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of a former day. Thus, with whist in the evenings, The account given by Sir Richard of the fisheries mere batmen, and have some trifling remuneration pass the latter days of a golfer, until his old friends and oil-trade is at once interesting and instructive. in the way of a remission of the charge of berth money, have to break short their rounds some pleasant fore- | The extent of these branches of commerce is very which the scalers pay to the merchant who supplies noon, to attend him to some shady nook beneath the great. In 1841, upwards of 1000 sail of good-sized the vessel and stores, for permission to go the voyage, crumbling walls of the old cathedral, whence they vessels entered, and more than 950 left the ports of the outfitting being defrayed by the receipt of one-half retire, remarking, perhaps, that, though never very the island, leaving out of the reckoning the numerous of the cargo of seals, the other half going to the admuch of a swiper, there was not once a better putter schooners and small craft engaged in the actual fish- venturers, with these and other deductions for extra on the green.
eries, which amount, during cach season, to somewhera supplies.
about 4500. In the British fishery, each year, are on- Nothing can exceed the dangor and hardships of “ NEWFOUNDLAND IN 1842.” *
gaged never less than 30,000 sailors, with 10,030 bost- such a life, yeć nothing in tiro commercial marine pays
men and curers ; and 140,000 tons of produco arə 80 well as iho sealer whon successful. It would be The observant and industrious officer of the British annually exported, Britain and her colonies rocciving noodless to expatiate upon the horrors and constant army, who lately published the fruits of his inquiries the largest share, while continental Europe and two dangor of running to the northward in small brigs into the state of the Canadas during a residence there United States also take great quantitios. Col, mach and sohooners, of from 50 to 150 tons, and in large of some years, has just produced a sequel to that erel, herrings, capelin, cods’-tongues and sounds, sal. locker! boats of half tivat size, in the month of March, work, under the title of “ Newfoundland in 1842." with staves, constitute the chief items of export. Much loud and Labrador, with a constant set of ice from
mon, train-oil, soal-oil, seal-skins, some little poltry, in such seas and on such coasts as those of NewfoundIlis two volumes on Newfoundland contain a careful of the whole produce is fou id near the island, or on the frozen ocean, driven southward by a powerful curand well-written statement of facts respecting the its immediate coasts.
rent, and in a most variable temperature, with the island and its inhabitants.
The traders in this branch of commero8 are ar total uncertainty as to where to find the seals. Newfoundland is the largest of the islands lying in ranged as follows:—"First, the British merchant, or The seal casts its young, or whelp, as it is called, the mouth of the St Lawrence. It seems to have been owner, residing most commonly in Britain, but in about the middle of February ; and as the young aniformed, not as great rivers usually form deltoid tracts some cases remaining in the country till he has mal grows very rapidly, and contains a purer oil than of land at their outlets, but simply and directly by the amassed, a fortune, and more rarely remaining alto- the old ones, it is ehiefly sought after. "These whelps bursting of the St Lawrence stream from some pre- he is most abeurdly called, probably from all the considerablə time, and about three weeks after their
gether there. Next, the middle-man or plantor, as remain about the ice near which they were born for a existing inland lake, thus isolating the present isle for original English setilements in America laving re- birth are very fat and in perfect condition. ever from the continent. The island is situated in lati- ceived the official designation of plantations ; but the In a favourable field, hundreds of them are soon tude 50 degrees north, and between 50 and 60 degrees of Newfoundland planter has had, in reality, as little to deprived of life by the batmen, who merely strike west longitude. It is of a triangular shape, measures do with cultivating the soil as an Esquimaux. Thirdly, them on the nose. Five or six kinds frequent the about 1000 miles in circumference, and is nearly 300 the working-bee, or fisherman. The merchant finds shores of Labrador, and are found on the ice ; of miles broad at some points. The coasts, and many the ship or vessel, the nets, and the provisions, in fact, which the hooded seal, the great seal, the harp, and parts of the interior, are elevated and rugged, and deep plies to the planter. In some few cases the planter dog when swimming,
are the best known. the means of carrying on the fishery—which he sup- the rough seal, with the common kind so like a water. bays and creeks indent the shores. The present popu: owns the vessel. The planter agrees with his crews, The principal object is to secure the animals skin lation is estimated by Sir R. H. Bonnycastle to amount and superintends the toil of catching and curing;” with as little damage as possible, and therefore firing to 100,000 persons, of whom between 80,000 and 90,000
The actual catching of cod is thus described : " The at them is not resorted to, except in case of its being are of British descent, the remainder being composed fishery commences usually about the second week in otherwise impracticable to kill them, the large seals of French residents, and a hundred or two individuals June, and is carried on in boats manned with two, often being so pugnacious as to require the gun, and of Indian blood. The capital of Newfoundland is St four, or more hands, according to size and the dis- the hooded seal having, moreover, a membrane like a John's, a city placed on the east of the island, and tance required to go from shore ; most of these are hood, which he can draw over his nose, and inflate so surrounded by a district containing in all 18,000 inha- worked by girls or boys. Most of them have, how- blow, unless he is fast asleep. This seal is very fierce.
as not to be destroyed like the others with a mero bitants, the civic population included. There are
ever, four men, who have each two lines placed over The reason why it is requisite to skin them soon after several other towns of rising consequence on the each gunwale of the boat, and armed with double death is obvious, as they soon freeze ; and because the island.
hooks. The bait, according to the season, being cape- pelt, with the fat adhering, occupies very little room Newfoundland is chisfy famous for the rich codlin, entrails of fish, herring, mackerel, lance, and in comparison to the whole body.' Some of the flesh fisheries on its coasts, and for its dogs. Regarding the cuttle-fish, or squids.
of the cub seal—the heart and liver is also eaten by latter, Sir Richard Bonnycastle tells us enough to show When once favourable ground is reached, which is the men.” The blubber is cut from the skin, and that the practice of sending for Newfoundland pups very often near the mouth, or even in the mouths of melted for its valuable oil. Upwards of half á milto the native land of the race is now a very vain pro- and the lines thrown over so as to reach the bottom adventurous trade.
the bays, harbours, and coves, the boat is anchored, lion of seals are said to fall victims annually in this ceeding. In the time of the Indiana and early settlers, Then begins a most laborious operation if the fish are The fishermen of Newfoundland form a large part the island-dogs were noble and valued animals, being plentiful; for as fast as the man hauls up one line, he of the lower or third order of the population, a first the only beasts of burden in the region. The breed, disengages the fish, or gaff's him if heavy and not well class being composed of the judges, clergy, and
other however, has now degenerated ; and it is well for the hooked, throws him into the boat, and then hauls upon officials, while the resident merchants and small propoor spurious descendant of the famed Newfoundland the other, having first rebaited his hook, if necessary, prietors constitute the second class.. “ The fishermen, dog," says Sir Richard,“ that he is so rapidly yielding and let the first line down again, and so on for hours formerly, during seven months of winter weather, had in utility ; for of all the ill-used animals in creation, together. When the boat is full
, or there is no pro- no resources but idleness or drink. But a change is none are worse treated by capricious man than these spect of more fish, she proceeds to her stage, or curing coming over the nature of society here. Temperance patient and forbearing creatures, which, in winter, may station, and this admits of little delay, as in summer has made great progress where it is most requisite,
the fish soon require salt to make them fit to pack. and that is among the industrious poor. Agriculture be seen toiling harnessed in pairs, or with two and a
A chapter might be written upon the construction is patronised by the government, and no man presumes leader, to low sledges called catamarans, from before of stages, which I have already concisely mentioned- any longer to assert that the necessaries for a poor daybreak until the evening sets in, hauling firewood the modes of splitting, salting, and packing ; but it man's existence-potatoes, hay, and oats-cannot bo and fence pickets, at the mercy of boys, and the very would not prove very interesting, and the process has successfully raised, whilst, with common attention, lowest class of the population ; beaten, jaded, ill-fed, been often described.
