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day, were thought good awkward girls, and thien
Of use, no doubt, when high in air,
and, in spite of weather or dirt, say, “ How do you laid out of our thoughts for ever. The lions dined
A wandering bird they'll rest,
do ?" and then invite his friend to accept a seat in the
Or with a Brahmin's holy care, with us on Sunday, and were so extremely diverting
Make lodgments for its nest.
carriage. Of course the pedestrian must reply to this that we spent all yesterday morning, and are engaged
Ye jackdaws, that are used to talk
civility, and beg his acquaintance to proceed on his to spend all this, in entertaining them, and going to a
Like us of human race,
way. The owner of the carriage will not, however, comedy-that, I think, has no ill nature in it ; for the
When nigh you see Browne Willis walk,
re-enter it until his friend on foot shall proceed; he in simplicity of these girls has nothing blameable in it;
Loud chatter forth his praise.
his turn will wait till the other resume his seat. The and the contemplation of such unassisted nature has
Whene'er the fatal day shall come,
ceremony will often occupy half an hour; and during something infinitely amusing in it. They follow Miss
When this good squire must stay at home,
the whole time the carriages which follow must wait, Jenny's rule of never being strange in a strange place ;
And turn to antique dust;
there being no possibility of passing the one stopping yet in them this is not boldness.” Miss Talbot goes on
The solemn dirge, ye owls, prepare,
up the way. “ Their remarks on every thing are admirable.
Ye bats more hoarsely screek ;
The main streets are of a good width, but the side As they sat in the drawing-room before dinner, one of
Croak, all ye ravens, round the bier,
ones are so very narrow that two carriages meeting them called to Mr Secker,' I wish you would give me
And all ye church-mice squcak!"
could not possibly pass, so that the coachman must a glass of sack!! The Bishop of Oxford came in, and
always call out on entering one to ascertain whether one of them broke out very abruptly— But we heard
A SKETCH OF PEKIN.
any other vehicle is coming in the opposite direction. every word of the sermon where we sat; and a very
Every side-street had formerly a gate wherever it good sermon it was,' added she, with a decisive nod. Of Pekin, the capital of the Chinese empire, and crossed either another cross or a main street, and many The Bishop of Gloucester gave them tickets to go to a which, from the progress of events, will at no distant of them still remain. These gates were formerly closed play; and one of them took great pains to repeat to him, day be an object of considerable attention, the follow at night by warders, who lived in the vicinity, and the till be heard it, I would not rob you ; but I know you ing sketch, handed to us by a friend, has been written passenger required a particular permission in order to are very rich, and can afford it; for I ben't covetous; by a late Russian traveller. It is necessary to pre- pass it by night; now, however, this extreme strictindeed I ain't covetous.' Poor girls; their father will mise, that the situation of Pekin is near 40 degrees ness has ceased; the warder merely questions the make them go out of town to-morrow, and they begged north, and therefore somewhat cold in winter. nightly passenger, and even this occurs rarely. Owing very hard that we would all join in intreating him to “During the first few days of our residence in the to the custom of the Chinese of surrounding themlet them stay a fortnight, as their younger sisters have cold dwelling-houses of Pekin, we felt the discomforts selves with high walls, the streets of Pekin are most done ; but all our intreaties were in vain ; and to-mor- of our European dresses very severely, and made, remarkably uniform. On every side rise high enclosrow the poor lions return to their den in the stage- therefore, all haste to exchange them for Chinese | ing walls, built of half-burnt grey bricks; everywhere coach. I have picked out some of the dullest of their habiliments. The divisions and subdivisions which peep up from behind these walls pointed sloping roofs, traits to tell you. They pressed us extremely to come exist in a Chinese wardrobe are innumerable. Each which in form and colour are again monotonous. The and breakfast with them at their lodgings, four inches change of season brings necessarily along with it a imperial palace alone is covered with glazed green square, in Chapel Street, at eight o'clock in the morn-change of costume ; and these variations, fixed by tiles, all the other dwelling-houses with the half-burnt ing, and to bring a staymaker and the Bishop of Glou- custom, are as sacredly observed by correct Chinese grey-coloured ones. Besides the emperor's, there are cester with us. We put off the engagement till eleven, as the laws of fashion by European ladies and leaders not more than seven or eight princely palaces. All sent the staymaker to measure them at nine, and Mrs of ton; with only this difference, that here the mode the rest weary the gaze by their dust colour; and the Secker and I went and found the ladies quite un- has no influence, and the cut of the father's and eye can rest on nothing