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of Mount Lofty, where the soil, consisting in general and latterly has become highly distinguished in con- | lar tribunals ; for

in a few months after Captain Hobof a rich detritus, must be extremely productive in sequence of Governor Hobson making it his residence. son had established his police court and petty sessions the average seasons. Their town sections rose rapidly we have from Mr Jameson some curious notices of in the Bay of Islands, it was found that offences were in value ; and a few small houses erected by Mr Cock the arrangements by which the civilised people in committed, not only more frequently but of a graver upon his allotments, readily found tenants at a rent this district maintained social order before regular law nature than during the good old times.” which constituted a yearly income of two hundred was introduced. “At the period,” he says, “ of my pounds.

arrival, it contained little more than fifty European He now found leisure, amidst his increasing occu- dwellings-cottages of wood, white painted, with ve STRANGE TRAITS OF RECENT TIMES. pations, to establish an auctioneer's business, which he randahs; a church of the same materials, but of larger The remarkable characteristic of our country is uncarried on for some time with success, but finally dimensions ; and a native pa-a, or village, consisting questionably the boundless individual freedom, joined abandoned, conceiving that more pleasing, if not more of about a hundred and fifty huts, enclosed by a high to the complete protection given to every personal profitable, avocations might be found than that of and strong fence. The presence of ten or twelve large right. Perhaps it is only the strength and prevalence being instrumental in the selling of property belong- ships, besides a fleet of small coasting craft, and open of this noble feature of our land, which inakes any ing to the necessitous and less successful of the com- boats and canoes, plainly indicated that the place was munity at a ruinous depreciation. He therefore already of some commercial importance, although as

occasional exception from it the more striking. Howlimited his mercantile operations to the safe and pro- yet it recognised neither flag, law, nor government, the contrary, much good, from pointing out a few

ever this inay be, there cannot be any harm, but, on fitable one of selling goods on commission.

and had neither a court of justice, a jail, nor a customHaving purchased a few head of cattle, he esta- house.

traits of comparatively recent times, in which we see blished a dairy on his farm at the foot of Mount Kororadika, in the beginning of 1840, contained consolidated. The keeping of such traits in mind,

the leading principle, as it were, not fully firmed or Lofty, the management of which devolved upon his about three hundred European inhabitants, of all ages may have the effect of inore thoroughly assuring the partner, a practical farmer, whose wife possessed all and sexes, exclusive of the numerous sailors whose consolidation of the principle of the sacredness of indithe experience and activity necessary in their situa- nightly revels constituted the only interruption to the tion. When fresh butter was readily purchased in peace and harmony which usually prevailed. These

vidual rights. Adelaide at 3s. 6d. per pound, and eggs at 4s. per gentry resorted, also, in great numbers to Pomare's

In the year 1807, three hundred French prisoners dozen (a Scotch farm-yard would be incomplete with village, in the inner anchorage, near the new township. Mid-Lothian, under the care of a company of soldiers.

were kept in a small country house at Greenlaw, in out poultry), it is evident that this undertaking would of Russell, where Pomare himself, the greatest chief of As these men occasionally made attempts to escape, also be successful.

Encouraged by the high price of sawn and split selling, besides another of a still more discreditable very strict regulations were enforced for their secure timber, for building and fencing, Mr Cock carried his kind, for the convenience of his reckless customers keeping : in particular, there was a strict order that operations into the Stringy Bark Forest, where he French, English, and American. Here might be seen

every light should be extinguished, and that the priemployed a number of sawyers, splitters, and shingle the curious spectacle of a still savage chief enriching night. This was all very well"; but, while such an

soners should be perfectly quiet, after nine o'clock at cutters, who were paid at a rate which enabled them, himself at the expense of individuals who, although order, and several of the like nature, were issued forindividually, to earn from 20s. to 30s. per diem, if belonging to the most civilised and powerful nations expert in their trade, and of sufficient strength to of the world, were reduced to a lower degree of bar- mally for the regulation of the prison, a verbal order encounter its fatigues. It was of little consequence barism by the influence of their unbridled licentious- other, to the effect that, if lights were seen and noises

was also handed down from one set of guards to anto the employer how much he paid his labourers, since ness. the produce of their labour was an article absolutely Hitherto no legal restraint upon crime or violence the sentinel, on calling out to them to obey the rules,

heard in the prisoners' apartments after nine, and if indispensable to almost every man in the colony, and had existed in New Zealand. The authority of Mr found himself disobeyed, then he was to discharge his he could readily sell it at a profit, or use it himself, Busby, the British resident, was merely nominal. piece through the window. This order was in force for with great advantage, in building and fencing by con That gentleman lived on the opposite shore of the tract.

a considerable time, until at length a Captain Rowan, Bay, at the distance of five miles, and his visits to of the Stirlingshire militia, thought proper to mitigate The necessity of disbursing large cums weekly in Kororadika were few and far between; but had he it so far as to require that, before such a step was the payment of wages, was an inconvenience ; but Mr lived in the heart of the settlement, he could have taken, the officer on guard should be called to judge Cock's judicious operations were precisely of that de- exerted no authority either to punish offenders or to scription which it is the interest of a banking esta settle disputes. The natives respected him as the re

as to its necessity. Soon after this regulation was blishment to encourage and assist by every means not presentative of the British government; and among of the year above mentioned, a noise was heard and

made, about ten in the evening of the 7th of January incompatible with the rules of systematic business. the Europeans he was rendered popular by his courBetween the operations of a bank, and the pursuits of teous and conciliatory deportinent. His appointment, the ground floor. The sentinel reported the circum

lights observed by the sentinel in one of the rooms on spirited and judicious individuals, there exists a rela- however, led in nowise to the maintenance of order, stance to the sergeant, and the sergeant to the officer tion of mutual dependence and support. It is from or the prevention of crime ; and his interference in a community has its vital circulation. Their example ing his decisions, could have produced no satisfactory to order the enforcement of the rules. No notice being the exertions and enterprise of such individuals that the affairs of individuals, without the power of enforc- in the guard-house, a young ensign, who immediately encourages the timid and shames the indolent. Their result. operations cause a rapid accumulation of produce, a Yet crimes, misdemeanours, and larcenies, were of taken of the order, the officer commanded the sentinel quickened circulation of money, an increased con- remarkably rare occurrence; and in no part of the fire-and was commanded again. He now fired, and

to fire in at the window. The man obeyed-missed sumption of merchandise ; and it is from them that world were the persons or the property of individuals the shot penetrated the body of a prisoner, by name business derives that tone of health and vigour in more secure than in this little settlement, within Charles Cottier, who appears to have been at the time which a banking and discounting establishment reaps whose precincts no lawyer had ever yet shown his quiet in his bed, and who died of the wound next day. its amplest harvests.

face. The stores were full of merchandise, to the It is here to be observed, that, like almost every value of between twenty and thirty thousand pounds. subjected to a full and careful trial, when Mr (now

The officer, who bore an excellent character, was man throughout the Australian colonies who has risen The merchants and grog-sellers were known to have Lord) Jeffrey exerted his eloquence in his defence; from an humble condition to one of affluence, Mr in their possession large quantities of specie ; neverCock is constitutionally and habitually temperate - theless, the crimes of robbery and housebreaking were

but he was found guilty of culpable homicide, and in short, a tee-totaller. To abstinence from ardent unknown and unfeared. Moreover, many commercial being of opinion that, though he had an express order

sentenced to nine months' imprisonment-the court spirits and all unnecessary stimulants, he unquestion- bills were in circulation, which were in every case ably, in a great measure, owed his clear judgment, as duly honoured. In a word, no statements could be exercise of the discretionary power with which he was

for what he did, the circumstances demanded the well as a physical constitution capable of undergoing more widely at variance with truth than those which invested. The case is only alluded to here, on account much hardship and fatigue.