every tilt,' as the wretched dwelling of the extremely and oecasionally wounded and killed when their over
The most serious drawback to the successful secom- poor is here called, might be supplied from a small exerted strength forbids their further progress, In which the fish must be often separately turned and and herbs.” Though a portion still remain in a miser:
plishment of this tedious and laborious process, during garden with cabbage and all other common vegetables summer, they swarm at every poor man's door, lying shifted by hand, arises from the fickleness of the able condition, the majority now reside in substantial idle, listless, and basking in the sun, feeding on the weather in the autumnal months, heavy fog and rain dwellings of native wood, and enjoy comparative comoffal of the fishery, hunting manure heaps for the gar- being very prejudicial, until the fish is finished and fort. Their disposition is hospitable. After mentioning bage of the seal, and becoming perfect adepts in the placed in heaps, which resemble in shape the two- that, in place of hams and bacon, the ceiling joists of art of breaking fences to get access at night to the penny sponge-cakes of the confectioners. These heaps the Newfoundland peasant's house sustain sealingyards of houses, in order to carry off bones.
are formed by placing a row of dried fish, with the guns, fishing-apparatus, and some kind of fish, Sir R. These dogs have also another propensity common to tails outwards, circularly, and so continuing to pile, H. Bonnycastle continues-“ But the good things of the whole race of Newfonndland dogs--that of worry- until a circular mound is raised, whose upper circum- this world are not wanting: . I never walked into one ing cattle and sheep; and have been known to make ference, from the varying sizes of the fish, is larger of these kind-hearted people's dwellings (and I very an entrance under an outhouse where sheep have been than the lower; after which a semi-conical top is often did so during my rambles last summer) without stalled, and to commit serious devastation. In short, raised, and the whole covered with bark, fastened immediate and silent preparations for the stranger; half the mischief said to be performed by wolves, which down, if intended to remain long, by stones or withes. for they do the same to all respectable persons; and are very rare near St John's, is done by their starved The fish is split, and the liver, tongue, and sounds in my instance, very frequently at first they did not congoners.” The Labrador dogs are still fine animals, collected into separate receptacles, and the entrails know me. The good wife puts some tea in the pot, however; and even of good Newfoundland dogs, com- and heads pitched through a hole on the stage, when spreads a clean cloth, if she has one at hand or time pared with these, our author says, “ I think, from they fall on the beach, or into another stage placed to admits, boils some eggs, produces a pat of fresh butter, having kept both kinds, and also the spotted, maho- receive them, as this offal is now universally sold or and a large jug of milk, with a loaf of homo-made gany-coloured, and short-haired Labrador dog, that used for manure. Thus constant and heavy labour is bread, or, if that is wanting, white biscuit, and withthe short-haired kind are the most faithful friends of required; and what with the seal-fishing, the collection out saying a word during the preparation, expocts her man, and the best guardians of a house ; and that the of bait, and the catching and curilig the cod, perhaps visiter, whether he is hungry or not, to fall to, being other variety, with inis bushy and curling tail, is the in no country are the labouring population more in- perfectly satisfied if you drink three or four cups of best water-dog, although both are able to endure the cessanuly and toilfully employed than in Newfound. tea (luckily the cups are usually small), and eat a good most severe cold in that element, and would, if left land ; whilst the migrations of the fish themselves in deal of bread and butter, and two or three eggs, which alone, sleep in the snow in preference to having a pursuit of food will sometimes render one station pro- she always takes good care shall not hurt your digosmore sheltered bed. ductive, and again in another season poor.”
tion by their hardness. They never ofter fish, of which I have known the mahogany-coloured Labrador The seal-Sishing, which begins about the lst of I daresay, from experience, they think you have daily dog, an animal of immense size and power, to follow Mareh, is a much more dangerous occupation, being enough ; and of course fresh meat is seldom seen, my sleigh during a long journey upon the crust of the followed on the ica. At the season mentioned, “ the but on rare festive occasions, when the fatted calf or snow, until his feet became so clared and sore that sealers are seen coming in from all parts of the coun- the household lamb graces the board. They have he was unable to proceed. His affection was un try to St John's, with their bundle of spare clothing usually, however, a store of four, and of salt beef or bounded, and the whole race appear to be particularly over their shoulders, supported by a stick six or eight pork, which, with their poultry, would afford at all fond of children ; but perhaps, from their originals feet long, which is to serve as a bat or club to strike times a good table, were it not that the latter are too having been of the woliisha nature, which manifests the seal on the nose, where he is very vulnerable ; and profitably employed in producing eggs for the market, itself in those of the colder regions of Labrador and also to answer as an ice-pole and gaff, or ice-hook, with and the former too dear to eat much of.” the Esquimaux country, they are all sheep-biters, and, which landing is effected, as well as for drawing the Sir Richard, it may be observed in conclusion, if not very well-fed, most dexterous thieves." spoil over the floes and fields. He has likewise his is of opinion that Newfoundland, being the key of
long scaling-gun, if he is intended as a bow or after the St Lawrence, and possessing many natural and * Newfoundland in 1842," being a sequel to “ The Canadas gunner, or, in other words, as an expert marksman, other advantages, must attain, ere long, to great im
By Sir Richard Llenry Bonnycastle, K.N.T. Henry to shoot the animals where they cannot be otherwise portance. " It is,” he says, “to British America Colbun, London 1812.
readily destroyed. These gunners rank before the what England is to Europe and to Asia, the sea-girt
fortress in which the destinies of those immense and to have eluded, and who, without farther ceremony, measures for bringing the guilty parties to punish. wonderful regions must hiereafter be regulated and conveyed him before the prefect of police. The un ment. The advocate soon obeyed the summons; and controlled." We give our hearty thanks to Sir fortunate Marquis de Marigni was here informed that in whispers it was arranged between them, that, at the Richard for this work, and can safely commend it he stood charged with the murder of M. Jules Hur- second examination which was to take place that day, to the public.
can, who had never been seen alive since the night a charge was to be preferred against Philip Hurcan on which he left the hotel of the marquis, who was and his wicked accomplice ; but, then, somo further
known to have accompanied him on his way home ; proof was necessary than the mere assertion of the A PARISIAN INCIDENT.
that subsequent discoveries had led to a still clearer marquis, founded, as bis testimony was, upon the In the year 1822, the Marquis de Marigni, an Italian degree of proof against him, as part of the body had vague murmurs of a dreaming man.
When the examination commenced, the marquis nobleman, inhabited one of the most splendid hotels been accidentally found in the garden attached to his
house; and that these suspicions had been confirmed told the events of the preceding night, which excited in the Champs Elysées. The marquis had in early by his sudden departure from Paris on the morning of no small astonishment'; and it was resolved to bring life bcen sent to Paris in order to complete his studies; the day on which liis unfortunate friend was missing. in the man and confront him with liis accuser. and while there, had imbibed the principles of the re The marquis confessed that appearances were very Utterly unconscious of the dangerous position in volutionary party, which at that period was silently much against him, but at the same tine brought for- which his troubled dream had placed him, he entered but surely at work to undermine the monarchical ward, in exculpation, the absence of all motive to the the bureau of the prefect in high spirits, no doubt government, whose power was then vested in the per- gentleman was his most intimate friend; he had in the condemnation of the marquis ; but who shall
committal of so heinous a crime; the unfortunate thinking that everything was in proper train for son of the unfortunate Louis XVI.
formed him of his intention to leave Paris for a time, attempt to pourtray his horror and dismay when The education of the young marquis being com- and on his return it was his first object to find him accused of being himself the murderer! The effect pleted, he returned to his own country, where his re out. But these palliations had little weight with the was so startling that he lost all presence of mind, and, publican spirit was not allowed to remain long inac- stern functionaries before whom he was now ar. in an agony of passionate apprehension, threw himself tive; the French army entered Italy, and its numbers raigned; he was ordered to produce some stronger upon his knees, crying for mercy, offering to confess were soon augmented by the followers of the Marigni evidence of his innocence, and in the meantime he all if he were only insured pardon. Of course no pro
must submit to be sent to the prison of La Force, mise of this kind could be made ; but on being told family, headed by the youthful marquis, who soon at
there to await a farther investigation of the affair. that it would be better for him to state at once all ho tained great distinction in his military capacity, and,
Hlere, then, in a gloomy chamber of La Force knew of the murder, he confessed that he had been in the subsequent campaigns of Napoleon, became one (whose name carried along with it terror and dismay hired by Philip Hurcan to assassinate his brother ; of the most successful of his officers.