which does not display the dressed ; so that, instead of taking them to Kensing. grandfather's clothes is quite visible in those of the most tedious uniformity, unless it be the shops, which ton Gardens, as we promised, we were forced, for want son and grandson-nay, it may pass even to the great- generally project into the streets. Before the enof time, to content ourselves with carrying them round great-grandson. In the shape of caps and shoes alone, trance of all these booths bang black polished boards, Grosvenor Square into the ring, where, for want of an almost yearly change takes place. Do not, how- inscribed with thick golden letters, there is not, better amusement, they were fain to fall upon the ever, suppose that it is any exercise of choice whether however, any difference betwixt them, and only those basket of dirty sweetmeats and cakes that an old wo with the alteration of the season you may change
your where confections are sold are distinguished by their man is always teazing you with there, which they had dress or not—by no means ; the appointed time arrives, splendour. The whole of the front wall of these is nearly dispatched in a couple of rounds. It were end and an imperial edict announces that, on such a day, gilt, even to the roof, and adorned with dragons and less to tell you all that has diverted me in their con spring-caps must be exchanged for summer ones, or other figures. The magnificence of these shops is versation and behaviour.” One other story of these summer caps for autumn ones. I therefore arrayed the more striking, as close beside them one may often girls. The father once paid a visit to a gentleman at myself like a genuine Chinaman.
find a half-destroyed wall or a little tottering dwellinghis chambers in one of the colleges in Oxford, in order The first part of my stay was very tedious ; picture house. There are no open places or gardens in Pekin; to look into some old papers. After he had sat a to yourself a man plunged at once into so populous a and the only remarkable buildings are the temples, while, a bed-maker opened the door, and enabled the city, into the midst of a swarm of people, whose man which are profusely painted with vermilion colour. gentleman to hear something like a rustling of silk in ners, customs, and mode of life, were quite strange, It is a great mistake to accuse the Chinese of bigotry. the stair outside. “What noise is that?” he inquired. and whose language was utterly incomprehensible to Their temples are generally quite empty : here and "Oh,” said Dr Willis, “it is only one of my daughters him, and you will be able to understand my position. there only, an official who has received a new, and, be that I left on the staircase." We may presume it was Was I thus alone, in the midst of this multitude of it understood, a profitable, appointment, considers it one of the lambs; but it has been already remarked, people, to pass ten of the best years of my life? Our his duty to visit all the temples in the city. On such with justice, that a lion would have been more suitable chief drawback lay in the excessively difficult Chinese an occasion he conducts himself as follows :-On enterfor so exposed a situation.
pronunciation, where one and the same sound, how. ing, he takes with him a bundle of candles, made from The great ecclesiastical antiquary of England died ever simple, has its own peculiar meaning, according the bark of a tree, and of perfumed wood; these he in 1760 ; and we conclude all this gossip about him as it is pronounced in a high or low, in an abrupt or lights before the images of the gods, prostrating bimwith a set of verses written upon him by Dr Darrell prolonged, tone of voice. For the first half year we self several times to the ground, during which time of Lellington Darrell, to the tune of Chery Chase : scarcely made any progress whatever ; at the end of the priest strikes a metal saucer with a wooden mallet. " Whilom there dwelt near Buckingham,
two years only did we begin to find our way into the Such a pilgrim having concluded his prayer, throws
secrets of that labyrinth called the Chinese tongue, down some money, and proceeds into the second At a known place, hight Whaddon Chace,
and fully four had elapsed before we were able to con- temple, thence into the third, and so on. Even the A 'squire of odd renown. verse freely with the natives.
common people go only on particular occasions to the A Druid's sacred form he bore,
As soon as we were clothed in complete Chinese temple; when, for instance, a time of great drought His robes a girdle bound;
costume, being very desirous to see Pekin, we hired arrives, troops of peasants assemble in the temple, in Deep versed he was in ancient lore, In customs old, profound.
cabriolets and drove through the streets of the capital. order to pray to their god for rain ; and not only light
First we drove to the imperial palace, where the em- candles and make prostrations, but bring also offerA stick, torn from that hallow'd tree
peror passes the winter months ; during the whole of ings with them, consisting of different sorts of bread, · And tell his tales with leering glee,
the rest of the year he resides in a palace about nine &c. Of a sincere disinterested prayer, offered from Supports his tottering feet.