represented the Bay of Islands to be a nest of outlaws of the recklessness shown by such an order as to the It will readily be supposed, that in neatness and and criminals. systematic management, his farm was surpassed by Ilowever ungenerous it may appear to throw a

life of men in the situation of prisoners of war, within

the last thirty-five years. none in the colony. At this period, agriculture was shadow of suspicion on this pleasing picture of primito be considered as an experimental pursuit, and he, tive virtue and good conduct, yet it might, perhaps,

A singular attack upon individual liberty occurred like other judicious colonists, conducted this part of his be argued that the absence of crime and misdemean in the West Highlands in 1805. A poor Baptist operations on a very limited scale. On his farm there ours arose less from any aboriginal purity of heart preacher, settled in a meeting-house there, and who had was a space of two or three acres under a crop of and mind, than from the circumstance of the people once been a herring-curer, was preaching one Sunday maize, and a field was broken up for the reception of being sensible that they were bound together by one

on the beach to a small congregation, when a neighbourwheat. The maize was by no means equal to what I common interest, and that the maintenance of social ing gentleman, attended by a proper force, seized him have subsequently seen in New Zealand ; but it looked order was indispensable to the safety of their lives and and sent him to Greenock to the care of the officer sugreen and healthy, although the weather had recently property. Hence they effected this by the influence perintending the press-force of that place. Not only been very dry. The soil and situation seemed to be of a judicial association, the members of which, dis

was he not allowed to take leave of his family, but well adapted for the culture of the vine, the orange, pensing with the tedious and expensive forms of jus- an interdict to recover his person and a writ of habeas and the olive ; and he informed me of his intention tice, scrupled not to act as constables, and to apprehend corpus were successively defeated by the speed with forth with to cultivate the first-named plant, availing summarily the culprits they were to try. If, after as

which he was hurried from Greenock to Ireland, and himself of the services of some of the German emi- complete an inquiry as the circumstances admitted of, from Ireland to a vessel in the Downs,. The justice grants, who had just arrived in the colony. Whether the accused was condemned, they then passed imme had heard some exaggerated story of his calling in or not he has carried his intentions into effect, and diate sentence upon him, and forth with proceeded to question the lawfulness of war in his sermons, and, with what success, I have not been able to ascertain. put in execution the punishment of banishment, pre- thinking this“ seditious and immoral,” had bethought He relied upon his dairy chiefly for the reimbursement ceded by the more dreadful operation of tarring and him of bringing the press into force as a means of of his farming outlay. In the neighbourhood there feathering. Having been stripped, and covered with ridding the country of him, but without taking care was abundance of fine kangaroo grass, which, at a an enduring coat of the proper materials, the prisoner to ascertain his own title to interfere. In reality, the small expense, he converted into hay and carted into was led several times backwards and forwards along whole extent of the powers of a justice with regard to Adelaide, where it was readily purchased at L.12 per the beach, to the tune of the Rogue's March, and the press was to give information of any suitable man ton.

great was the joy with which the natives beheld this in his neighbourhood, and protect the press party in To conclude this lengthy but not perhaps unin august ceremony. The culprit was then put into a its proceedings. The preacher, after enduring every structive sketch, Mr Cock, who had struggled vainly canoe, and ordered to leave the beach of Kororadika, hardship and indignity proper to his situation for six for many years amidst the difficulties of a cheerless with the positive assurance that his reappearance in weeks, was liberated upon a petition to the Lords of and precarious situation in Scotland, although en the neighbourhood would entitle him to a repetition the Admiralty, who at the same time gave him a pro

the future. He raised action before the dowed, in an eminent degree, with the clear and dis- of the same process. Resistance to the mandates of tection cerning faculties and the prudence which in all coun this tribunal was useless, for its members could, if ne

Court of Session, against the gentleman who had 80 tries are most conducive to success in life, was thus, cessary, call in the ready and willing assistance of the strangely interfered with his liberty, and gained the in less than two years from the date of his arrival in natives. Mercantile operations, therefore, were car

cause with a hundred guineas damages, the lords, the colony, in the enjoyment of wealth, without hav- ried on to a considerable extent and with implicit con

with one exception, taking strong views against the ing trenched upon any hazardous, speculative, or dis- fidence, and debts paid with scrupulous regularity. It defendant, whom they could not admit to have acted creditable pursuit. 'I'he presence of his father, and was correctly assumed, that since every able-bodied in good faith in the case, in as far as he took an oblique the whole of his kindred, who have subsequently joined member of the community could obtain a good sub- way of getting quit of a man whom he supposed to be him, will tend greatly to enhance the enjoyment of sistence with very little labour, no indulgence or mercy dangerous, though they readily owned that his intenhis well-earned independence.”

could be properly extended to those who gave way to tions appeared to have been good. The Bay of Islands is an extensive district in the criminal propensities. Were we to judge by facts, we So recently as 1790, the Lord Justice-Clerk, or northern part of the north island of New Zealand. might suppose that the summary processes of this supreme criminal judge of Scotland, asserted and It has long been partially and irregularly colonised species of Lynch law were more efficacious than regu- 1 acted upon a right, which he considered as inherent

in his office, to open any letters as they passed through my hat in crossing the fort ; and by the lightning I We started on the 11th, and put ashore at the head of the Edinburgh Post-ottice. On the 14th of April in could see our flag-staff bend like a willow. I went a rapid to examine if there was enough of water to that year, a gentleman who had been fatally victor in into my room and lighted a candle, the hurricane still pass, but found the keel would have to be partly una duel, fled from justice, and was outlawed. A writer continuing ; I heard something fall, and thought it loaded. We were two days getting all the boats over to the signet in Edinburgh, who had been his legal was the old bastion. I tried to get out to see ; and this cursed place, one of them being so much damaged agent, receiving his rents from his land-steward, con- after being fairly driven back four times by the wind that she had to be unloaded, and hauled high and dry ducting a law-suit about a salmon-fishing, and so forth, and rain, I got out and found about two hundred feet to be repaired. Here the country has in many places was surprised, five days after, to receive his letters, of my pickets flat on the ground. This, you may a curious appearance, the river being hemmed'in by five in number, through the medium of the Justice- guess, was a bad mess. I called all hands, however, precipices on each side, which have been washed by Clerk, with the appearance of having been opened and and told them we must remain in the breach till morn the rains into every shape ; they have the appearresealed, and bearing on the exterior, in each instance, ing; and if any Indians appeared, we could make a ance of the ruins of an old cathedral in some places, the words, "Opened and resealed by me, Robert Mac- breastwork with the fallen pickets. About midnight, in others of fortifications, whilst here and there the queen." The fact may appear difficult of belief; but, however, it cleared off. I got spades and picks, and appearance of old walls would make a person think remote as the period now is, the agent still lives, and set to digging a trench two feet deep ; and so hard that more than nature had a hand in the formation. the present writer has actually seen several of the let- did we work, that we had them all on end again about There is one large rock called the Citadel, which ters, bearing the above inscription. The gentleman davlight, and made them the same height as the others stands jutting into the river not less than 300 feet in immediately waited upon the judge, and remonstrated with old planks. We had scarcely finished, when a height, and another at a little distance which very bitterly against an act so injurious to his feelings and large war party of Blackfeet arrived on their way to much resembles Pitt's Monument in Edinburgh ; but to his interests ; but was informed that there was suf- the Crows. There is no saying what might have been owing to the inclemency of the weather, I did not ficient authority for what had been done, and that Sir the consequences, bad they come and found us so ex much enjoy the rugged scenery, which is here and Thomas Miller, the preceding judge, and others at an posed as we were by the falling of the outer defences; there enlivened by a band of bighorn, hanging, as it earlier period, had constantly followed the same prac- for they are a bad set.”

