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Argile's Insurrection was scarce suppressd, when 1685. . a greater Storm rais'd in the West of England by the Duke of Monmouth,, alarmd the new King. MonThe Duke was natural Son to King Charles li, mouth's by Mrs. Scot, a Gentlewoman of a Welsh Family, Rebellion. to whom that Prince was said to have promis'd Marriage: I know the thing was never prov'd, but yet it is most certain that King Charles had ever express d a particular Kindness and Deference to her; that in the Year 1656. being, fent Prisoner to the 'Tower by Cromwel, a Letter lign'd with the A flirt King's Hand was found in his ftrong Box, where - Account of by he order'd a considerable Pension to be paid to

the Duke Mrs. Scot, with Promise to encrease it if God

of Mon

mouth, de should restore him to his Throne; and that be. fore he was arrested by the Usurper, he suffer'd his Rebellion.

fore bis Servants to wait on her at Table kneeling, and to pay her all the Demonstrations of Relpect which are only due to a Queen of England. Add to this the extream Fondness which King Charles had to the very lait for the Duke of Monmouth, and the great Titles, high Employments, and other Marks of Favour, whereby he distinguish'd him from all his natural Sons, and 'twill annount, at leaft, to a probable Conjecture that some fecret Vow had paft betwixt the King and Mrs. Scot.

The Duke of York being himself fenfible of all this, had ever look'd upon the Duke of Monmouth as a secret Enemy, who, if any favourable Opportunity should offer, might become his Competitor in the Crown; but though he bore him an irreconcileable Hatred, he could never effect his total Ruin in King Charles's Reign. The Jesuits left no Means untry'd to work him out of his Father's Favour: They usd a Thousand Stratagems to render him Criminal; and succeeded at last in their Designs. The Duke was artfully engagd in the Shaftsburian Plot, and upon the Discovery of it oblig'd to withdraw himself, till being follow'd by a Proclamation, he surrendred himself, and made a Confession of the whole Conspiracy; but without the least Design upon King Cbarles's Life, which he said was never thought of. Upon this

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1685. the King gave him his Pardon : Which he no

fooner was Master of, but he began to excuse most of the Conspirators, and to palliate what he had said to His Majeliy in private; whereupon the King, instigated by his Brother, requir'd it under His Hand: The Duke yielded to Necellity, and subscrib'd a Writing of the same Importance with the Confeilion he had made to the King; but afterwards desiring the Writing might be reford to him, the King told him, He would no longer keep it, but withal commanded him to leave the Kingdom, having firft engag'd him to promile, that he would never take up Arms againit him or his Succeffor ; to secure whole Title he declar'd to his Council that he never made any Promile of Marriage to Mrs. Scot.

Thus the Duke of York had procur’d the Banishment of an Enemy, whom he had not been able to destroy; and the Duke of Monmouth was now retir'd into Holland, where the favourable Reception he met from the Prince of Orange, made him almost forget he was in Exile. This good lisage stirr'd up the Envy of the Duke of York, and by his Infinuations, the Jealoutie of King Charles, who thereupon

desired the Prince of Orange to withdraw his Favour from the Duke of Monmouth. The Prince, knowing the Duke to be unjustly persecuted, was so far from minding the King's Request, that he continued his former Kindness and Relpect to the Duke, and order'd his Troops to falute him when he should happen to be present at the Reviews. On the other Hand, the King had ordeild Mr. Chudley, his Minister at the Hague, to command his Troops in the Dutch Service not to take any Notice of the Duke: Which the Prince resented so highly, that he reprimanded Chudley for offering to deliver Orders to Officers under his Command, without communicating the same to him. The Englilh Envoy complain'd to his Mafter, who, thinking himself offended, forbad him to see the Prince. Things were at this Pals, when the Duke of Tork having succeeded his deceas’d Brother, and being still inveterately jealous of the Duke of Mon

mouth,

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mouth, endeavour'd by his Envoy, Mr. Skelton, to 1685.
get him secur’d, and sent into England. This De-
lign could not be so secretly carried on, but that
it came to the Knowledge of the Prince of Orange ;
who having more Generolity than to suffer an in-
nocent, forlorn Man to fall a Prey to his implacable
Persecutors, not only gave the Duke Notice of the
Plot against him, by Monsieur Bentinck, his Favou-
rite, but supply'd him with Money to go privately
to Brusels; with a farther Assurance, That if he
Thould go to the Campaign in Hungary, he would
maintain him at his own Charge, with an Equi-
page suitable to his Quality. The Duke had not been
long at Brussels, before the Marquis de Grana, Go-
vernour of the Netherlands, to comply with King
James's Request, (in a Letter, wherein he charg'd
the Duke with High-Treason) gave him Notice
forth with to depart the Spanish Dominions: Here-
upon he privately returnd to Holland, where he
found the Earl of Argile, the Lord Grey, Sir John
Cockram, Colonel Holmes, Ferguson, Rumbold,
and several English and Scotch Exiles ,