miles distant from the city. The palace occupies an the heart of the suppliant, the Chinese worshipper has High on a hill his mansion stood,
immense space, consisting of a multitude of one no conception. There are, to be sure, certain days But gloomy dark within ;
storey houses built of bricks, each of which has its every month when the temple is visited by the people, Here mangled books, as bones and blood
appointed use. The emperor resides in one of them, but then it is not with the intention of prayer but of Lie in a giant's den.
in another he conducts the affairs of state, and in a business. Goods, such as millinery, for instance, are Crude, undigested, half-devourd,
third is the empress. The others are appropriated for spread out in the courts of the temple; and the visiters On groaning shelves they're thrown ;
his children, the widowed empress, the ladies of the promenade from noon till evening amongst rows of Such manuscripts no eye could read, Nor hand write, but his own.
court, &c. Each division is surrounded by a tolerably sellers, who at these fairs generally demand the most high wall
, which none may pass except those person's unreasonable prices. For a nephrit, for instance, a No prophet he, like Sidrophel,
belonging to it. All these buildings are again sur stone of a grass-green colour, which is particularly Could future times explore ; But what had happen'd, he could tell,
rounded with a general wall, the threshold of whose esteemed by the Chinese, and which is used for rings, Five hundred years and more.
gate may only be passed by the courtiers. An enclo- snuff-boxes, armlets, and such like, a salesman de
sure surrounds this outer wall, where there are many manded 250 lan, and he gave it me for 26! (A lan is A walking alm'nack he appears,
private shops, and where every body is allowed to about four florins, or 6s. 80. English.). Jugglers, also, Stepp'd from some mouldy wall, Worn out of use through dust and years,
walk or drive. The palaces themselves we could not display their tricks here; one will go on his hands, Like scutcheons in his hall.
see, and only the yellow roofs of glazed tiles showed another throw knives; and so forth, His boots were made of that cow's hide
themselves above the wall. Neither those streets in Towards evening the court of the temple becomes By Guy of Warwick slain ;
the vicinity of the palace, nor any throughout the city empty, and all is again silent until the following fair, Time's choicest gifts, aye to abide of Pekin, are paved.
with the exception of the priests going thrice a-day Among the chosen train.
Without having in the least satisfied our curiosity, to burn a small candle before each of the great images Who first received the precious boon,
we drove from the palace through the street Sy-oi-lou, of the gods, and prostrating themselves each time to We're at a loss to learn,
which, like all the other principal streets, is distin: the earth. When the priest does not feel inclined to By Spelman, Camden, Dugdale worn,
guished for breadth and regularity. The middle of fulfil this heavy duty himself and he rarely feels such And then they came to Hearne.
each chief street of Pekin consists of an embankment a desire), he sends his pupil to light the candles and Hearne strutted in them for a while;
of earth raised about three feet above the rest of the make prostrations ; but if he does not just happen to
street, for the use of light carriages and foot pas- be at hand, a common servant does it. As for the rest, Browne claim'd and seized the precious spoil,
sengers. Heavy loads, or carriages drawn by five and the candles are lighted at the proper times, the proThe spoil of many a year.
seven mules, must drive along the narrow avenues on strations are made as low as possible, and what more His car himself he did provide,
each side of the embankment, which is a good width, can one require ? If the temples, however, are almost To stand in double stead ;
and would be very convenient for driving upon, were always empty, the houses of public entertainment, on That it should carry him alive,
it not that there are tents and booths erected at each the contrary, are filled with people from morning till And bury him when dead.
side, which confine it so much that two carriages can night. In the best inns, one pays a high price for By rusty coins old kings he'd trace,
scarcely drive abreast. In consequence of the excessive every trifle ; so that when two or three of the rich And know their air and mien ; King Alfred he knew well by face,
population of Pekin, the streets are filled throughout young Chinese meet there, they easily spend in an Though George he ne'er had seen.
the whole day with a double row of carriages, slowly evening 50 lan. The high price is not, however, a con
progressing in opposite directions. It is a terrible sequence of the extreme dearness of the articles reThis wight th' outside of churches loved
annoyance when a foot passenger happens to meet a quired, but of the vanity of the consumer. In general, Almost unto a sin; Spires Gothic of more use he proved
friend who is driving. The latter, according to the money is here lightly regarded ; every darling son of Than pulpits are within.