were, on the brow of the precipice, and regarding us tice. It was persisted in next day with regard to an “ I may now,” he continues, "give you a sketch of securely as we glide past far below them. We started equal number of letters. The victim of this procedure boat-voyaging on the Missouri. You say in your last again on the 13th, but had not proceeded above three was on this occasion alarmed respecting his wife, then letter you would like to try it as a novelty, but you miles when we were forced to put ashore owing to the about to be contined for the first time, fearing that would find it confoundedly rough work, and eke an. high wind; here we remained all day. Some of our her receiving any letters from her relations which had noying. How would you like sometimes to be stopped men went to hunt, but were rather unsuccessful. been so treated, might give her a dangerous shock ; and three and four days in the same campment, lying by Starting again on the morning of the 14th, we passed on representing this to the Justice-Clerk, he obtained a fire in the woods, or snoozing it off in a lodge, Arrow River, but had gone only a short distance, a promise from his lordship that no letters addressed Indian fashion; and sometimes forced to put ashore, when a mackinaw got aground. We put ashore to to the lady would be so treated--the gentleman, how- when wood is scarce and little shelter to be had, in a wait for her, but before we could get her off, the wind ever, giving his word of honour in return, that, should high north wind, and the snow like to take the skin | began to blow so hard that we could not again start any sueh letters contain references to the duellist, they off

' your face ? All that and much more has he to that day. I played cards and read to kill time, 15thshould immediately be handed to the judge !' The undergo, who tries voyaging on the Upper Missouri. Started early, and passed the Judith River. This is a agent took a protest against the proceedings of the But that is nothing to a voyageur. By and by the place where the Crows generally cross to steal horses Postmaster, and sent a memorial for the opinion of weather gets better, the fires begin to blaže, the kettles from the Blackfeet. There is plenty of timber here English counsel. Mr Scott, then Solicitor-General to boil; and after stowing away a few pounds of meat, for the purpose of concealment, and every point is full (afterwards Lord Eldon), gave a characteristically cau- and smoking a pipe, contentment and good humour of Indian forts, in one of which dir C. and I took up tious opinion, but upon the whole concluded that the resume their reign, and all former sufferings and pri- our quarters, having been again forced to put ashore act of the Justice-Clerk was without legal grounds. Mrvations are forgotten. In my last letter I gave you on account of the wind. We remained here during Thomas Erskine pronounced at once that the judge a long account of my trip down from my post to Fort the rest of the day, 16th-Up and off by peep of day, was liable in terms of the Post-office act of Queen Union in a canoe, accompanied by one man only, and but had to put ashore in consequence of the wind, Anne, in a penalty of L.20 for every one of the letters he old and frail.' It was rather a dangerous voyage ; which detained us till late in the afternoon ; when opened. However, the complaints of the agent never but, thank God, it ended well, as you must now know. we again started, and passed the rapids of Holmes went farther. Thereafter, when playing at whist On this occasion, however, the case was different ; for and Rondin, on the latter of which one of the boats with the Justice-Clerk in private society, he was ac I had, instead of one companion, at least thirty-five got aground : it was nearly dark when we got her off, customed to remind him of this debt, and when he or forty, and off we went 'right merrilie.' We started so we camped at the foot of the rapid for the night. was the loser, would tell his lordship that he would on the 3d of April 1841, from Fort Mackenzie for Fort We are now fairly in what the voyageurs call the write off the matter in his post-office account.

Union, with the returns, consisting of 1108 packs of Mauvaise Terre; the precipices rise abruptly on each We shall not of course be supposed to draw these robes, and a good many packs of other peltries; in all, side of the river to a tremendous heiglıt, and are traits of past times into notice from any feeling unfa- about 1136 packs, in one ' keel' and three mackinaw washed into a great many curious shapes, intersected vourable to the parties whose conduct was amiss. We boats—this being my first trip on water in this country by deep gloomy ravines which run far back; there are thoroughly believe that all of these parties acted with in a large boat the whole under charge of Mr c., a few stunted pines here and there, which in their what they conceived to be good intentions ; or, if one of the partners: I was second in command. We appearance harmonise well with the dismal character not in any one instance, it may be hoped that time made a very good stretch the first day, and camped of the place. Here, also, we saw large bands of has brought better views and better feelings. We at night very much fatigued. The morning of the bighorn, but they are very poor at this season." only wish to illustrate that spirit of particular eras, 4th was bitter cold, and nearly a foot of snow had Several other days passed in a similar manner, under which individuals are always more or less liable fallen during the night. It continued to blow a no one without some unpleasant accident; and when to act. The two first anecdotes tend to show the gale, accompanied with heavy snow; so that we had they had been out fifteen, they had only proceeded moral effects of a state of war : let us add to them the a lodge put up, which we brought with us in case as far as one could easily have ridden in two. On not less remarkable fact, that, so lately as the end of of our being unable to travel, and remained quite the morning of the 5th of May, amidst stormy and the reign of George II., a man taken up on the streets snug the whole day. On the morning of the 5th we wintry weather, they started from the neighbourof Edinburgh for swearing (a vice indulged in by started, although it was bitterly cold, and proceeded hood of a place called the Round Hill. To continue every gentleman of that age) was next day shipped very well till about eleven o'clock, when the keel got the journal of the young trader—“We passed immense by the magistrates on board a tender in Leith Roads! fast aground in a rapid. Freezing as it was, all the bands of buffalo to-day, and saw the work of the It cannot be sufficiently impressed on the minds of men had to get into the water, where they wrought bearer in our last camp. They had about two hunthe hambler class of people, how severely war always about five hours, but could not get her off

. I went dred trees cut down, as neatly as if chopped by an presses upon them. They are generalũy the most below to where the small boats had put ashore, and axe, some of them as thick as my body. We kept easily induced to look favourably on a proposal to had one of them unloaded, and sent her to take out on making a little each day till the 11th, on the have a war, and yet are those whose comfort is most part of the load of the keel, after which we got her evening of which day we arrived at Fort Union, have invaded by the horrible scourge.

off. Four or five of the men were seized with violent ing been no less than thirty-nine days on our trip."

cramp, owing to being too long in the water. The The following is his account of his companions :LIFE IN UPPER MISSOURI.

day was as cold as any I ever felt in Scotland. Early “The voyageurs are generally either Canadians or

on the morning of the 6th, we commenced reloading French creoles. Some few are of other countries, but In the last volume of the Journal (Nos. 474 and 476), the mackinaw, and started; weather still cold. We none are equal to the first mentioned, either for enWe gave extracts from some letters written by a young had not proceeded far when one of the mackinaws during the hardships and fatigues of a voyage, or the person engaged in the trade of peltry-collecting in the got aground. We had to put ashore with the other changes of the weather. Uncle Toby speaks of our Upper Missouri territory in North America. They boats, and send all hands to get her off. It was so army in Flanders' as something considerable in the presented a lively and striking picture of a life spent late before we could succeed in this, that we could way of swearing ; but Marlborough’s men must have in the most complete abstraction from society, and not start again ; but had to commence unloading a been sober Christians in comparison with our voyavaried only by adventures with savages and wild ani- small boat that had got damaged in the morning. geurs. They are always worst when engaged in rough mals. Another letter, written by the same individual During the night it snowed very hard. The water work. They are, as might be expected, woefully ignoin May 1841, gives some even more forcible sketches was, however, baled out of the unloaded boat in the rant, and scarcely one can read a single word. One of existence in Upper Missouri. He describes himself morning; and after stopping the leaks, we reloaded would think that, from the nature of their occupations, as baving been promoted to the charge of his fort, her with all expedition, the weather looking very dull. they would be unhealthy; but that is not the case ; which is the remotest of a chain on the Missouri River, We had not finished covering the load, when the snow for, with the exception of rheumatism from being and as performing this duty in a dress resembling again commenced. Mr C. and I had our lodge put up, obliged to go so frequently and in all seasons into cold that of Robinson Crusoe, yet always maintaining robust as, owing to the snow and cold, we could not start water, they seldom have any disease. Indigestion is health and high animal spirits.