to the hearts of thousands of poor wretches, who, if that the act had been perpetrated while the unfortuWhen the discord which had spread throughout once lodged within its walls, had little hope of escape), nato youth was returning to his lodgings, immethe whole of civilised Europe subsided, and when the sat, in no rery enviable mood of mind, the Marquis diately after he had parted from the Marquis de excitement of war was over, the marquis found him- de Marigni. "Ile was so deeply engrossed by his own Marigni. The murder was committed in a retired self again in Paris, an exile from his country, pro- thoughts, that it was some time before he discovered part of the Champs Elysées ; and Philip assisted in scribed, banished from kindred and friends, shattered that he was not alone ; and on glancing at his com- concealing the body until the following night, when, in body, and wearied and exhausted in mind. Never- panions, he was not long in coming to the conviction having gained an entrance over a low part of the wall theless,' he had, by dexterous management, contrived that they were spies, who were placed beside liim in adjoining the Hotel de Marigni, they severed the head to save some portion of his wealth, which, although the hope of finding out, either by accident or strata- and arms from the body, and concealed them in the in trifling in comparison with his original fortune, was gem, whether or not he were really guilty. This was terior of the court-yard of the marquis's hotel, by yet sufficient to enable him to keep a good establish à conmon practice in France; but we will not stop which they hoped that, in case of any discovery taking ment in Paris, where, in 1822, our story introduces to inquire how far it was in accordance with the prin- place, the owner of the mansion would at once be him to the reader.
ciples of honour, as in this instance it will be found suspected, having been last seen alive in his company At this period the marquis enjoyed the acquaint- to have defeated the object it had in view.
The rest of the body was buried in the garden, to anceship of two young Parisians, named Hurcan, who, The marquis had been too long accustomed to dan- which they had ready access, the hotel having been although brothers, were as distinctly different in cha- ger to dread its approach in the present instance; his shut up on the day following the murder. Philip he racter as if they each had belonged to a different race. grief arose, not from personal alarm, but from the supposed to have been actuated by jealousy of his Jules, the eldest, was exceedingly frank and amiable loss of his friend ; and as he sat absorbed by his own brother, who was about to be married to a young and in disposition, possessing all the gaiety of heart and bitter reflections, it was in vain his fellow-prisoners beautiful girl, to whom Philip had previously paid his liveliness of manner peculiar to his countrymen. lIe endeavoured to draw him into conversation. In the addresses. The unhappy man, having finished his was also accomplished and well-informed, and had apparent consciousness that in a prison vicc or mis- tragic story, pled in the most piteous manner for both intelligence and observation, which elevated fortune levels all distinction both in classes and fcel mercy, and his senses seemed almost deserting him him above those whose fortunes enabled them to aim ings, they from time to time presumed to address him, when ordered back to prison as a culprit. The courtat gaining a more distinguished place in society. The sometimes expressing sympathy with his misfortunes, yard was examined, and the remains of the head and younger brother, Philip, was, on the contrary, gloomy and at other times giving way to invectives against arms of the hapless young Frenclıman were found in and distrustful, and the dark shades of his character the authorities by whose orders they were confined; the precise place mentioned. served only to bring out the bright joyousness of but their unfortunate companion was proof against When the officers of justice entered the dwelling of Jules's nature, whose only source of unhappiness seemed their arts, and he maintained, evidently to their Philip Hurcan at Versailles, where he had been living to be in his brother. Philip, morose and jealous, chagrin, a most imperturbable silence. At length the for some months, lie, having obtained previous notice looked with feelings of envy and dissatisfaction on the night closed in, and the voluntary captives in the of their arrival, shot himself through the heart. Need pening friendship of the marquis for Jules. dungeon dropt, one after the other, asleep; but the it be added, that having lived unloved he died unla
One evening the Marquis de Marigni communicated excitement in the mind of the principal inmate was mented; in fact, such was the horror excited in the to his friend Jules llurcan, that he was obliged, on such as prevented him from enjoying repose, however public mind by the knowledge of his crime, that it account of some matters connected with his family, much he stood in need of it, after a day of unmiti- was found difficult to restrain the populace from to leave Paris for a time, during which his house gated distress.
taking vengeance upon his body. would be shut up, but that, on his return, he hoped to In the middle of the night, the stillness of the IIis villanous accomplice made a more public exbe ablo to resunto his friendly intercourse with him. gloomy dungeon was interrupted in an unexpected piation of his crime, while the Marquis de Marigni M. Ilurcan, in return, confided to the marquis the manner by the murmurs of one of the supposed spies. came out in triumph ; but his feelings had received a change which he expected would soon take place in His words were at first unintelligible ; but the mar- shock which rendered him almost insensible. To the his condition, and he expressed a wish that liis absence quis, whose curiosity was excited by hearing some congratulations which were offered to him on every would not be prolonged beyond a certain time, as he thing, as he imagined, relative to his unfortunate side, the loss of his estimable young friend, at a period was desirous that he should be present at his marriage, friend M. Hurcan, listened attentively for some fur of life when the most agreeable prospects of liappiness which was shortly to take place ; but this the mar ther elucidation of the mysterious hints involuntarily were opening up to him, caused the warm-hearted quis could not promise to do, as he did not then know offered by his sleeping companion, and was thus in Italian a desolation of heart which no personal or where his wandering fancies might lead him in the his turn forced to become the spy. The name of external circumstances could altogether alleviate. interval. The last evening on which the friends were Jules Hurcan was distinctly mentioned in a tone of A few months after these events took place, the together was spent by them in the most agreeable regret, accompanied by a half-suppressed groan and a beautiful Mademoiselle D- the betrothed mistress manner, and it was late before M. Hurcan rose to take convulsive movement of the body. A few moments' of Jules Hurcan, entered upon her noviciate in the leave of his host, who begged permission to accompany quiet slumber followed, and then the soliloquy was convent of L-, and endeavoured by her zeal in him on his way home. They sauntered out together; resumed. “Ah!” he ejaculated, “ 'tis lucky that the holy things to induce forgetfulness of the hapless fate and after an hour's absence, the marquis returned | prefect does not know that I had any concern in this of her earthly lover. home, apparently very much depressed. The neces- affair ; tlie Italian may take his chance; Philip knows sary orders having been given to his servants, he re- better than to say anything of it; so I am pretty safe. tired to rest, and at an early hour next morning ho The head! ah! it will not be covered enough under A WORD TO RAILWAY DIRECTORS. quitted Paris. the wall! The eyes ! how they stare! Ah! Monsieur
Much as we admire the great and excellently conducted Twelve months elapsed before the return of the Philip, he was your brother !” Here the sleeper made system of railways in this country, we feel bound to say Marquis de Marigni, for, having no home ties, he a sudden pause, and he moaned, as if in agony of that the directors generally have proceeded on a too nar. had extended his travels much beyond his original spirit; but notwitlistanding the vigilance of the per row principle as to charges of conveyance and accommointention; and no sooner did he arrive than he made son most interested in this confession, nothing further dation. We might pass over the charges as being perhis way to the lodging formerly occupied by M. llur was heard.
haps what prudence dictates, but there is something can, in hopes of there obtaining some clue by which The broken sentences, however, which had escaped, indescribably mean in the accommodation of third-class to find out the new residence of his accomplished were sufficient to rouse the dormant energies of the passengers, who are turned into a waggon without seats, friend. The first answer made to his inquiries was an Marquis de Marigni, and he felt as if inspired with new
and are there hurled along like so many cattle in a pen. exclamation of surprise that he should not have heard life. Here, in a most singular manner, he had been
The class of persons whose means limit them to the choice that M. Hurcan was dead ; then followed the dreadful put in possession of facts which, if true, were conclu
of this degrading method of locomotion, jocularly call the intelligence, that he had been assassinated twelve sive as to the assassin of Jules Murean; and he had the following passages in a late English newspaper. The
waggon the Tub; and as such we see it referred to in months before; that part of his body had been found little doubt that the deed had been sanctioned, if not concealed in the garden behind the hotel of the Mar- participated in, by Philip, who had always appeared ways:-" There are four classes abroad : La Berline, La
writer first adverts to the practices on the German railquis de Marigni in the Champs Elysées ; and that the as the evil genius of his light-liearted brother. The Diligence, Les Chars-a-banc, and Le Wagon. The Berline marquis was supposed to have been the murderer, as only difficulty now lay in bringing his evidence for corresponds to our first-class in all respects, and is the be had quitted Paris on the very day on which M. Hur- ward so as to be credited ; and turning his gaze, which, most expensive: the Diligence has stuffed seats (without can was missing. Fortunately, the person of the sup even in darkness, he felt to be riveted upon the place the division into chairs), windows on the sides, and is posed murderer was unknown to his informant, so where the dreamer lay, he directed his thoughts to the open from end to end like our second-class: the Charsthat the agitation he manifested was attributed to use he might be able to make of his acquired infor-a-banc, or third-class, differs from the last-mentioned in horror at the recital to which he had just listened; mation, so that it might be the means of accomplish- not having windows, and being less convenient, but there and having questioned and cross-questioned the loqua- ing his own liberation.
are blinds at the side, and you sit upon stuffed benches; cious keeper of the Conciergerie, he, in a state of the As soon as it was day, he, by bribing his jailor, got class, and is equal to it in every respect. The first-class
and the Wagon, or fourth-class, resembles our secondutmost perplexity, prepared to retrace his way to his him to send a noto which he prepared to his friend is used by the directors of the company, the aristocracy, lodging.