strict etiquette of Chinese politeness, must stop, alight, I the heaven-protected city of Pekin throws down his
That famous county town,
Where Chaucer used to sit
And then, as lawful heir,
purse almost uncounted. They eat all manner of ex- of day-that is, in summer at four, and in winter at six gather about the affair. The accounts of the man-serpensive things, such as roasted ice, for instance, for a o'clock. The men in office first make their appearance
vant and of the coloured lad were eagerly canvassed. little plate of which one pays 6 lan; it is prepared as going to the palace with public papers, and then the What meant the blood upon the scrap of the apron? follows:- The cook pats a small bit of ice on a sieve small dealers with eatables. The noise and bustle are
Had there been crime? Had wild animals destroyed made of little wands or sticks, into a rather liquid continually on the increase ; by seven all the streets
them? How could hundreds of persons have traversed batter of sugar, eggs, and spices, and then plunges it quickly into a pan of boiling swine's fat. The skill of at nine or ten at night they retire to rest. At this and which none could answer
. are crowded with innumerable masses of people ; and the woods for five days without finding them? All these
were questions which every body put to his neighbour, the cook is shown by his bringing the dish upon the hour the most perfect silence reigns through the
On Sunday morning it was quite evident that the intable before the ice be melted in the batter. A par- empty streets, and here and there only glimmers the terest had rather deepened than declined. A load seemed ticularly good morsel cannot be expected, for when dim light of the paper lanterns, which are fixed on to hang upon the mind, which was excessively painful. put into the mouth it burns, and when bitten into it low pillars."
Many who had been confined all the week, unable to is very cold. The high price of this dish arises from
join in the good work, determined to spend the Sabbath so few cooks being able to make it exactly as it ought
in searching for the children, in imitation of Him who to be. Taken in general, the Chinese dishes are very
THE BABES IN THE WOODS.
went about doing good, and who gave examples of active disagreeable to Europeans; for they prepare every [We copy the following from a late number of the Nova Scotian: tion. Many others thought to throw off by locomotion,
benevolence even on the day set apart for rest and devothing without salt, and, in addition, float it in a superfluity of swine fat; and few dishes are made without cident alluded to appears to have caused a sensation creditable
and a sight of the localities, the load of doubt, and mysginger and garlic. Their roasts only are well flavoured, to the feelings of the inhabitants.]
tery, and apprehension, which oppressed them. From and might receive the highest approbation from a Most children who can read, have read the touching entering the steamboat, with hunting coats and strong
early morning till eleven o'clock, groups might be seen European gastronome.
little nursery tale of “ The Babes in the Woods,” and buskins, evidently bound for the woods. The Preston The reason of there being such an extraordinary thousands who cannot read have wept over it as better road was covered with the ardent and eager, of all ranks number of eating-houses in Pekin, is the custom the informed playmates, nurses, or grandmothers, poured it and all ages, pressing onward with a zeal and determinaChinese have of entertaining one another, not in their into their infant ears, with various embellishments and tion worthy of any good cause. own homes, but in these establishments ; relations exaggerations, which, if all duly preserved, would fill a We strolled into Meagher's early in the farenoon. The only and the most intimate acquaintances being ever book as large as “Robinson Crusoe.” The incident which sick husband was in the woods. The bereaved mother, invited to dinner or supper into their houses. The we have now to relate, shows that the main features of whose agony must have been intense throughout the youth also assemble in the eating-houses, and the this tender legend have not been overdrawn, and are, in week, while there was a chance of her little ones being seniors dine there after the theatre, for the theatre reality, true to nature.
restored to her alive, seemed to have settled into the and dinner at a restaurant are amusements which are
The town of Dartmouth lies on the eastern side of sobriety of grief which generally follows the stroke of inseparably connected with each other. Theatrical
Halifax harbour, directly opposite to the city of that death, and when hope has been entirely extinguished. representations commence at eleven in the forenoon, Dartmouth, and embraces scattered agricultural settle
One sick child rested on her lap. Friendly neighbours and continue till six in the evening.