that day. Here we remained till the 10th, the certainly not one of their complaints ; the quantity The occurrence of a prairie storm in the summer weather as cold and severe as any we had the whole they eat is enormous. Some of them, when we were of 1840, gives occasion for the following modestly re- winter. Fortunately, I had some books and a pack lying by in consequence of the bad weather, would lated anecdote of a presence of mind sharpened by a of cards, with which Mr C. and I whiled away the cook and eat from morning till night. One day I continual exposure to danger amongst unfriendly In- time. You can have no idea how annoying it is to be particularly observed an old Canadian of the name of dians :-“I used always," he says, " to sleep in one of laid past in this manner. Every day seemed a week ; Mallet ; he first discussed about three pounds of meat the bastions, it being cooler and more free from ver- and as I had to see all the boats attended to, I never roasted on the fire like a steak ; he had hardly finished min than the rooms, and safer in case of accidents. had dry feet half an hour in the day. During this that when the cook of the large boat called the men I went up about eight o'clock, and sat down smoking time, the snow fell upwards of two feet in depth. to breakfast ; there he ate as much boiled meat as my pipe by one of the ports. The evening had been We made a start on the morning of the 10th, in would have served you for three days at least, drank oppressively hot, and about this time the sky in some spite of the cold, which was piercing. I saw two about a gallon of the broo, and then put the

marrowplaces was black as pitch. In a short time it was large bears after we started. We had not proceeded bone of a bull and about another pound of meat to the black round and round ; the clouds descended till far when the keel boat got hard and fast aground; fire to be cooking, whilst he cut a pipe of tobacco and they appeared almost to touch the ground ; the atmo- the mackinaws, however, passed. After trying in smoked it. I saw him the same day eat two more sphere was close and suffocating. I remarked to an vain to get her off, until the men could stand no longer marrow-bones and nearly a whole goose, besides takAmerican, that, if I mistook not, we were going to in the water, I went in the yawl with all hands, and ing his share of the mess. But there are few of them have a fearful night. The words were scarcely out had one of the mackinaws unloaded, and took out part a bit better; it is incredible what they can stuff into of my mouth, when I heard like a low moaning sound of the cargo of the keel; this lightened her, and we themselves. Though growling is a part of their naamong the ravines. Presently the gale commenced, got her oft'; reloaded her and the mackinaw the same ture, they are very respectful to their superiors ; they accompanied by the loudest thunder, the most vivid evening, and went a little below where there was make themselves upon such free and easy terins, as lightning, and the heaviest rain, I ever saw. It shook timber, and camped for the night. Many of the men would to you appear pretty much like forwardness. the bastion to its foundation. We ran down ; I lost I had their legs dreadfully swollen with the cold water. / The moment their fatigues and sufferings are over

66

BY CAMILLA TOULMIN.

age.

the fire kindled, and plenty to eat, they are as happy take the wheel ; run the pirate alongside ; and, d'ye mind Physiologie de l'Etudiant," " Physiologie de l'Homme as princes. There is a continual chattering and laugh- me, let every mother's son of ye, as he wishes to see kith à Bonncs Fortunes," has issued from the Parisian press ing among them, and frequent songs. Some of their and kin again, pay the strictest attention to my com - not very voluminous, certainly, but excellent in quality,

mands." bout-songs are very pretty, and they roar them out

and copiously illustrated by Gavarni and all the most manfully to the stroke of their oars.'

Circumstances had indeed altered the Scotchman's eminent caricaturists of France. For these little works,
plans. At the very moment he was endeavouring to give for which a crown at least would be charged in London,
a warm reception to the five-and-twenty or thirty with probably some lying nonsense in the trade puffs

wretches, armed to the teeth, fast approaching in the about unprecedented cheapness,” a single franc is
THE PIRATE.

pirate's cutters--at that very moment a light air swelled charged in Paris. Let the London trade look to this. If [From the Manx Liberal.]

the Saucy Sally's sails. Like other tropical flaws, this air they are not prepared to treat the public with liberality,

was extremely partial, and did not yet extend to the with what face do they complain of want of encourage By the time that the several dispositions ordered by the Vomito, which lay a motionless log on the water. Freshen- ment? So long as they publish their books at unpurcaptain had been made, the stranger, a beautiful brig, ing in its course, at length it struck the guilty brig, but too chasable prices, that they should break by dozens is only had approached within long gunshot. We (that is, offi- late to save her from the grapple of the Saucy Sally, who a natural consequence. A “ Bibliothèque Française” is cers and passengers) were congregated upon the poop was already speeding under its full influence. Two now being published in Paris, in thirty volumes, presentdeck, in anticipation of momentarily receiving an iron minutes sufficed to lay her alongside, but few more to ing, for three or four francs a-volume, the works of the summons to round to. This, however, did not appear to pour her resistless crew upon the corsair's decks; and, most celebrated writers of France, illustrated by learned be part of the unknown's policy; and whilst he was fast whilst the main body battled the astonished ruflians, one notes and a selection of the most esteemed commentaries. drawing ahead, Macsawney, who carried on the duties of or two secured the helm, and got the brig before the The publisher (it is no fulsome falsehood to call him the ship as if she floated unquestioned mistress of the wind-Saucy Sally bearing her faithful coinpany, her spirited") deals with nothing but chefs d'æuvre, and has blue expanse, ordered eight bells (having taken the sun) passenger rifiemen picking off the banditti with surprising literally realised his promise that “ leur extrême modito be struck, and invited his passengers to partake their accuracy. Discomfited on every hand, the survivors cité de prix” would place these volumes in a state of the customary meridian. They were in the act of descending, hurried below, leaving their trophy in the Sally's power. most satisfactory completeness, “ à la portée de toutes when Bosy reported that the brig, having given a broad The boats, meanwhile, foiled almost in the moment of les fortunes." There is a splendid work called “Le Jaryaw to leeward, showed Spanish colours at her peak. possession, rowed with all the energy of despair ; but the din des Plantes," with richly coloured engravings of the These were scarcely set ere they were dipped, an indica- brecze had once more set in strong and steady, and both highest excellence, zoological, floricultural, and botanical tion that it was their wish to speak us. The atrocities the Saucy Sally and the Vomito were dropping them -portraits of Cuvier, Buffon, and the other naturalists which have degraded Spain's once imperial banner, fast. Their maniac yells rent the air-the water flashed of France-views and plans of the gardens, &c.- now coupled with the rakish loom of the stranger, and our under the fury of their strokes, and the boats were urged going through the press in thick and voluminous parts, proximity to the Cape de Verd Islands, the favourite re onwards with a strength almost superhuman. At the for 30 centimes (30.) each! If it must be our fate (which sort of the lawless, caused us to survey him with a curi- moment when hope must have been all but dead within seems extremely probable) to be speedily outstripped in osity in which apprehension was not slightly mingled. them, the Vomito suddenly hove up in the wind's eye. information and intelligence by our neighbours of the Our doubts and fears were in course of speedy solution, Could it be? Had the merchantman failed, and were Outre Manche, let the share rest upon monopolising, for the self-styled Spaniard had now lessened his distance their comrades victors? They paused upon their oars, money-grinding booksellers. Let not penny magazines to a couple of hundred yards. A more exquisite hull it joining company, as if to ponder the course proper to be and cyclopædias, for the diffusion and confusion of “ usewas impossible to look upon- long, low, and of exceeding pursued. Brief was the space permitted for consideration. ful knowledge,” be flung in our teeth as an answer to bcam--the bow round as an apple, with a cutwater sharp A plash, a stunning report, and an iron shower, sped its these remarks. They are no answer; letterpress and as a wedge, from which projected a female figure-head of fatal flight, dashing their splintered oars from their nerve- illustrations are both the work of inferior men, incapable the most graceful proportions. Every line was symmetry less grasp-scattering, with one crash, the dying and the of awaking the popular mind, or inspiring popular inteitself-her bottom beautifully moulded, her copper bright dead, with the shattered skiffs that bore them, in ruined rest.* But the illustrations of animal and vegetable naas burnished gold, and her run clean and fine as the heels fragments upon the devouring deep! One instant, and ture, to which we have alluded above, are the producof a racer; in short, the very model of what an English the welkin rang with the howl of despairing fiends; an