M. de P4, one of the most celebrated advocates in and funilies on travel; the second by the gentry and the le had not proceeded far on his return, when he Paris, stating the circumstances which had come to middle classes ; the third by a somewhat similar descrip was arrested by two of the emissaries of Vidocq, whose his knowledge, and begging him to hasten to him, in tion of persons, though it is more common' (to use at vigilance it would have required superhuman efforts order that they might consult upon the adoption of | Anglicism); and the fourth by operatives, peasants, mar
SIR FRANCIS CHANTREY.
ket people, and others. There is no invidious or con- exertions. Year after year passed away ere he even vividly in marble the calm, thoughtful, and discrimitemptuous epithet applied to the Wagon-no calling it obtained the chance of arriving at success. Yet he native expression of that judge's features. Another the Tub, and making people stand up to deter them from
never drooped, nor was his time thrown away. Con- figure, executed by the sculptor for Scotland, was that resorting to it--there is no contrivance to render certain tinuing to study nature with ardent diligence, he of Lord Melville. A bust of Professor Playfair was carriages inconvenient in order that you should be forced made rapid progress towards perfection both in con- also modelled by Chantrey, and a beautiful work was to select a more expensive seat elsewhere--plans which, ceiving and executing. lle was yet unknown, how- the result, as might have been expected where a com spirit, reflect upon the impolicy and short-sightedness of ever, after a cheerless period of seven or eight years, petent artist had so intellectual a head to work upon. those who devise them, and prove that they have formed when, almost by chance, he was employed to executé In 1814, Chantrey produced for St Paul's two listoan erroneous estimate of the proper mode of acting upon
a bust of Horne Tooke, then the Nestor, as it were, rical monuments for Colonel Cadogan and General the taste and feeling of the public. The class-arrange- of liberalism in Great Britain, from whose lips thé Bowes. Before and after the Ilundred Days, the ments of the foreign railroads (I speak of the German and younger adherents to the same principles were con- artist visited Paris, and saw the great collection of Belgian lines) are such as show that the directors know tent to draw inspiration. The execution of this work ancient works of art in the Louvre, ere the fall of how to meet the wants and appreciate the tastes of the formed an era in Chantrey's career. The mere Napoleon scattered them anew over Europe. Though people better than we do at present. People fall into that features of the ancient adversary of Junius were he felt and acknowledged the beauty of these works, class which suits them, and where they meet with per- not only given to the marble, but the sculptor suc- they did not change his style, as the Lichfield monusons of that station of life with whom they are accustomed ceeded also in conveying with them that expression ment immediately afterwards proved. A similar to associate ordinarily. These and other considerations of keen penetration and
sagacity which characterised proof was given by another of his most celebrated and cause travellers to select their seats with reference to
the living individual. Horno Tooke was widely truly classical works, the statue of Lady Louisa Ruscomfort, and not to do as many do, choose the Tub, or known, and numbered among his friends Sir Francis sel, a child of the Bedford house, who is represented an inferior class, because the second-class is so uncomfortable that there is no alternative between the first and influential
. Their attention was called to Chantrey; breast. So exquisite is the simplicity and fidelity to
Burdett, and many other persons both wealthy and as standing on tiptoe and fondling a dove on her third, or no intermediate carriage to tempt them.”
and in the course of one month, as he himself tells us, nature of this figure, that children of three years old,
orders poured upon him to the pecuniary amount of or so, have been observed to address it, in the perfect BIOGRAPHIC SKETCIIES.
five or six thousand pounds. The opportunity had assurance of receiving an answer from their playmate. alone been wanted; and when it did come, he stepped, Advancing every day in public favour, Mr. Chan
by one effort of genius, from obscurity to eminence, trey successively executed, among a multitude of priFRANCIS CHANTREY was born at Norton, a village from poverty to wealth.
vate busts and statues, those of Rennie the engineer, on the borders of Derbyshire, on the 7th of April, Chantrey immediately (in 1810) fixed his residence James Watt, Sir Joseph Banks, Sir Walter Scott, 1782. His family was respectable, some branches in Pimlico, and erected there a studio for his labours and many others. Equestrian statues of George IV. of it being yet possessed of considerable heritable pro- His earliest works, after this period, were chiefly and the Duke of Wellington (the latter for the city perty. Agriculture was the occupation of his imme- busts ; and it is universally admitted that he never of London) were also executed by Chantrey, who was diate progenitors ; and, though not wealthy, his mo- excelled, at any future period, the productions of this knighted by William IV. in 1835. He was offered a ther, who was prematurely left a widow, was able to order then executed by him. His first prominent baronetey shortly afterwards, but declined it on aceducate her only child respectably. Francis was sent public work was the statue of George III., for the count of his want of personal heirs. to the school at Norton; and up to his sixteenth or city of London. Ilis design for this monument, In the latter years of Chantrey he was an honoured seventeenth year, passed his time betwixt that place though the one approved of, was almost rendered un- and admired man, as bis works had deserved that he and the paternal farm. It is said, that in very early successful by a curious cause. Mr Chantrey handled should be. His statuary establishment became an boyhood he amused the leisure hours of his agricul- the pencil as well as the chisel ; and such was the extensive and splendid one, being intrusted to liis tural terms by making clay men, as well as other beauty of his design, that one of the Common Coun- valued friend Allan Cunningham, the distinguished figures with the same material. Nevertheless, though cilmen observed"This artist is a painter, and must poet, as secretary and manager of the works. Sir the promptings of natural genius were thus far indi- therefore be incapable of executing a work of sculp- Francis for some time had been, not in ill health, but cated, he never entertained a thought of turning his ture.” The remark called the attention of others to in such a condition of body that his friends had exattention permanently to such pursuits, most probably the subject, and they summoned Chantrey. “What pected to find him fall a victim to apoplexy ; and, on from his having no opportunity of witnessing any say you, sir,” said Sir W. Curtis ; "are you a painter the 25th of November 1841, he was seized with that workings in statuary that could stimulate his latent or a sculptor ?" "I live by sculpture," simply an- disease, and expired at his house in Pimlico. powers. Accordingly, not being an enthusiast in swered Chantrey. The task was confided to him Sir Francis Chantrey was about five feet seven agriculture, he resolved, or was advised to study the without more words, and he produced a statue, the inches in height, with a fine face, and an address at law under a solicitor at Sheffield. All was arranged case, dignity, and versimilitude of which render it once pleasing and courteous. At his death he left, for this purpose, and the day was fixed when Chan- one of the chief public monuments of the British from the ample fortune accumulated by him, provitrey should go to Sheffield and meet some friends capital.
