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ever, by the kindness you have shown us so continually. We have now good houses to dwell in, tanks to bathe and wash in, wells for giving us drinking water, and a doctor and medicines to heal our ulcers. We have teachers and pastors who instruct, guide and comfort us. All these advantages we owe, next to God, to you, our benefactors and friends. Our nearest relatives have abandoned and forsaken us, and there is no place left for us on earth where we could rest and stay without molestation. People seeing us from a distance, shouted, 'Begone! Begone!' Ah, that was hard!" We wonder how many of ourselves in like condition would be in such a grateful mood as these lepers. We are reminded of what we think was a sentence in one of Charles Lamb's letters in which he thus concludes in substance: "I am just recovering from pneumonia, and am suffering a good deal with rheumatism and asthma, and have gout; otherwise, I am very well!"

of Medical Missions.

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The bye-products of some mines have The Broader Influence become as valuable as the very ore for which the mines were opened. The results of Medical Missions, unplanned and quite unpremeditated, have astonished many who have no interest in the extension of the Kingdom of God, as such. Though the salvation of souls must and shall ever be the cap sheaf and the keystone of Medical Missions, yet these sub-influences are not thereby ruled out of court as unimportant. "In the nature of the case,' said Sir William Acland, " Medicine has relation to every individual of the human race in whatever climate, in whatever state of social organization or disorganization; of whatever religion; whether in peace or at war." Missionary Medicine has not exhausted its influence when it has healed the sick one and brought him to know the Christ Who for us men came down to die and Who ever liveth to make intercession. It reaches round and exerts its power on a larger world than that gathered in the hospital waiting room. It pioneers education, it stimulates scientific methods; it inculcates sanitary principles and introduces plague precautions and deals with epidemics. Again and again it becomes of political importance; its weight is

thrown on the side of benevolent undertakings; while all the time it is raising in estimation the value of human life and the sacredness of womanhood. These are stars of the first magnitude, which shine brightly in the firmament of Christian Sociology.

Medical Mission work destroys caste. In the waiting room of a dispensary may often be seen sitting side by side the Brahmin, Sudra and Shanar, the Pulayer and Pariah, the devil worshipper, the worshipper of Siva, the Muhammedan, the Roman Catholic and Protestant, both men and women of all castes and creeds.

A year or two ago The Independent gave an account of a concert successfully organized by the United States. Minister at Teheran for the benefit of the Presbyterian Medical Mission in that city. The support accorded it was an interesting testimony of the way such a mission appeals to wider humanity. The Diplomatic Corps and a large number of Persian officials gave their hearty support, and when a subscription list was started it was headed by the Prime Minister and was contributed to by every Persian official at the capital as well as the entire European colony, including Russians and Turks. The concert was so successful that the Shah himself requested it to be repeated at the palace and personally received his guests.

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A brilliant writer in the *Daily Telegraph says: "I have always acted on the theory that the persons who know most of the social conditions of any people are the doctors and the clergy. The one class see the shadier and the other the brighter side of humanity, but both go down to the depths. Above all is it the case where you have medico and parson combined. There may be better ways of promoting humanity and civilization; if so, one would like to see them at work. It may be allowed to count in our estimate that once a week a few hundred thousands of these people are withdrawn from Sundayless, unresting toil; that they are taught a higher morality and a nobler theology; that a ray of brightness now and then is thrown over their lot, and lives no longer demon-haunted are made happier. At *Daily Telegraph, London, England, July 25, 1898.

any rate, it is safe to say that without the Christian missions there would not exist one single hospital throughout the length and breadth of China. That, at least, may pass for something."

Many will enthusiastically admit the value of medical work, altogether apart from its religious motive and purpose. Dr. Coltman relates that when coming across the Pacific he was conversing with a fellowpassenger who professed to be an atheist. Well, I can see the good of medical work among the Chinese or any other race who have no scientific treatment of disease. It is humanitarian, and as such I would subscribe to it."