tions of the first artists of France; and elegance and nobleman's yacht should be. The capacity might amount other, and nought was heard save the faint and passing exactitude of outline are rendered complete by the most

to some three hundred tons. The beauty of the hull was struggle of mortal agony-fearful but just retribution! magnificent colouring after nature-what a contrast to
Kfully eqnalled by the gear aloft, which was taunt, tapering, Their own trusted weapons had been turned upon them- the stark and staring woodcuts by which foreigners are

and well set up; the lower mast was clean-scraped and selves ; and O'Donoghue, by the mouth of their boasted so much diverted in our “ penny literature !"
bright varnished, with long heads painted white. He Long Tom, had sped them unannealed to their account. In addition to the vast fecundity of the Parisian press
carried courses, topsails, with a slab reef to make them

in novels, romances, and tales interminable, bristling in stand better, top-gallant sails, fore-topmast stay sail, jib

feuilletons, and packed into library volumes, there is like boom mainsail, a thundering ringtail, fore-topmast and

SPRING IS COMING

wise a translation-factory from the English kept pretty fore-top-gallant studding sails ; his royal yards were sent

briskly at work. The lingual steam-engine is driven by down, and his flying jib-boom housed. All his yards

SPRING is coming ! joyous spring!

M. Defauconpret, who has translated the works of Sir were remarkably square, his canvass well cut, and it was

Walter Scott for the Cabinets de Lecture. This gentle

See, the messengers that bring impossible to surpass the light airy tracery of his taper

Tidings, ev'ry heart to cheer,

man has also translated several copies of Cooper's novels, masts, with all their mazy lines of superincumbent cord

That her advent bright is here;

and some of Captain Marryat's--the preference of selecAs we approximated, we gave our meteor flag to

See, the many colour'd trnin,

tion being unquestionably accorded to them in consethe breeze-his Spanish ensign still floating at his peak,

Peeping up on glade and plain

quence of their “naval" character-a school of art in His lovely craft was in perfect command, and having

Crocuses, and snow-drops white,

which France is extremely backward. These transla

Struggle into sunny light, drawn a little before our lee beam, he immediately hailed.

And the violet of blue,

tions, as may well be conceived, are truly Frenchified “ Ship, ahoy!” “ Hallo !" responded Macsawney.

And the valley's lily too.

affairs ; even the very names being curiously and ridi“ What ship's that ?" “ The Saucy Sally. What brig's

I could dream their fairy bells

culously metamorphosed ; thus, we have “ Monsieur le that?” “The Vomito Pietro," was the answer. “ Where

Ring a merry chime that teils

Midshipman Easy” for one title, “Le Marin à Terre" are you from?" * The Cape of Good Hope." * Heave

Spring is coming !-and when they

(The Middy Ashore) for another, and the last issued to-heave to! I have intelligence to communicate."

Faint, and fade, and fall away,

figures as “ Joseph Rushbroock.” But no Frenchman “ Ay, ay," sang out Mac. * Cheerily, my lads; round

'Tis, that long by winter nurst,

ever yet could spell an English name.

Their full hearts with joy have burst. in the weather main and topsail braces. Foretop there!

The most noticeable thing about these publications is down top-gallant stun'sail ; in with big Ben ; clap on the

At the tidings that they bring,

the remarkably cheap price at which they are sold. Each toproast stun'sail downballo! That's it-with a will, “ Spring is coming! welcome spring !"

volume is charged only 3francs, whilst the paltriest So-o! Man royal and skysail clue-lines !”

Children we of northern skies,

translated trash that goes into our circulating libraries

Most her loveliness do prize In a surprisingly short space the Saucy Sally was re

Most, with longing hearts, we yearn

here is impudently priced at half a guinea a-volume. duced to top and top-gallant sails, jib and spanker, the

For her swift and sure return;

The most splendid works of original fiction, witness fore and main course hanging in the brails. The Vomito

We who know the sullen gloom.

Eugene Sue's “ Mathilde,” are published at the same Pietro was still under sail, although, while our ship was

When the earth is nature's tomb;

price as Defauconpret's translations. Observe how, by obeying her injunctions, she had hauled up so sharp in

Well may we with heart and voice,

this liberal arrangement, author and public (and the bookthe wind as not only to deaden her way, but to drop a

At the sweet spring-tide rejoice!

seller himself in the long run) are benefited. Cheap reshort distance astern. Perceiving our main-topsail to the

prints of “standard” English works, from French presses, mast, he once more ranged within hailing distance.

men.

1

1

Dwellers in more genial climes,

Not for you these passing rhynies;

abound ; and Galignani's establishment has been cut out · Ship, ahoy! Send a boat aboard of me, d'ye hear?"

Ye can never understand

in some directions, and forced in others to reduce its ex“ Brig, ahoy !" shouted Mac. "No boat of mine leaves

The contrasts of our northern land.

pensiveness, by which it rivalled even London humbug. this ship. If you have any thing to communicate, send

Yo are not so great and wise,

There is scarcely, in short, a book of acknowledged merit

Ye have lowlier destinies your own boat."

Than the children of a zone

in the circle of English literature that you cannot pur“ Send your boat this instant, sir, or I'll fire into you."

Where the wintry blasts are known.

chase, reprinted in Paris by Frenchmen, yet with great * Blaze away," sang out the imperturbable Scotsman.

But gaunt fumine doth not stride

accuracy, for 8d., 10d., or, at the very utmost, 15d. In “ Down on the deck, lads; you shall pepper him by and

By the proud and wealthy's side ;

this most astonishing activity of the publishing world, a There ye see not little feet

very marked preference is given to English literature, the A pause ensued; the vessels gradually separated; the

Press upon the frozen street,

German being little cultivated.— Times.
Vomito Pietro hove to some sixty yards forward of the

While the infant's tearful eye
Tells its tale of misery.

WHAT A MAN WILL DO FOR RELIGIOX.
Sally's lee beam, and, without further ceremony, ex-

When in curtain'd, lighted hall, changed the Spanish ensign for the skull and marrow

Men will wrangle for religion ; write for it; fight for

What to you that snow-flakes fall? bones. At this moment both vessels had nearly lost

When beside the blazing log,

it; die for it; any thing but---live for it.---Lacon. steerage way, the wind having fallen dead calm.

What to you is frost or fog ?

FORGIVENESS. * We must be guided by circumstances," said the cap

When on down your limbs ye stretch

The brave only know how to forgive; it is the most tain, addressing us ; " but in no case must we allow them

Think ye of the homeless wretch ?

refined and generous pitch of virtue human nature can to obtain a footing upon our decks. Better go to the

To the poor it is that spring bottom like men than be flung into it like dogs. He will

Doth her richest treasures bring;

arrive at. Cowards have done good and kind actionsno doubt seek to board under cover of his long guns. Let

And methinks that I do hear

cowards have even fought, nay, sometimes conquered ; Countless voices, far and near,

but a coward never forgave: it is not in his nature; the him try; but do not, I implore you, throw away a shot

Joining in a grateful strain,

power of doing it flows only from a strength and greatuntil each of you is sure of his man: every one they lose

“ Spring is come at last again !"

ness of soul conscious of its own force and security, and adds to our chance of escape."