sion at once for the maintenance of the arts which he who were to witness his entrance on his apprentice- While engaged on this statue, another commission loved, and for the support of the poor, with whom his ship. A full hour before the time, the young man was given to him, the result of which was the pro- kind heart deeply sympathised, reached the town; and in order to while away the induction of a work held to this hour one of the most terval, he walked up and down the streets, little finished specimens of English sculpture, and known deeming, when he commenced his stroll, that those by engravings over the whole civilised world. This PEDESTRIAN TOUR IN SWITZERLAND. few minutes were to form the crisis of his life. So was a monument to the memory of the daughter of the case turned out. The window of one Ramsay, a Mr Johnes of Hafod, translator of Froissart. In this carver and gilder, attracted the eye of Chantrey. Ile work, Chantrey's peculiarities of style were first fully AUGUST 27.–We intended, if the weather favoured stopped to gaze on various figures there ; and as he developed. Blindly following the customs of their us, to spend the day on the Mer de Glace, and some gazed, emotions novel and unexpected were awakened predecessors, sculptors continued, in the beginning of of the other glaciers of Mont Blanc; and, if we could within him. The strongest and finest chord in his the nineteenth century, to expend all their power accomplish it, to penetrate as far as the Jardin, in the nature was struck forcibly and at once, and the tones upon emblematic figures, allegorical groups, and ima- glacier of Taléfre. The sky, so far as visible from the elicited were so powerful as to drown all the deterring ginary mythological models. The powerful examples depths of the valley of Chamouni, was of stainless whispers of youthful timidity or shame. Chantrey of Canova and Thorwaldsen have, indeed, done much blue, and promised a day exactly adapted to our purturned from the window with his resolve firmly taken to sustain the system to this hour. Chantrey adopted pose. When we had taken a very early breakfast, a _“I will be an artist."
and acted on very different principles. With a mind guide was sent for, and we held a consultation under The counsels of friends made no change in his de- unbiassed by the regulations of the schools, he followed his auspices. He seemed a shrewd, sensible fellow, termination. In place of articling himself to the nature alone as his guide. The perpetual repetitions whose words were few, simple, and explanatory, for he Sheffield solicitor, young Chantrey went and bound of Britannia, Victory, Peace, Justice, and the like, probably saw, from our travel-stained aspect, and, inhimself to the carver and gilder Ramsay. The work upon our public monuments, and of Piety, Hope, Re- deed, we very distinctly explained to him, that the to which he was here set by no means suited his ligion, Virtue, &c., on private ones, were things too usual operations for impressing the visiters of the expectations; but he found a compensation in the forced and strained to accord with his simple taste. glacier with an awful consciousness of its perils and voluntary tasks of his leisure hours. Drawing and The object of monumental sculpture is to perpetuate horrors would be very much thrown away upon us. modelling were his amusements, and for these he for the remembrance of the great or the good, and to call He had the discretion not to propose cramps for the sook all the pleasures natural to his age. The people up in the minds of the spectators appropriate emo- feet, or ropes about the waist : and here let me remark, of Sheffield yet speak of the gleaming of the lamp, tions of sympathy and regret for their loss. Who that the guide who subjects his protegées to these porthrough the long hours of night, from the window of ever shed tears with Britannia, or participated in the tentous preparations, indicates thereby a palpable the young lover of art, when, in his enthusiasm, he feelings of any others of these frigid generalities ? design to lead them through a series of dangers corforgot day and night, and all around him, save the The sculpture may be admired as a work of art ; but responding to the extent of the precautions. The duty ripening conceptions of his creative fancy. Ile had it is then a monument, at best, only to the artist, not of a guide on the glacier is indeed precisely that of a no teacher to aid him in his progress. He drew and to the occupant of the tomb. Chantrey threw off all pilot, who is expected rather to avoid dangerous places modelled after nature, and his rules of art were the conventional trammels, and sought to make his monu- than to rescue those who have encountered them. rules of nature. His master repressed rather than ments what common sense dictated that they should | There is an analogy between the perilous inequalities encouraged his attempts; yet, ere the three years of be. The monument at Ilafod, for example, intro of the glacier and breakers at sea, for both are caused his engagement with Ramsay had closed, the casual duces the real party concerned, and presents an ex- by the same circumstance, namely, by rocky projecproductions of Chantrey had begun to attract some quisite scene of domestic sorrow, exalted by the medi- tions on the terrestrial surface, covered by water in notice; so much so, that various friends, some of them tative beauty thrown over the main figure. Another the one case, and by ice in the other. When the gentlemen of taste and respectability, strongly ad- splendid example of Chantrey's art is to be seen in the glacier moves over a smooth unbroken level, its own vised the young artist to go to London, and apply monument in Lichfield Cathedral, where two lamented surface is equally plain, and though intercepted by himself directly to the pursuit of the art of statuary. , sisters are figured asleep in each other's arms. The numerous cracks or fissures, these have a certain uniAs his kind mother was one of those who had penetra- grace and beauty of the forms cannot be depicted in formity in their arrangement, running parallel to each tion enough to perceive the high promise of her son's words ; nor can the pen express the skill with which other, and appearing at tolerably regular intervals. modellings—a promise which she lived to see amply the state of calm and profound repose is imaged forth. But when the ice, in its descent, encounters rocks, fulfilled-Chantrey found no difficulty in purchasing Suffice it to say, that the spectator views this group or is pressed through narrow openings between prea release from the latter term of his engagement with with breathless awe, and that the marble portraiture cipices, it is tossed into a chaos of spikey and precipiRamsay.
of “death's counterfeit, balmy sleep,” causes the tear tous icebergs, beetling over yawning caverns, for the The future sculptor was in his twentieth year when to start at thought of the fair innocents, prematurely bottom of which the eye searches in vain. The prohe settled in London, the date being May 1802. His plunged into the deeper slumbers of the grave itself. fessional skill of the guide is exemplified in a knowentrance upon that great field of success and failure Suchi
, surely, is the effect that a monument to the ledge of the parts of the glacier where these formidable was as unpromising as might well be. No proofs of dead' should produce ; and if the beholders should inequalities occur, and it is his duty to conduct his study nor Hattering, testimonials from teachers had turn away, in such a case, without even asking the employers by the least dangerous route. There is one he, for he was entirely self-instructed ; and at the artist's name, a higher compliment would then be instrument, however, without which no one should very close of his life the case was the same, as we find paid to him than if his skill had been the sole object venture on the glacier—the alpen-stock, or spiked him then saying, that "he never had received a lesson of their admiration.
pole, so serviceable in leaping the chasms, and giving in art in his life." No handsome studio, rich with the The Lichfield monument was modelled by Chan- support on narrow ledges or abrupt slopes of ice. Not evidences of talent, had he to attract employers ; he trey in 1816. Before that time, however, he had being prepared for the extent of service we required was poor, and his works were to execute. He had been called to execute several public works, and in all of these instruments, we thoughtlessly accepted the almost no acquaintances, to leave friends and patrons of them the same principles were displayed. He loan from the guide of some which had previously out of the question. In short, he had to climb the executed, for the Scottish Court of Session, a statue been used. I would recommend to any one who steep path to eminence solely by his own unaided l of Lord President Blair-a noble work, embodying intends to penetrate to the Jardin, to buy a new pole
for the purpose, as this one expedition will fully | the ice, is perpetually losing bulk, which is supplied, | valuable as an instrument for balancing the person in exhaust its capabilities for use.
by some action or other (as to which naturalists are narrow ledges, and without it, the passage of the Our path lay tirst through gentle meadows, reposing not agreed), from the higher layers. It is believed glacier would be certainly very formidable. It often in the shadow of the hills, and then we crossed the that the lower portion of every glacier is triturated happens that the surface of the wall of ice between fierce Arve, and began the ascent of the forest girdle into a succession of caverns, so that the superincum- two chasms is not above an inch or two wide. For of Mont Blanc, or, as this particular spur of the moun- bent mass, like the strata over an exhausted coal field, zome feet, however, it slopos down gradually on either tain is called, of the Montanvert. Mile after mile we is supported on a multitude of pillars ; but the visiters side, as the roof of a house does from the apex to the kept ascending the steep bank by a rutty pathway, who return after a descent into these regions of ice edge of the wall; on this slope, when the cavern is ribbed here and there by the mossy roots of a dense and torrent, where death meets them in so many not wide, it is easy to walk with the body, slanting forest, and, in other places, overwhelmed by the forms, have been too scanty to provide much informa- over the abyss, and balanced by sticking the alpenchaotic debris of the spring avalanches. There is no tion about its mysterious terrors. There are two stock in the corresponding slope on the other side. A feature in the scenery of Switzerland from which I principles of motion alınost perpetually at work in the little practice makes one quite familiar with such have had more enjoyment than in the long walks glacier ; the one, the simply mechanical operation of a operations. A false step, to be sure, is destruction ; under the shade of great pine forests. There is some descent from the higher to the lower regions-a mo but in how many of the operations of every-day city thing so solemn and majestic, and so suited to the tion so slow, that it will take centuries to convey a life would a false step place one in imminent hazard'! scenery it is cast among in the pine, whether we en stone for a few miles in this slothful but irresistible A slip on a slight of steps will be likely to cause the counter it among the dark heather hills of Scotland, vehicle. The other principle of motion is in the fracture of a limb; and a stumble in a crossing of the or on the turved and wavy mounds of the Black Forest, chemical influence of the alternate freezing and Strand would be almost certain to finish our earthly or clustering round the base of the snowy Alps, that solution of portions of the mass according to the pilgrimage. one feels his heart less worldly, and his thoughts more change in temperature, and the subsidiary agents set We crossed the glacier nearly in a direction from solemn, in those deep solitudes,
at work by the same phenomena, namely, the escape south to north, and then left it, to scramble round Where, o'er the rock, the scarcely waving pino
of compressed air through the cracks in the ice, and the rocks at the base of the Aiguille de Talefre, which Pills the brown shade with a religious awe.