upon
Account of the late Plot; who being cqually
enrag'd against King James, cherish'd the Duke's Re-
sentment, and with him concerted Measures to re-
venge themselves on their common and irreconcile-
able Enemy. 'Tis said the Variety of their Opini-
ons kept the Duke awhile in Suspence: The Earl
of Argile, Sir Jolen Cockram, Rumbold, and some
others, were for changing the English Monarchy
into a Commonwealth; but the Lord Grey, Fer.
guson, and the rest of that Party, fed him with
the glittering Hopes of a Crown. His natural Am-
bition made him side with the last ; but he was so
wife as to conceal his Delign from those who were
against it, and managd the Earl of Argile so cun-
ningly, that he pass d with him for a good Repub-
lican. Preliminaries being thus adjusted, it was
resolved that the Earl should make an Insurrection
in Scotland, where his great Family and large Por-
fessions gave him a yaft Interest, and that the Duke
should invade England.

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1685. whilft these things were in Agitation, Mr. Skets

ton, by his Mister's Order, made prelling Inftances to the States to banish from their Dominions the Rebellious English and Scots, who lurk'd in their principal Towns, and plotted against His Majelir. and deliver'd to them a List of about a Hundred of these Malecontents ; thé States coinply'd with the King's Delire; but notwithstanding the search that was made after the Persons nam'd in the Lif. the Earl of Argile made all things ready for his intended Expedition, and fail'd in May with Thre Ships for Scotland,

These Preparations could not be made fo secretly as to escape the Vigilance of Skelton, a zealous and faithful Minister, who upon the firit Notice he had of them, u'd his utmolt Endeavours to stop the Duke of Monmouth's Vefsels, but all he could effect

. Lands at was only to deprive him of a finall Frigot, so that

the Duke faild with Three Ships out of the Tozil and safely landed at Lyme, in Dorsetshire, the lith of June, with about Fourscore Malecontents, whose Number soon after encreas'd to about 2000 Fook. and 300 Horse.

The King, who had a Fleet cruising at Sea, flatfer'd himself, that in case his Envoy had not been able to prevent the Duke's failing from Holland, he could not but fall into the Hands of his Admi ral; but he was not a little surpriz'd at the Arri. yal of an Express from the Mayor of Lyme, by whom he was inform’d, That the Duke had not only made himself Master of that little Town, but had likewise sent out several of his Followers into che neighbouring Counties to cause an Insurrection, and invite People to join with him; and that the better to compass his Ends, he had put out a Manifesto, entitled, The DECLARATION of JAME S Duke of MONMOUTH, and the Nablemen, Gentlemen, and others now in Arms, for the Defence and Vindication of the Protistant Religion, and the Lawl Rights and Priviledgis of England

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The King alarum'd at this News, assembled 1685. his Privy Council, and by their Advice issued out a Proclamation, whereby the Duke and all his Ad. Proceedings herents were declar'd Traytors and Rebels; and of the Court the Parliament being then fitting, his Majesty ac

and Par. quainted both the Houses with the impending liament

, Danger, and receiv'd the fame Day a very Loyal against him. Address from each House, wherein they promised to expose their Lives and Fortunes in the Defence of his Rights, and Preservation of his Person. Soon after the Parliament caus'd the Duke's Declaration to be burnt by the common Hangman, which serving only to make People more eager to read it, and the Court being apprehenfive how far it might favour the Duke's Designs, a Proclamation was publish'd, whereby it was made Treason to spread the said Declaration. The Parliament made allo an Act, whereby James Duke of Monmouth was Attaint'd of High-Treason; and in pursuance of which, another Proclamation was issued out, promising a Reward of Five Thousand Pounds to any one that should secure him Dead or Alive.

In the mean while the General of the Malecontents being inform'd that the Duke of Albemarle was not far from Lyme, with near 4000 Men under his Command, endeavour'd to bring him over to his fide; and as foine say, writ to him a Letter, subscrib'd James Rex, to which the Duke of Albemarle made Answer, That he had never been a Rebel, nor ever would be one, Others pretend these two Letters to be spurious; but whatever they be, the Duke of Monmouth, either through a Principle of Religion, or as 'twas credibly reported, through want of Provisions, having caus'da Fait to be obferv'd at Lyme, march'd from thence to Taunton, from Lyme

He marches another Town in Somersetshire, where he was re- to Taunceiv'd with unusual Demonftrations of Joy; and at

ton, doc. the Sollicitation of his Friends, and of the Country People, proclaim'd King. The beginning of his Chimerical Reign was signaliz'd by three Proclamations; the one setting a sum of Money on King James's Head ; the second declaring the Parliament of England a Seditious Assembly ; and

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