March 4, 1842.

above all the little temptations of resenting every fruitThe captain was right in his conjecture, for scarcely

less attempt to interrupt its happiness.---Sterne. had he ceased speaking, ere the Vomito, apparently satisfied with reconnoitring, launched both her quarter-boats

LITERATURE IN FRANCE,

INDUSTRY. full of men. No sooner had they touched the water, than We are gradually becoming inoculated by the French

There is no art or science that is too difficult for inthey sent forth a wild yell, to which, as a fitting accom and German taste for cheap bibliopolism. Perhaps our

dustry to attain to; it is the gift of tongues, and makes paniment, the roar of their long eighteen opened its fresh issues of books of sterling and recognised merit, are

a man understood and valued in all countries and by all deadly throat, happily without any material injury re- almost as cheap as they could be made, consistently with nations; it is the philosopher's stone, that turns all sulting. Emboldened by the non-return of fire, the boats, careful production, with the supply of a serviceable paper, metals, and even stones, into gold, and suffers not want after a brief conference under the Vomito's stern, com and with the excessive duty to which that article (of to break into its dwelling; it is the north-west passage, menced pulling, making somewhat of a sweep, apparently ! downright necessity) is in this country ridiculously sub- that brings the merchant's ship as soon to him as he can with the design of assailing the Saucy Sally on either ject. But the prices of all new books amongst us are desire. In a word, it conquers all enemies, and makes quarter.

perfectly enormous compared with those which prevail fortune itself pay contribution.--- Clarendon. * Divide yourselves," continued the watchful and in on the Continent. Every one who has been to Germany defatigable Mac;" but, above all, be cool-be steady knows what the fair of Leipsic produces. In France, the

* We of course demur to this, limiting ourselves, however, to

the single remark, that the Panny Cyclopadia is a work which Ah!” he exclaimed, rubbing his hands with great de- business of publication is carried on with perhaps still

would do honour to any age or country.--Ed. C. E. J. light, “ it would be a noble chance. I'll try it, by George ! | less expense to the public; immense editions are sold, at the worst it can but fail. Look alive, a band or two; and author and bookseller are both of them well remuease off the weather and haul in the lee main braces ; nerated. Facts in these cases are the only arguments. LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by there's a cat's-paw aloft; the ship already feels it, and During the last eighteen months, a series of little works, W. S. Orr, Paternoster Row. there will be more ere long. Jump aft, O'Donoghue; entitled “ Plıysiologies," as “ Physiologie du Tailleur," Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars.

by.”

7

[graphic]

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF “ CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,”

“ CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,” &c.

NUMBER 533.

SATURDAY, APRIL 16, 1842.

PRICE 1}d.

EDUCABILITY OF ANIMALS.

tented with witnessing a vicarious execution by the lish pointers can be trained to the whole business of gun of his master,

the field, in one-tenth of the time which the most This is a subject on which, as far as we are aware, no It is a mistake to suppose that only the spaniel experienced breaker would require to effect any imattention has been bestowed in the way of scientific tribe is capable of serving sportsmen in the capacity provement upon the simple instinct of the pause in an investigation. Yet such illustrations of it have been of pointers and setters. There are other classes of original Spanish spaniel. On the subject of the heregiven, as would seem to point it out as a rich field dogs which perseverance would enable, to a certain ditary transmission of acquired qualities by animals, for the philosophical naturalist. Regarding the en extent, to act in the same way. Gervase Markham, we have some curious information from the venerable dowments of animals as we generally do, it would be who wrote on sports in the sixteenth century, speaks naturalist, Mr T. A. Knight. scarcely possible for us to believe some of the anec of having seen dogs of the bastard tumbler kind In a communication to the Royal Society, in 1807, dotes which have been related on this point, if they adapted to act as setters, though not so well as those Mr Knight remarked the disposition of bees to seek were not, in general, authenticated in such a way as of the spaniel kind. Mr Blaine is of opinion that this for cavities in trees, where such existed, as places to to preclude scepticism.

power can be cultivated in most dogs.* It has even swarm to, and surmised, that their taking up with the In the latter part of the last century, one Bisset, been elicited in another and very different class of hives offered them is a result of domestication, which a native of Perth, by trade a shoemaker, having ap- animals—the hog. Some years ago, Mr Toomer, game- becomes inherent in those which have for several plied himself with great perseverance to the teaching keeper to Sir Henry Mildmay, bethought him of generations been under the care of man. To support of animals, succeeded in making a set of cats play in teaching a pig to act as a pointer, having been struck this view, he cited several other instances of domesharmony on the dulcimer, uniting their voices to the by the scenting powers of the animal in its search for ticated animals inheriting the acquired habits of their tones of the instrument; and this singular orchestra palatable roots under ground. He began by allowing parents. “ In all animals,” he says, “ this is observwas exhibited, to the perfect satisfaction of the public, a young female pig to accompany his pointers in their able ; but in the dog it exists to a wonderful extent; for a succession of nights, in the Haymarket theatre. breaking lessons to the field. Within a fortnight, to and the offspring appears to inherit not only the He it was who trained that “ learned pig,” of which his own surprise, she was able to hunt and point par- passions and propensities, but even the resentments, our fathers used to speak so highly, the animal having tridges and rabbits. There being an abundance of of the family from which it springs. I ascertained been exhibited in every part of the empire. At a these creatures near the keeper's lodge, her education that a terrier, whose parents had been in the habit of somewhat earlier period, a Saxon peasant boy trained advanced rapidly by frequent exercise, and in a few fighting with polecats, will instantly show every mark a dog to the pronunciation of words. The boy had weeks she was able to retrieve game as well as the best of anger when he first perceives the scent of that observed in the dog's voice an indistinct resemblance pointer. Slut, as this extraordinary animal was called, animal, though the animal itself be wholly concealed to certain sounds of the human voice, and was thus was considered to have a more acute scent than any from his sight. A young spaniel brought up with prompted to endeavour to teach him to speak. The pointer in the charge of the keeper; and it was a the terriers showed no marks of emotion at the scent animal was three years old at the beginning of his in kennel of the highest character. They hunted her of the polecat, but it pursued a woodcock, the first structions, a circumstance which must have been un principally on moors and heaths ; and it often hap- time it saw one, with clamour and exultation : and a favourable to the object; yet, by dint of great labour pened, that when left behind, she would come of young pointer, which I am certain had never seen a and perseverance, in three years the boy had taught it her own accord and join the pointers. “She has partridge, stood trembling with anxiety, its eyes fixed, to articulate thirty words. It used to astonish its often stood a jack snipe when all the pointers had and its muscles rigid, when conducted into the midst visiters by calling for tea, coffee, chocolate, &c.; but passed it: she would back the dogs when they pointed, of a covey of those birds. Yet each of these dogs are it is proper to remark that it required the words to but the dogs refused to back her until spoke to

mere varieties of the same species, and to that species be pronounced by its master beforehand, and it never Toomer's dogs being all trained to make a general halt none of these habits are given by nature. The pecuappeared to become quite reconciled to the exhibitions when the word was given, whether any dog pointed or liarities of character can therefore be traced to no which it was forced to make. The learned Leibnitz not, so that she has been frequently standing in the other source than the acquired habits of the parents, reported on this wonderful animal to the French midst of a field of pointers. In consequence of the which are inherited by the offspring, and become what Academy, attesting that he had seen the dog and dogs being not much inclined to hunt when she was

I call instinctire hereditary propensities.” heard it speak; so that there does not appear the with them (for they dropped their sterns, and showed It appears from another communication made by slightest ground for doubting the fact, such as it was. symptoms of jealousy), she did not very often accom Mr Knight to the same society in 1837, that he had All doubt on the question of possibility may, indeed, pany them, except for the novelty. Her pace was then been pursuing investigations on this subject for be considered as set at rest by the recent exhibition mostly a trot; she was seldom known to gallop, except nearly sixty years. He proceeds in that communicaof the educated dogs in London—animals which could when called to go out shooting ; she would then come tion to give a general account of his investigations. play at dominoes and chess, and even indicate when home off the forest at full stretch, and be as much “ At the period,” he says, “at which my experiments their adversaries made false moves. These creatures elated as a dog at being shown the gun. She always commenced, well-bred and well-taught springing spawere visited and played with by thousands, and we expressed great pleasure when game, either dead or niels were abundant, and I readily obtained possession never have heard that a deception of any kind as to living, was placed before her. She has frequently of as many as I wanted. I had at first no other object the reality of their acquired powers was detected. stood a single partridge at forty yards' distance, her than that of obtaining dogs of great excellence; but