the torrents set in motion by its conversion into water, runs its sharp peak several thousand feet up. The line In our ascent, we had an opportunity of observing &c. Those who have witnessed the effect of the crys- of glacier is continuous; but it here materially changes how a French family could turn their means to the tallisation of water into ice in bursting vessels for its level through a portion which is called the glacier best account. There were two ladies among the party, ordinary domestic use, will readily imagine the terrific of Lechaud ; and for the reason already stated, instead and while one rode on the back of a mule, another phenomena which must accompany the same agency of a tolerably flat surface intercepted by clefts, this kept hold of the tail, and was in that manner assisted in a mass of ice varying from 160 to 300 feet in thick- portion of the waste of ice is a chaos of stormy-looking up the acclivity. So dense was the canopy of pines ness. In spring, when large portions of the ice are icebergs, rising horn-shaped and spikey, and affording overhead, that only at a few points could we obtain thawed during the day and refrozen in the night, the no chance of a passage. While clambering among any view of the surrounding scenery. At these we glacier startles the echoes of the quiet valleys
around the rocks of the Taléfre, we met the only human being could see the village of Chamouni apparently under our by the continued roar of its artillery, At all times, we saw within the region of ice-chamois hunter folfeet, with the Arve looking like a tiny brook, the broad there is more or less of cracking and crashing going lowing his trade. This man was a pure child of the meadows like paddocks, and the inhabitants like Lilli- on, and more than once were our steps arrested by a wilderness, with all the “savage wildness" of "a dwelputians. At some other points we saw, glimmering loud report, as if a cannon had boomed forth from be- ler out of doors.” One could imagine him indigenous through the dark foliage, the broad white masses of neath our feet.
to the snows and rocks he was surrounded by. His the glacier, and the dark rocks rising here and there Independently of the moraines at its edge, great costume had not the fastidiousness of being even in from its surface. At length we reached the edge of rocks, and masses of triturated rubbish, are borne along any way national ; it was a simple putting together the forest, and looked down from a range of rocks on on the surface of the glacier. The methods by which of all convenient and accessible pieces of manufactured the mighty ocean of ice to which we were about to it gets possession of these relics of the mountain top texture, on two simple principles the preservation of commit ourselves. Here there is a house of refresh- are two. By one process, it insidiously removes masses warınth, and the freedom of motion. He had a heavy ment, called the Pavilion. After we had passed it a of rock by the expansive power of frost acting on the business-looking rifle, which must at one time baro mile or two, and while we were seated contemplating interstices; by the other process, it boldly knocks them been a costly article. There was neither obsequiousness the view, there came to us two beautiful kids—the down with an avalanche, and carries them off in nor rudences in the man's manner; he was a gentleman most gracefully-formed creatures of the kind I had triumph. The larger rocks, when they reach the lower after his own fashion-for who could catch vulgarity ever seen-clamorously domanding marks of attention part of the glacier, protect the ice immediately under by converse with the avalanches and the cataracts ? from us. One of them was fawn-coloured, and the them from the heat of the sun; and so, while the and we exchanged some compliments in reference to other pure white. The latter had taken a peculiar general surface of the glacier is becoming melted to a tobacco and the lighting of pipes, with a hearty good fancy to me-it scraped me with its sharp little hoofs lower level, they become raised on the top of a pedestal, fellowship. Having circumnavigated, as it were, the till I was fain to cry mercy; and varying the method where they remain till it is too long and slender to sup- dangerous glacier of Lechaud, we descended again of its kindness, leapt on my shoulder, and rubbed its port them, and then they fall with a crash. We saw upon the ice, on the glacier of Talefre. Here, being head on my cheek, to the imminent risk of poking out many of these raised high in air, looking like gigantic on a higher level, from 9000 to 10,000 feet above the my eyes with its little horns. Truly, these children mushrooms, or, if a more domestic simile be wanted, sea, we were within the line where the snow falls at of the desert bad found nothing but kindness and good like stone music-stools, on which the spirit of the all seasons, and, covering the openings of the rents faith among the few members of the human family it storm might be supposed to perform his wild sympho. with a thin treacherous coating, renders the services had been their fate to encounter. The milk-white kid nies. Far different is the fate of the smaller frag- of a guide doubly necessary. At one place we passed followed us for some distance, and when it saw at læst ments. Becoming heated with the effect of the sun, along a steep bank where the new snow had been that part we must, it looked after us most wistfully they melt their way into the ice, where they make melted by the sun, and converted into a deep slush, and affectionately from the top of a small rock as long cavities, filled with translucent water. It will happen which afforded a most unpleasant footing. as we were in sight. When we reached the point sometimes that the wator collected on the surface of At length we reached the Jardin, or Garden, so where we were to descend upon the ice, we were told the ice by the operation of the mid-day sun, going called from its being the highest spot where there that we had then walked three leagues or nine miles about hither and thither in search of an outlet, comes is a space free from snow, on which bright-coloured from Chamouni, and were half way to the Jardin. We to this hollow, which it immediately onlarges, and lichens and the smaller Alpine plants produce the were upwards of 7000 feet above the sea level, and the either by finding a passage through it into one of the effect of a garden smiling amidat everlasting winter. place of our destination was nearly 3990 farther up. cracks of the ice, or by working its way steadily down- Here we rested and refreshed ourselves, and took The descent was a tedious and laborious business. We wards, reaches the cavernous bottom of the cake of ice, a leisurely survey of the wondrous scenery by which had to work our way down the sides of rocks, wita and joins the great river issuing from it. Other rills we were surrounded. It was literally like a boundoccasional notches cut in them to facilitate the pro- join and enlarge the torrent, and thus it happens, that less sea of ice, from which there shot up multitudes gress, and then we had to cross the moraine of the what was in the morning a round hole the size of a of the spikey narrow
rocks, so descriptively called glacier. The moraine is a heap of rubbish—if stones punch-bowl, with sides of the most exquisite cerulian aiguilles or needles. Grand, however, as were these or rooks sometimes eighty or a hundred feet high can blue, and fillod with water pellucid as crystal, becomes, towering rocks, we were bound to admit that they admit of so depreciatory an appellative-ranged, to a ore evening, a yawning rent, hundreds of feet deep, were inforior in their proportions to the giant masses greater or less extent, along the side of each glacier. into whose black jaws descends a fierce and roaring of the Jungfrau, the Eigher, and the other memIt is, in fact, the hard stream of ice depositing upon cataract.* As the day advanced, and the sun acted bers of the Oberland range. Mont Blanc is a higher its border its still harder scum of rock.' In the case strongly on the surface, we beheld many of these wild mountain than any one of them, but it does not preof the Mer de Glace, the moraine is on a prodigicus torrents, and a fearful and exciting thing it was to sent anywhere at one viow so large an amount of perscale-it is a little mountain range of itself, with its look down through the pits into which they fall, and pendicular precipice, and is much broken into details. valleys and precipices.