were sitting around, vainly essaying to comfort her who In the course of ments, through the principal of which the main road could not be comforted,” because her children were the play, beautiful boys, who play the women's parts, runs which leads from Dartmouth to Porter's Lake, not." All they could do was to show, by kind looks and come into the boxes of the rich members of the Chezetcook, Jedore, and all the harbours upon the south- little household attentions, how anxious they were to audience, and appoint an eating-house, where they eastern sea-board. About half a mile from this road, prove that they felt her bereavement keenly. We planged promise to come and sup with them. During supper, at a distance of some four miles and a half from the into the woods, and
at once saw how easy it might
be these boys choose the dishes, and usually ask for the ferry, lived John Meagher, a native of Ireland, his wife, for children to lose themselves in the dense thickets and most expensive, having previously agreed with the and a family of four children. His house is prettily situ- broken ground immediately in the rear of the house, and master of the house upon a reward for so doing. Allated on an upland ridge, between two lakes, and over
how exceedingly difficult it might be to find their bodies, these boys are richly and tastefully dressed, skilled in looking the
main road. His cleared fields were chiefly
in had they crept for shelter into any of the fir or alder conversation, lively, and witty. Neither in the
theatres, front, the rear of his lot being covered by a thick growth clumps, through hundreds of which they must have the eating-houses, nor in the temple at fair times, are place of the original forest, long since levelled by the of the numerous windfalls which lay scattered on either
of bushes and young trees, which had sprung up in the passed, or laid down beneath the spreading roots of any women to be seen, but on the streets one meets with
axe or overrun by fire. Behind the lot, in a northerly hand. We wandered on and on, occasionally exchangplenty. Women of the lower rank go on foot, but direction, lay a wide extent of timber and scrambling ing greetings or inquiries with parties crossing or recrossthose who are at all well off drive in cabriolets . The woodland, barren granite and morass, the
only houses in ing our line of march. As we proceeded, clambering wives and daughters of princes, on the other hand, the neighbourhood lying east or west, on ridges running over windfalls, bruising our feet against granite rocks, or are carried in sedans. Married as well as unmarried parallel with that on which Meagher lived, and which are plunging into mud holes, the sufferings of these poor women appear in the street with unveiled faces, and separated from it by the lakes that extend some distance babes were brought fearfully home to us, as they must simply arranged hair, which they adorn with beautiful in rear of his clearing.
have been to hundreds on that day. If we, who had artificial flowers. Even the most ragged, dirty, old On Monday morning, the 10th day of April, Meagher, slept soundly the night before-were well clad, and had cook, if she is only going to the door to buy a little his wife, and two of the children, being sick with the had a comfortable breakfast, were weary with a few garlic or cabbage, has always a flower, usually red, measles, the two eldest girls strolled into the woods to hours' tramp-if we chafed when we stumbled, when the stuck amongst her grey locks. The dress of the ladies
search for lashong, the gum of the black spruce tree, or green boughs dashed in our faces, or when we slumped
tea berries. is chiefly distinguished by bright colours : that of the Margaret, the first being six years and ten months old, the sufferings of these poor girls, so young, so helpless,
Their names were Jane Elizabeth and through the half-frozen morass-what must have been Mandschurin ladies consists chiefly in a long upper and the latter only five years. The day was fine, and with broken shoes, no coverings to their heads or hands, robe with immense sleeves. This dress quite conceals the girls being in the habit of roaming about the lot, and no thicker garments to shield them from the blast, the shape ; but the Chinese do not distress themselves were not missed till late in the day. A man-servant or keep out the frost and snow, than the ordinary dress on account of this disadvantage, as they seek for was sent in search of them, and thought he heard their with which they sat by the fire or strolled abroad in the feminine slenderness in narrow shoulders and a flat- voices, but returned without them, probably thinking sunshine ? Our hearts sunk at the very idea of what tened chest, on which account their women all bind a there was no great occasion for alarm, and that they must have been their sufferings. We were pushing on, broad girdle over the bosom, which supplies the place would by and by return of their own accord. Towards peering about, and dwelling on every probability of the of the European corsets. The dress of the true evening the family became seriously alarmed, and the case, when, just as we struck a wood-path, we met a lad Chinese women consists of red or green trousers, sick father roused himself to search for his children, and coming out, who told us that the children were found, which are embroidered with many-coloured silks-of gave the alarm to some of his nearest neighbours, "The and that they were to be left on the spot until parties jackets, also embroidered--with a very richly em
rest of the night was spent in beating about the woods could be gathered in, that those who had spent the forebroidered upper garment.