Laying aside such extraordinary examples as these, nose in a direct line to the bird; after standing some within a very short time, some facts came under my the ordinary training conferred on horses, dogs, and considerable time, she would drop like a setter, still observation which very strongly arrested my attenother domesticated animals, seems to be sufficient to keeping her nose in an exact line, and would continue tion. In several instances, young and wholly inexestablish the general fact of animal educability. We in that position until the game moved : if it took perienced dogs appeared very nearly as expert in have no more forcible illustrations of the principle wing, she would come up to the place, and draw slowly finding woodcocks as their experienced parents. The than in the uses which are now made of certain of the after it ; and when the bird dropped, she would stand woods in which I was accustomed to shoot did not canine tribe in rural sports. The pointer, setter, it as before.”+

contain pheasants, nor much game of any other kind, springing spaniel, and all that class of dogs, are under These facts, together with what common observa- and I therefore resolved never to shoot at any thing stood to be descended from one stock, the Spanish tion presents to us in domesticated parrots, blackbirds, except woodcocks, conceiving that by so doing the spaniel, with a slight crossing from the fox-hound, for ravens, magpies, monkeys, &c., place the educability of hereditary propensities above mentioned would be the sake of improving the speed. The original animal animals upon a basis, in our opinion, not to be shaken. come more obvious and decided in the young and unmay be considered as a record of the original powers, But the most wonderful thing, and the most convinc. taught animals ; and I bad the satisfaction, in more to which every thing else must be regarded as an ad- ing part of the proof, remains, in the fact of the trans than one instance, to see some of these find as many dition made by human training. Now, the original mission of acquired qualities by animals to progeny. woodcocks, and give tongue as correctly, as the best animal is only gifted by nature with a fine scent for The habit which education has conferred upon the of my older dogs. game, and a disposition to make a momentary pause pointer appears in his puppy, who may be seen ear Woodcocks are driven in frosty weather, as is well on seeing it, for the purpose of springing upon it.* nestly standing at swallows and pigeons in a farm- known, to seek their food in springs and rills of unMan has converted this inclination to a temporary yard, before he has ever once seen such a thing done frozen water, and I found that my old dogs knew pause into a habit of making a full stop, and the ani- by his seniors, or received the least instruction. Here about as well as I did the degree of frost which would mal, instead of gratifying his destructive tendency by only the object is amiss; the act itself is perfect. As drive the woodcocks to such places ; and this knowflying upon the game, has been trained to be con

may be readily supposed, the puppy of a race of Eng- ledge proved very troublesome to me, for I could not * Thoughts and Recollections, by one of the Last Century.

* Encyclopedia of Rural Sports, 792.

sufficiently restrain them. I therefore left the old London : Murray. 1825.

| Daniel's Rural Sports.

experienced dogs at home, and took only the wholly

inexperienced young dogs ; but, to my astonishment, with a degree of specialty as to external conditions, at “Good heavens !" exclaimed Geraldine, the falsesome of these, in several instances, confined themselves which, it seems to us, we cannot sufficiently wonder. hood she had framed as to her mother giving her as closely to the unfrozen grounds as their parents The principle of what may be called a transmis ten pounds towards the purchase of the chain, and would have done. When I first observed this, I sus- sion of domesticated habits, is to be observed in the effect it must have had upon her husband's mind, pected that woodcocks might have been upon the un- other animals. “English sheep, probably from the flashing upon her for the first time. “Oh! mamma, frozen ground during the preceding, pight; but I richness of the pastures of that country, feed very why did you not tell me this before! What must my could not discover (as I think I should have done had much together; while Scotch sheep are obliged to husband have thought of me?" this been the case) any traces of their having been extend and scatter themselves over their hills for the " Thought of you, my dear ?" replied her mother, there ; and as I could not do so, I was led to conclude better discovery of food. Yet the English sheep, on not understanding her

allusion. “Why, what had that the young dogs were guided by feelings and pro- being transferred to Scotland, keep their old habit of you to do with it? He knew, as I have told you, pensities similar to those of their parents.

feeding in a mass, though so little adapted to their perfectly well that you had nothing whatever to do The subjects of my observation in these cases were new country : so do their descendants ; and the Eng- with the matter; but I called it very handsome of all the offspring of well-instructed parents, of five or lish sheep is not thoroughly naturalised into the ne- him—very handsome indeed." And the lady resix years old or more ; and I thought it not impro- cessities of his place till the third generation. The sumed the perusal of her book, thinking it better to bable that instinctive hereditary propensities might same thing may be observed as to the nature of his let this anecdote of her son-in-law's generosity operate be stronger in these than in the offspring of very food that is observed in his mode of seeking it. When of itself upon her daughter. Geraldine felt the blood young and inexperienced parents. Experience proved turnips were first introduced from England into Scot- rush to her head, and in another moment she was this opinion to be well founded, and led me to believe land, it was only the third generation which heartily chill and trembling. She went to her own room, and that these propensities might be made to cease to adopted this diet, the first having been starved into traced back circumstance to circumstance. She saw exist, and others to be given ; and that the same breed an acquiescence in it.”* The Norwegian pony is ac- clearly that on that evening she must have appeared of dogs which displayed so strongly an hereditary customed in his own country to obey the voice of guilty of duplicity. She remembered her husband's disposition to hunt after woodcocks, might be made his master, rather than the bridle : accordingly, when deep-seated and constant love and affection previous ultimately to display a similar propensity to hunt English-born progeny of this animal is taken in hand to that event; how her every wish was anticipated after trufles; and it may, I think, be reasonably by a breaker, unusual difficulty is found in what is by him. She remembered how pleased, how happy doubted whether any dog having the habits and pro- called giving it a mouth, although it is singularly docile he looked, when she gave him the five pounds she pensities of the springing spaniel would ever have and obedient. In Norway, the pony is accustomed to had saved from her housekeeping; and she could been known, if the art of shooting birds on the wing traverse unenclosed and almost pathless wilds : accord- not but acknowledge that all the satisfaction she had had not been acquired.

ingly, the English-born progeny has no idea of such a received from her secret peculations had been gall I possessed one young spaniel, of which the male thing as enclosures, and will be seen brushing through and wormwood, in comparison to the approving smiles parent, apparently a well-bred springing spaniel, had a hedge with the greatest coolness, as if no such thing which she now knew how she had at first forfeited. been taught to do a great number of extraordinary were in its way. We have also been informed that the Truly, her tears were many and sincere. She would tricks, and of which the female parent was a well-bred progeny of an American horse, introduced into Eng- willingly have retraced her steps had she known how; springing spaniel ; the puppy had been taught, before land, ambles as American horses generally do, a kind but she felt she had not strength to do so. She fanit came into my possession, a part of the accomplish- of walk to which the English horse can only be trained cied confession more humiliating than deception ; and, ments of its male parent. In one instance I had with difficulty; and the same thing is observed as to moreover, Henry's late unkindnesses were se numewalked out with my gun and a servant, without any the habit which the Irish horses have of leaping with rous and so severe, that she forgot, when recalling dog ; and having seen a woodcock, I sent for the their whole four feet off the ground at once, a move them, how much was owing to the suspicions she herdog above mentioned, which the servant brought to ment occasioned by the numerous bogs which come in self had created. me. A month afterwards, I sent my servant for it the way of an Irish horseman. This is a mode of She resolved to confide in her mother the particuagain, under similar circumstances, when it acted as leaping to which it would be as difficult to train an lars regarding the chain, hoping she should be able to if it had inferred that the track by which the ser- English foal, as it would be to prevent an Irish one prevail on her to say, if she was questioned on the vant had come from me would lead it to me. It from adopting it.

