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was born with him and which awaited him at the tomb as a kind of superior genius to act as his monitor and guide. When a man or god died, it was said that he had gone to live with his ka, which dwelt in the sky when it was a god or a king." In the tomb of King Pepi, who died about 3200 û.C., it was recorded that "Pepi goeth forth with his flesh; Pepi is happy with his name; and he liveth with his ka; he [the ka] expels the evil that is before Pepi, he removes the evil that is behind Pepi" (Pyramid Texts, 908). The soul, or ba, associated with the breath, was depicted as a bird with a human head, hovering over the mouth of the deceased, giving him breath with its wings, and awakening him to the after-life." The body remained on earth, and the soul dwelt above; nor did the soul or shadow of a divinity differ from those of a man, except that they were stronger and more ethereal. The amuletic sa, circulating among the gods, gave greater vigor, which they could transmit to man; and when they became exhausted, they renewed their strength at the 'Pond of Sa' in the Northern Sky."2

The Sacred Eastern Sky.

The Osirian heaven was in the gloomy west, the 'Field of Rushes,' or 'Earu,' and Osiris was 'Lord of the People of the West.' From earliest times the kings of Egypt, and later (2950-2475 B.C.), the nobles and great men had been accorded a happier celestial realm, where they blended with Horus, the sky-god, and where they were given a seat in the Sacred Eastern Sky. Even from the beginning the bitter rivalry for the highest place in Egyptian religion

59 Breasted, op. cit., pp. 52 ff.

60 Budge, Magic, p. 158; also Breasted, op. cit., p. 53.

61 Breasted, op. cit., pp. 56 ff.

62 Maspero, op. cit., i, 151.

63 Breasted, op. cit., p. 139.

had continued. The solar theologians of Heliopolis had actively supported the claims of Re and had succeeded in advancing him to supremacy; but the ethical teachings of the Osirian faith made a powerful appeal to the common people and had a rapid growth after the Pyramid Age," gaining strong adherents and attaining such influence that the cult became a dangerous rival to the adoration of Rē. During the Middle Kingdom the worship of Osiris made irresistible progress, gained moral supremacy, and confusions developed between Osiris and Rē. Osirian theology was combined with that of Heliopolis and the Osirian hereafter was celestialized and received an honored place in the happier celestial realm in the Sacred Eastern Sky, which was reached by a ladder, or by a boat, the 'Boat of Millions of Years' of which Re was the ferryman, or which was guided by the strange ferryman "whose face is backward. 66

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Spirits and demons.

Reflecting the ideas of prehistoric animism, the Egyptians imagined that every living being or thing had its spirit or demon, and that spirits existed in vast numbers in the heavens, earth, and nether-world. They were never specifically good or bad in origin or disposition; but in their development, according as they were controlled or directed by a master spirit or by a personal whim, some proved friendly to man, while others were hostile. Spirits became detached from their objects; and as they emerged and were recognized, they received names and might become deities. The classes of spirits were not clearly de

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64 Breasted, op. cit., p. 285.

65 Ib., pp. 148, 153, 158; also Budge, Gods, i, 167; ii, 241.

66 Müller, op. cit., pp. 58, 176; also Breasted, op. cit., pp. 157 ff. 67 For a general survey of this subject see G. Foucart, "Demons and Spirits (Egyptian)," in ERE iv, 584-589; also Budge, op. cit., i, 3 ff.