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It was this humanitarian spirit in women medical missionaries which helped to create sentiment in India leding to the modification of the marriage laws. "Such revelations of inhumanity connected with child marriages were brought to light that one of the physicians connected with the Methodist Church drew up a petition which was signed by fifty-five women physicians and presented to the Government, pleading that the marriageable age of girls be raised to fourteen years. While the Government was flooded with petitions and memorials from native Christians, Hindu women and missionaries, it is stated that nearly all the speakers in the Legislative Council referred to the facts presented in this memorial." Dr. James Martineau says: "There is not a secular reform in the whole development of modern civilization, which, if it is more than mechanical, has not drawn its inspiration. from a religious principle. Infirmaries for the body have sprung out of duty for the soul; schools for the letter, that free way may be opened for the spirit; sanitary laws, that the diviner elements in human nature may not become hopeless from their foul environment."

Incentive to

Many hospitals and dispensaries are training colleges for theoretical and pracHigher Education. tical instruction in Western medicine. Thus an opportunity is afforded of bringing the brightest native Christians into a sphere of influence for benefiting future generations. The work that has been done in these directions is astonishing to any

who have acquaintance with the full curriculum and stringent requirements set forth by the missionary teachers.

The plan adopted in most cases is to take in a number of young men at a time for a four or five years' curriculum and to receive no others till their course is completed. This makes it possible for the busy missionary physicians to take up with all the students at once the subjects requisite for the first year; then to pass to second year subjects, and so on. Dr. Dugald Christie, of Moukden, Manchuria, began such work single handed with six students for a five years' course, and testifies that these young men have given great satisfaction and promise to become useful workers in the Master's vineyard. Similar work was carried out in Madagascar a few years ago. More than one regular college now exists in India for giving like instruction in medicine as a preparation for missionary service.

The course in Beirut Medical School is on a regularly graded system. It lasts four years. A preliminary examination in English is required. The course is very thorough and has reacted on the whole system of medical education in the land and advanced the standard of medical learning. Dr. Valentine, of India, has been enabled to originate several institutions for the educational improvement of the people, such as a school of art, a library, philosophical institute, museum, as well as examining in government schools and publishing much literature. Before the first woman missionary physician had left America for India, Dr. Humphrey had begun training a few young women in Medicine. Now there is a well equipped School of Medicine for native Christian women there.

to Womanhood.

"Medical work has been a spur to the An Uplifting Power higher education of women. It has given woman a higher ideal of life, for every one treated in a hospital learns something of cleanliness and care of the sick, and carries away a treasure of new ideas which cannot fail to bring comfort and health to cheerless homes."

The fact that attention is paid to suffering women by medical missionaries is already changing the prevalent ideas as to the inferiority and worthlessness of their lives.


The seeds are thus being sown for a new harvest of chivalry and reverence toward womankind. The position which medical work holds can hardly be better stated than by the words of a high caste Hindu, who when asked as to the method most likely to convert their people, answered: We do not fear the usual method of mission work, such as the school, printing-presses and bazar preaching, but we do fear your lady zenana worker, and we dread your lady doctors; they enter our homes, win the hearts of our women, threatening the foundation of our religion." The sociological significance of the single fact that Medical Missions raises the value of human life and elevates the position of women in society can hardly be overestimated. These two moral conceptions alone, enforced by Christian practice, are sufficient to transform the whole social fabric of non-Christian lands.

Scientific Medicine has had its traditions Contributions maintained by the work done by medical misto Science. sionaries. These labors have been another factor of sociological importance. *Rev. W. A. P. Martin, President of the Imperial University in Peking, said that it was not easy to estimate the value of the books prepared by missionary physicians or to enumerate the scientific and other periodicals to which missionaries contributed. There was such a growing demand for scientific books that he could not spend a night in an interior city without being applied to by some of the best citizens to furnish them.

A large number of medical works have been written or translated by these missionaries. Dr. S. F. Green wrote thirty-two treatises in Tamil, including a volume on Obstetrics of 258 pages, a five-hundred-page manual of Surgery, still larger books on Anatomy, Physiology and Practice of Medicine, Eye Diseases, and several for popular use by mothers, etc.

Missionary doctors have sent home valuable specimens, illustrating medical botany, and twe believe that we are correct in stating that the supplies of snake poisons

* Missions and Science, p. 415.

+ Up to date of publication the author has been unable to obtain absolute verification of this statement.

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