sce their blue sides deepening into blackness, till the But there was a feature of solemn grandeur here, And now, letting it be understood that we have our eye loses all trace of the cataract, and sees its white which compensated for the difference in the size of the feet on the ice, instead of detailing individually, as it foam disappear in the darkness.' The rents in the masses. In the Oberland, if we had snow and rocks on occurred, every object and incident that might seem glacier are seldom quite perpendicular; and as a bulge one side, the other might exhibit pastures, or chalets, worthy of notice, I propose to give, in a few words, on one side is met by a corresponding recess on the or forests ; but here, all around us was a wide ocean of a collective and general view of the objects most likely other, we could seldom see far into them. Even where ico. The guide almost startled us by remarking, how to attract the attention of the traveller on the glacier. they seemed to run straight down, however, we could impossible it would be for us to retrace the path by There are few readers of this narrative who will not never see the bottom; and it was only by toppling in which we had reached that spot. When I looked have had an opportunity, in the columns of the publi- the huge stones, lying in multitudes on the edges, and around, indeed, 1 felt how entirely our fate depended cation in which it appears, of making themselves ac-hearing their descent from bank to bank, that we on the skill of our hired attendant, and that the mariquainted with the natural history of glaciers. They could form an estimate of the great depth of the fis ner deposited on a solitary rock in the far ocean could lie in those deep valleys which form grooves between sures.
not feel more desolate and helpless than we would the snowy summits of the higher alps, and the plains Crossing a glacier with an experienced guide, we have been on such a spot without a pilot. But it was or wide valleys at their bases. The masses of con- found to be by no means so difficult or dangerous getting cold, and the sun was beginning to cast his rays gealed matter
formed in the upper regions by the fall an operation as we anticipated. The ice is not so slantingly across the snows, so we started to our feet, of snow and hail, and by the refrigeration of those compact and brittle as that formed by the congealing and said we must return home. Yes, it was literally portions of the snowy matter which may have been of pure water, but spongy and porous. The quan- returning home, for now our leisure for wandering melted by the heat of the sun, gradually find their way tities of gravel and rubbish on the surface honeycomb was at an end, and, some twelve hundred miles or so into these grooves, and thus descend the mountain side, it, each particle melting the ice it lies on by the heat from our own doors, we turned our steps for the first conveying an icy stream into the temperate regions acquired from the sun, and thus there is a level but time towards them, with the intention of returning below. A great proportion of the glacier is in a tem- rough surface, pleasant to the foot, which reminded with the utmost rapidity. It was not without some reperature far warmer than that of perpetual congela- us of an asphaltum pavement. With such a footing, gret that we bade adiou to the wandering life we had tion, but it carries its own frost along with it. As it if a man be strong-headed and tolerably circumspect, been leading for some time past-for vagabondism has melts away into a river, its bulk is supplied from and if he knows how far he can leap, be need have no many charms. above ; and from its great thickness, being generally dread of crossing a glacier. The alpen-stock is in Returning along the bank, where we had sunk from 150 to 300 feet, its own inherent coldness pro
nearly knee-deep in melted snow, we found the effect vides it with a local freezing temperature in all its parts, with the exception of a stratum on its upper themselves at the bottom of the cake of ice, where they aro
* Meanwhile, by such and other means, the small stones find of the rapid operation of the frosts which, since the
sun had hid his head, had made the surface slippery and another at its lower surface. The former is only carried about in accordance with its motions. A stone thue stuck and brittle. As we went along, the line of the occasionally warmed and melted by the heat of the in the lower part of a moving glacier will score the rock it moves sun's rays, leaving entirely the surface of ice, climbed summer sun ; the latter is kept in a perpetual state of over, just as a grain of sand stuck to the bottom of a decanter win higher and higher up the needle-like rocks, and fusion by the internal warmth or caloric of the earth. cumstance that the renowned theory of glacial scratches has had bathed them in a reddish-purple light, which grew It thus happens that the lower stratum, as it were, of l its origin,
warmer and warmer as the rim of shadow rose higher
up towards their summits. The sky at the same time sufficient time has elapsed for the proximate comple- costing the same as the one; and when killed, the two astonished us by the wondrous depth and beanty of its tion of these important operations, or some of them, weighed 1.40 stone, while the short-horned beast only blue. It was such a blue as I cannot describe other the first body of colonists, consisting of a due propor- weighed 110 stone, and it had eaten more food than the wise than by saying, that any colour of sky or water tion of capitalists and labourers, should be dispatched two Devons. Mr Coke considers the North Devons as I had ever seen before was muddy and opaque in com- from this country.
by far the best for ploughing. As we passed slowly along parison with its heavenly brightness. The hill side Under these arrangements, the new settlement will through the park, Mr Coke gave us a very interesting was in deep shadow when we clomb the rocky barrier present a field for the immediate commencement of account of the way in which his attention was first of the Mer de Glace, and so varied and full of interest productive industry. The impediments to early pro- came to the Holkham estate, in 1776, the land had been had been our excursion, that it was difficult to believe gross which occurred in the first experimental colonies let for two leases of twenty-one years each, at 3s. per we had walked eighteen miles on the ice. The shade will be romovod ; tho labour and cost of landing and acre ; the leases came out in 1778, and I then offered the of the trees gave addition to the gloom, and we passed conveying the goods of the settlers will be abridged ; | tenants new leases at 5s. per acre, tithe-free, but my offer down the forest girdle in deep darkness. It was ten the settlers, on their arrival, will not be exposed to was refused, and I was compelled to turn farmer, or take o'clock when we reached the brilliant and thronging hardship and privation ; they will be placed at onee 3s. per acre. I chose the former; and having been inn at Chamouni, and we had occupied between fifteen upon their locations, and will be enabled to purchase favoured
with a long life, have certainly seen the estato and sixteen hours in the excursion.
at moderate prices the seed and stock previously pro- greatly improved. When I came to it, the rental was only Of our journey homewards throngł regions already vided by the company. The capital which ought to L.1400 2-year, but now I make L.2500 a-year of the thindescribed, nothing, it is presumed, need be said ; and be devoted to immediate cultivation will not be ex- nings of my plantations ; at that time upwards of 10,000 so here finishes these rough notes of our pedestrian ported for the purchase of provisions. The settlement quarters of wheat were imported annually at the port of excursion in Switzerland and Savoy.
will be made from the first an appropriate residence Wells, now there is full that quantity exported from the for a civilised community.”
same place; at that time the population of Holkham was The mode of proceeding is thus explained :-It is at that period (1776), on 4500 acres of land, which now
under 200, now it exceeds 1100, and all fully employed ; PROPOSED FOURTH COLONY IN NEW
proposed that the company shall select 100,600 acres form Holkham Park,'there were only 800 slieep kept ; ! ZEALAND
of land for the settlement. The 600 acres are to form have since planted 2500 acres, and now keep 2500 sheep." Tae New Zealand Company has now established three a town, 200 being reserved for roads, streets, public we were also highly amused by an account from Mr Coko distinct settlements in that region, all of which may be works, &c., and 400 disposed in 1600 lots of a quarter of his first visit to his majesty William ! V., whose hand presumed to be prospering, since nothing to the con- of an acre each. To 1000 of these lots will be attached he shook, instead of kissing it
. The king gave him a trary purport ever obtrudes itself upon public notice. a suburban section of 20 acres, and a rural section of hearty welcome, and then said, “Now, Coke, go home
The and take care of your freeholders.” It is worth a journey We have not for some time been attending to the 600 town lots ať L.25 each, and the 1000 lots of all of a hundred miles to see the village of Holklam: what proceedings connected with this great effort in coloni- three kinds of land at L.125 each, will bring L.140,000, a contrast does it present to that of Houghton, which we sation, but we believe these have been characterised which it is proposed to employ in this manner, namely visited the day before! In Holkham every cottage is neat
, by extraordinary activity, and that the original plans 4.40,000 for defraying expenses not otherwise charged and for this neat house and garden he is charged two of the company have been in all respects honourably / able, for guarding against unforeseen difficulties, and guineas a-year rent; it was not needful for me to ask if
for the company's commission upon the transacadhered to. Our attention has now been drawn by tion; and L.100,000 for the expenses of surveys and the neat clipped hedges which surrounded them, and the
the poor men valued their gardens; the absence of weeds, the proposal of a fourth settlement, in which, it ap management, the formation of roads, wharfs, bridges, excellent crops which they exhibited, told me, in lanpears to us, a remarkable advance is made towards and buildings for the reception of the first emigrants, guage I could not misunderstand, that they were highly that perfect facilitation to the efflux of our population and for emigration. Mr Hennie adds—“ By this ar- prized by their possessors. I wish that all those gentleinto the waste territories of the British crown, which rangement, after setting aside an adequate sum for men who suffer their cottages to be without the comfort seems to be generally held as desirable in the present fund of 1.100,000 will be employed in defraying the Holkham, and to follow the excellent example which is posture of our affairs.