subject, that she had borrowed the money to lend her; left my servant within twenty yards of my house, We thus see that not only does what metaphysicians for, as I have said before, lies yield ample fruitage. and was with me in a very few minutes, though the call the law of habit exercise a sway in the intellects of She had of late mentioned some of her perplexities to distance which it had to run exceeded & mile. animals, but that modification which takes place in her cousin ; and here I am forced to pause, to observe repeated this experiment at different times, and after human communities, and passes under the compre- that one of the most foolish acts of a young woman's considerable intervals, and uniformly with the same hensive name of civilisation, also affects the lower life is the confiding in any man, either what she fears results, the dog always coming to me without the tribes of creation. A race of animals, like a race of to intrust to her husband, or any complaint against servant. I could mention several other instances, men, is civilisable ; and we cannot doubt that the bim. It is almost always sure to betray itself; and if nearly as singular, of the sagacity of this animal, which samé softening influences which have produced the it does not, the step is so imprudent, so likely to lead I imagined to have derived its extraordinary powers advanced nations of Europe, havo operated upon the to results affecting her character, and certainly to in some degree from the highly-cultivated intellect of animals existing in the same countries, and made affect her conduct, that of all things it ought to be the its male parent."

them very different from what they were in early most dreaded, the most avoided. It is seldom that Mr Knight states, that in sixty years he had ob- times. It cannot escape remark, that the whole prin a woman, resolved to bear and forbear, cannot sucserved the woodcock tribe become much more shy and ciple of civilisation acquires strength from having its ceed in winning her husband's friendship in the end. wild than it formerly was, the result, he conceives, of basis thus widened. We become the more confident when this is really impossible—which I think can “increased hereditary fear of man.” This is certainly in the improvability of our own species, when we find only be the case when a man is thoroughly unprina resu

in conformity with the difference observed that even the lower animals are capable of being im-cipled-may God help her! It is wiser for her not to between birds in general in peopled and unpeopled proved, through a succession of generations, by the complain of him she has sworn to “ love, honour, and countries, the former being shy from the youngest constant presence of a meliorating agency.

obey.” Her own sex are, with a few most honourperiod of life, while the latter are tame and unsus

able exceptions, too feeble for friendship ; and where picious at all periods, until they become acquainted

there is youth and beauty, men are dangerous friends. with the destructive propensities of man.

THE PRIVATE PURSE.

It is wiser, then, I repeat, under such circumstances, Mr Knight adds a few more cases, which he de

for a woman to conceal her sorrows, and to alleviate scribes as but a sample of a vast number equally

them by active and duteous employment, rather than remarkable. We can only afford room for one, relating to a young dog of the variety called retrievers. Leeson — “ how is it that you and Henry are so “How is it, Geraldine,” said her mother to Mrs by idle and dangerous repinings. If scandal catches

her character, injury will be, at best, sustained in

setting it free ; and the wretchedness of having been from a distant county, and said to be descended changed in your manner to each other? Four years doubted, when forgotten by friends (if it ever be), is of a very well-bred family. “ I had walked,” he ago, I left you all affection ; now, I find you hardly

never unremembered by her upon whom suspicion has says, "up the side of the river which passes by my

civil-- this is very bad."

“ It is,” replied her daughter ; but it is not my is injurious to a young English wife. It is only a house in search of wild-ducks, when the dog above fault. Henry is perpetually insulting, by asking me

rested. The very reputation of having a male friend

vigorous mind that can bear being thus shut in with my wishes, for it was too young for service, not being the most frivolous questions, and then sneering at my itself. A firm and noble one will bear it, because it then quite ten months old. any other instruction than that of being taught yesterday he took our child on his knee, and read her is right;

and perhaps, after years of firm endurance, to bring any floating body off a pond, and

BY MRS S. C. HALL.

PART II.

а

feet of the gamekeeper, just as well as the best in- before we were six months married, he took me to preference evinced for him by his lovely relative. He it, it swam to it, brought it to me, laid it down at deplorably reduced. He questioned me upon them and boldly, as it becomes a man of high honour to do;

I do not such a homily on the beauty of truth that she looked be rewarded by the friendship it has so richly deserved think that it had ever done this more than three out understanding his meaning, and then he looked at at him, poor innocent, in fear and astonishment, with- 1 -—the friendship of him in whom a young heart

trusted. or four times. It walked very quietly behind my

Geraldine loved her cousin really as a sister loves a gamekeeper upon the opposite side of the river, and me. Oh! mother, I wish I had never married. It

; but no more. She had never bestowed upon it looked on with apparent indifference whilst I killed is very true what my aunt says—you never can know him an' atom of an affection that she need have

how a man will turn out." a couple of mallards and a widgeon ; but it leaped into the river on the gamekeeper pointing out the fear she has caused mischief between you.”.

" Your aunt, my dear, is a very bad counsellor. I blushed to own even to her husband ; and though her

cousin may be acquitted of all premeditated wrong birds to it, and brought them on shore, and to the

Oh,

no! but she told me how it would be. Why, towards her, he was not averse to being rallied on the structed old dog could have done. I subsequently task about a chain! But that is nothing ; I assure

assured every one “that it was a brother and sister shot a snipe, which fell into the middle of a large you he is niggardly in the extreme.",

affection”--that “it was impossible it could be any nearly stagnant pool of water, which was partially frozen over. I called the dog from the other side of

“ You must be wrong, Geraldine,” said her mother, thing else, as they had been children together"—that the water, and caused it to see the snipe, which could left you to go abroad—though I did not tell you so, But he did not say these things frankly, and seriously: earnestly; "indeed, you must be wrong. When I

“ Geraldine was too devoted to her husband to indulge

even a friendship for any one-except her cousin." not be done without difficulty ; but, as soon as it saw lest it would make you unhappy—my finances were my feet, and again swam through the river to my with the greatest delicacy; and when he found how I he said them with a smile or a shrug, der in dolcer escort

a its so well, yet it was most certainly wholly untaught.”

was circumstanced, as he was handing me into the of self-satisfied expression, which made the careless To conclude with dogs. A gentleman of our accarriage, he slipped a purse containing a hundred young men of his acquaintance declare him a " lucky

;" and married men say "that Leeson should

fellow," quaintance, and of scientific acquirements, obtained

guineas into my hand.” some years ago a pup which had been produced in

Geraldine felt her colour change. “But how did look after his wife ;" while matrons and old maids London by a female of the celebrated st Bernards he find that out, in the first instance ?" she inquired, began to throw something of significance into their after a pause

countenances when they observed that “they had met breed. The young animal was brought to Scotland, where it was nover observed to give any particular

“ I really do not know,” replied her mother ; “but Mrs Leeson and her handsome cousin in the square ;" tokens of a power of tracking footsteps until winter, you remember, dear, I was always a very bad dissem- and some were malicious enough to forget to add that when the ground became covered with snow. It then moment, which I dare say is the case, and I do not

she was accompanied also by her child or a female bler. Your aunt says I can be seen through in a

friend. showed the most active inclination to follow footsteps ; care about it. What does it matter when one has

Most unhappily, her husband had become so irritable and so great was its power of doing 50 under these nothing

to concea?? "I never led him to suppose that and suspicious, that she excused herself for her confield in the most curvilinear way, and caused other per- small annuity; so I confessed that when I came to pay, become unjust to her virtues ; for she was a most

you had a penny, or that I had sixpence beyond my distinguish between her truth and falsehood ; he had followed his course with the greatest precision. Here you the bridal visit, I had not five pounds in the world.” devoted parent, while he believed that she was indiffe

. was a perfect revival of the habit of its Alpine fathers,

* Thoughts and Recollections.

rent to her child. When she told the story of the

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