liberty

of annulling and repealing Telts and Oaths, which of Cowes were made use of in that, were softned in this

into those of Suspending and Dispensing with Penal Laws, &c. In the Preamble His Majesty does not scruple to say, That he cannot but beartily wish, as ir will easily be believd, that all bis Subjects were Members of the Catholick Church ; yet it is bis Opinion that Conscience ought not to be constrain d; and for the Realons alledg'd in the abovemention'd Speech, which he repeats here at large ; by Virtue of his


* April

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