expense of the surveys and management, in sending there set them. In the centre of the village is a school, A great evil, or at least a monstrous inconvenience, ont labour to the colony, and in effecting those in which is under the peculiar care of Lady Anne. Such,
indeed, is the attention bestowed upon this village, such has been experienced in every one of the recent Aus- provements by which labour is abridged. This ar
inhabitants should eat the bread of industry and peace, tralian settlements, and all those of the New Zealand rangement will be found more beneficial to the capi- the anxiety on the part of its owner and his lady that its talist who employs labour, than that of devoting a
that, were I to judge only from outward circuinstances, archipelago, in the arrival of great numbers of settlers larger portion of the proceeds of the land-sales to I should at once say the inhabitants of this village must upon the ground before the lands had been surveyed, emigration, as was done in the former settlements be happy. While looking at the crops of potatoes in the or any other preparation made for them. One or two founded by the company. The quantity of work per gardens, we had from Mr Coke some interesting hints and years were in general lost before the survey alone was
formed by two labourers, in a settlement provided observations on the culture of that useful root. Jle in
with wharfs, roads, and bridges, will be greater than troduced it himself on the Holkham estate, but five years completed ; during which time, the settlers could that which could be performed by those labourers on elapsed before he could prevail upon the poor people to exercise scarcely any productive industry, and were a settlement not provided with these important faci
eat or cultivate it, such were their strong prejudices obliged to spend their capital upon high-priced articles lities for rendering industry effective. Immediate la- against the stranger he introduced amongst them: ho of necessity imported from the home country. In one bour, when not aided by the results of previous labour, offered them land upon which to plant it without rent, instance, at least, this delay gave occasion to a land
can accomplish little : when the means of communi- but in vain, until at last he introduced the ox noble, a jobbing and speculative system, which has cast a shade cation are imperfect, a great portion of the available very large species, when they consented to raise a few, over the first years of the colony, and laid the founda- labour of the community must be devoted not to im- saying they might do for the pigs. Time, however, lias tion perhaps of habits which it may require much time of transport. Estimated not by the number of hands,
mediate production, but to overcoming the difficulty wrought a miglity change.-Stamford Mercury. to get quit of. We have always felt the force of this but by the quantity of work, the
actual supply of la
TRUE HISTORY OF MACBETII. obstruction to colonisation, but supposed that it was just one of those difficulties which could not be over: proceeds of the land-sales from emigration to the exe- Lear, upon which Shakspeare founded his magnificent
bour will be increased by diverting a portion of the Some weeks since, the original story of King Llyr, or come, and which it was therefore necessary to submit cution of works by which labour is abridged." to. We find, however, that this view has not been every
tragedy of that name, was transferred to our columns where adopted. A plan for extinguishing it has been body of persons who contemplate the formation
of a Believing that every person of literary tastes will feel Mr Rennie makes his proposition " on behalf of a
from an English version of an old Welsh chronicle. suggested by Mr George Ronnie, late 1.P. for Ips- settlement” on the plan which he describes ; and the it interesting thus to trace out the materials upon author of the proposal for a fourth colony in New company, in its answer; expresses its readiness to enter which the fancy of our great poet based suela superb Zealand, since he takes the lead in proposing it to the upon the scheme, provided that the government will superstructures, we subjoin what appears to be the New Zealand Company. “Mr Rennie is of a family sonable remuneration for the responsibilities and risk by Mr Collet, in his “ Relics of Literature.” The direct
real story of Macbeth, printed from an old chronicle famous in the annals of Scottish agriculture—a family of the undertaking.” This
reservation is understood who have also earned a high name in science and art; to be designed for the purpose of securing that the have been Holinshed, though Buchanan's history of
source to which Shakspeare was indebted seems to he is himself a practical agriculturist, a sculptor, versed project shall
be independent of the governor, Captain Scotland may also have been in his hands, being pubin the useful sister art of architecture, with a capacity | Hobson, of whose proceedings, it would appear, the lished just when he was rising into manhood. Both for business, and willing to employ his capital as well company have hitherto found cause to complain. Holinshed and Buchanan, however, simply retailed as énergies in a career that promises to blend public Whatever may be the arrangements made, or the the narrative of Hector Boece. The names of all the usefulness with profitable investment."* His scheme is proposed in a letter to the company, of date the think there can be little doubt that the scheme itself Duncan, Malcolm, Donaldbain, Bancho, Fleance, Mac
success of the scheme in this particular instance, we leading persons in the play are given by Buchanan, 28th of July 1842.
Mr Rennie proposes that this fourth settlement bespeaks an immense step forward in the policy of an
Stirred by ambition, as well as by a dream in which ing been already examined, and found to comprise an
“ three women of more than human stature appeared ample extent of fertile land, and to contain several
RECOLLECTIONS OF HOLKHAM, 1830.
to him," and hailed him suecessively " thane of Ansafe and commodious harbours.” He continues—“An
," "thane of Moray,” and “king of Scotland," advantageous site for the new settlement being in the tember at Holkham,
we arrived there at nine o'clock, and,
Having accepted an invitation to spend the 1st of Sep- Macbeth, according to the historian, murdered Dunfirst instance secured, we propose that the company after being greeted with a hearty welcome by Mr Coke, his victim taking to flight. As the witches had prog
can at Inverness, and seized the sceptre, the sons of commence their operations by sending out a prelimi. nary expedition, consisting of surveyors, civil engi- with whom, and a party of nine gentlemen, who had been Macbeth assassinated him, but Fleance escaped. The
were introduced to Lady Anne and her sister Lady Mary, nosticated that the posterity of Bancho should reign, neers, mechanics, and a few agricultural labourers. invited to meet us, we sat down to breakfast ; and the murder of Macduff's children, the flight of that thane On the arrival of the preliminary expedition at its kind attentions of our host and hostess soon made us feel destination, the surveyors should proceed to lay out ourselves " at home.” Breakfast being finished, Mr Coke
to Malcolm in England, the return of the two with the town, and the engineers to construct a landing ordered his coach and four, with a barouche and a pair auxiliaries under Siward, the besieging of Macbeth in place, a wharf, and a road from the wharf to the centre of horses, to convey himself
and visiters on a farming Dunsinane castle, and the death of the tyrant by the of the town. At the same time, a portion of the me- tour ; and as our particular object was to examine the hands of Macduff, are all given by Buchanan as in chanics should be engaged in erecting, in the imme- crop of barley, every facility was afforded us by our kind the play. Minor incidents, such as that of the green diate vicinity of the wharf, an extensive range of shed conductor, whose constant endeavour appeared to be to boughs taken by the soldiers of Malcolm, so finely for the reception of goods, and a spacious building, mingle the useful with the agreeable. The postilions woven into the plot by Shakspeare, are also noticed by comprising a large dormitory, for the immediate ac- Devon breed, which were grazing in the park. Mr Coke
were first desired to stop Dear sone beasts of the North the historian, and he concludes with a hint to which commodation of the first body of colonists on their mentioned several facts illustrative of the superiority of here,” says Buchanan,“ a number of fables more ad
we may possibly owe this noble tragedy. “I omit landing. These objects being effected, a portion of the North Devons : amongst others, that he called on Mr apted for theatrical representation than history.” The the mechanics might perhaps be employed in erecting Handcock, a butcher in London, who supplies, some of direct idea of the weird sisters, we see, was derived a church and a school house. And while these several the first families, and asked him if he had killed any operations are in progress, the agricultural labourers Devon beasts ; he replied, no; they were not good enough monton, Shakspeare may lare been indebted for some
from history. To the old play of the Witch of Edshould be employed in clearing and cropping an ex- for his trade ; he could only use the best Scots
. Mr Coke hints in composing his incantation scenes.
But what is probably the true story of Macbeth difcattle and sheep from the Australian colonies. After ket for a considerable time--more than one hundred fers considerably from the preceding, which various
beasts. He also mention a trial between the fattening annalists have repeated almost literally from Boece. * Colonial Gazette, Aug. 17, 1842.
of two Devons against one short-horned beast, the two 6. The more veracious Wyntown,” says Mr Collet,