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fined, though they ranked between gods and the king and queen; but there were the baiu and the khuu, the latter being also the name for the ghosts of the dead. These terms were interchangeable for a time; but later the baiu appeared more beneficent, and the khuu more maleficent, although the essential natures of demons and gods were the same. Then there were the rekhtiu ('the knowing ones, the wise')," who, though full of wisdom, were mischievous and were the personifications of the powers opposed to the divinities. There was also the great and powerful master-spirit of evil, the serpent 'Apop, the arch-fiend, who represented darkness, who was spiritually opposed to Re," and who, with his fiends, as the 'children of rebellion,' was equally hostile to man." Each morning he fought with Rē to prevent the rising of the sun," and though he was always defeated, he renewed the struggle daily to continue the darkness. The god of Upper Egypt, Sêth, the brother of Osiris and Isis, in early times beneficent, a friend of Horus (Pyramid Texts, 141, 370, 473), and a helper of the dead, became the deadly enemy of Osiris and of Horus the child, thus developing into a persistent doer of wickedness, to whom were attributed most of the misfortunes and calamities befalling mankind. In late times he was known to the Greeks as Typhon. Malignant spirits, like gods, were syncretized and blended, and Sêth'Apop became a composite agent of evil.

In the Book of the Dead the innumerable evil spirits receive much attention." These beings, like the ghosts of the dead, were recognized in religion and were made

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prominent by many magic practices, yet it appears that they were more important in the imagination of the people than in the minds of the priests, for they were not officially listed, they did not form a fixed caste or develop into a demoniacal hierarchy, and there were no such monsters, hideous and bloodthirsty, as those of Assyria and Babylonia. The contest to overcome the malign influence of maleficent spirits was constant and it received the earnest attention of the people, but they were not oppressed by such fear as were many of their contemporaries. Sêth and his partisans were definite and active spirits creating evil, spreading disease, madness, and all forms of malignity; their eyes shed tears that, dropping upon the ground, made plants poisonous; their sweat, saliva, and blood were deadly and, falling upon the earth, germinated into scorpions, venomous reptiles, and strange, deadly plants." There were spirits for each mischief, of every rank, chiefs and attendants; but all were subject to the higher will of their leaders and of the gods and their ministers who possessed the secret names and words of power.

The priesthood.

Egypt had numerous temples in the nomes and cities of the Nile valley, and a retinue of priests, priestesses, and lay attendants, varying in number according to the importance of the sanctuary, was attached to each." All were governed by strict rules and traditions, and purity in everything connected with the shrine was invariably an essential. The priests were divided into classes, differing in rank and each having special duties which were exacting and onerous; and lay priests served for one fourth of each year. The temple duties commenced early 74 Maspero, op. cit., i, 225.

75 A. M. Blackman, "Priest, Priesthood (Egyptian)," in ERE x, 293-302; also Breasted, History, p. 64.

in the morning with the breaking of the clay seals which protected the sacred rooms and with the routine ritual of personal attentions to the deities," these consisting of the toilet of the god (washing, anointing, and perfuming the idol, and burning incense before it), chanting hymns, bowing in adoration, and making sacrifices and libations." Then followed numerous rites and ceremonies which continued during the day and often into the night, and there were also the special ceremonies of the several festivals. The priests cared for the sacred books, upheld the supremacy of their local divinities, and, when possible, enhanced their reputation and position by relation with other deities. Sacerdotal schools, each known as 'the house of life' (per-'onkh), were conducted in connection with the temples of the greater gods, as at Heliopolis, Hermopolis, Abydos, and Thebes (Weset or Newt). During the New Empire the priesthood and the sacerdotal colleges, growing in wealth, acquired great influence and power in matters political, so that the Pharaohs consulted the priests in state affairs, bowing to their dictates, while the chief priest of Amon of Thebes was made primate of Egypt.78

Religious festivals.

Egypt was extremely rich in festivals and fasts, upward of fifteen hundred for all periods and places being listed; and these formed an important element in the daily and religious life of the people." A large number were in honor of the gods, while others were to celebrate important events, such as the seasons, the 'arrival of the river,' or the opening of the canals. Festivals were held to ex76 A. M. Blackman, "Worship (Egyptian)," in ERE xii, 776-782. 77 Moore, op. cit., p. 156.

78 Breasted, Development, p. 363.

79 Foucart, "Festivals and Fasts (Egyptian)," in ERE v, 853-857; also Petrie, in ERE v, 238 ff.

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