in rear of the clearing, but to no purpose, nobody sup- noon in search should have the melancholy gratification The Chinese women are chiefly distinguished from posing that girls so small could have strayed more than
of beholding them as they sunk into their final rest on à mile or two from the house. On Tuesday morning, the bleak mountain side. the Mandschurins by their feet; these do not spoil tidings having reached Dartmouth, Halifax, and the In a few moments after, we met others rushing from their feet by tight bandages, and wear slippers like neighbouring settlements, several hundreds of persons the woods, with the painful and yet satisfactory intellithe men, only their stockings are made of gay-coloured promptly repaired to the vicinity of Meagher's house, gence, hurrying to spread it far and wide. We soon stuffs, with foot soles not less than four inches thick. and, dividing into different parties, commenced a formal after hove in sight of Mount Major, a huge granite hill, The Chinese women, on the contrary, bind their feet and active examination of the woods. In the course of about six miles from Meagher's liouse, and caught a sight from five years of age with broad bandages, in such a the day, the tracks of little feet were discovered in seve- of a group of persons standing upon its topniost ridge, way that four toes are bent under, and the great toe ral places on patches of snow, but were again lost; the firing guns, and waving a white flag as a signal of success. laid over them ; the nails press into the flesh, causing spot at which the children crossed a rivulet which con- The melancholy interest and keen excitement of the next almost always wounds, and the unfortunate females nects Lake Loon with Lake Charles was also remarked. half hour we shall never forget. As we pressed up the suffer during their whole lives from this barbarous A coloured boy, named Brown, whose dwelling lay about hill side, dozens of our friends and acquaintance were custom. Not one of them can stand on the whole that he had heard a noise as of children crying the their curiosity, were returning, with sad faces, and not a
three miles to the north-west of Meagher's, also reported | ascending from different points-some, having satisfied foot, and they all walk on their heels, on which ac- evening before, while cutting wood, but that, on advanc- few with tears in their eyes. As we mastered the acolicount their walk is most unsightly, and they totter ing towards it and calling out, the sound ceased, and he vity, we saw a group gathered round in a circle, about from side to side. Considerable ostentation prevails returned home, thinking it was perhaps a bird or some half way down on the other side. This seemed to be the when a Chinese or Mandschurin lady goes abroad : an wild animal.
point of attraction. New comers were momently pressing out-rider first appears, behind him comes a two-wheeled The tracks, the coloured boy's report, and the subse- into the ring, and others rushing out of it, overpowered carriage drawn by a mule, the head and sides of which quent discovery of a piece of one of the children's aprons by strong emotion. When we pressed into the circle, are hung with green or blue cloth, into the sides of stained with blood, at the distance of three miles from the two little girls were lying just as they were when which are set in pieces of black velvet and glass, on their home, gave a wider range to the searches of the be- first discovered by Mr Currie's dog. The father had the right and left walk two men, holding the carriage nevolent, who began to muster in the neighbourhood of lifted the bodies, to press them, cold and lifeless, to his with their hands, in order to prevent its falling over
the place in which the piece of apron was picked up, and bosom; but they had been again stretched on the heath, at any of the inequalities of the road, and behind the to deploy in all directions, embracing a circle of several and their limbs disposed so as to show the manner of carriage comes another rider. As one must step into miles beyond and in rear of ita Monday night was mild, their death. A more piteous sight we never beheld.. and out of the carriage in front, the coachman has to and it was pretty
evident the children survived it. Tues- Jane Elizabeth and Margaret Meagher were the children unharness his mule every time; the men who walk day night was colder ; and about two inches of snow outside the carriage then turn it close up to the stairs, having fallen, the general conviction appeared to be, that, class, and scanty
enough it seemed for the
perils they worn out with fatigue and hunger, and having no outer had passed through. The youngest child had evidently let the shafts down on the steps, and immediately turn clothing, they must have perished. Still, there was no died in sleep, or her spirit had passed as gently as their backs to the equipage, for, according to Chinese relaxation of the exertions of the enterprising and bene- though the wing of the angel of death had seemed but etiquette, they may not look their mistress in the face. volent. Fresh parties poured into the woods each day; the ordinary clouds of night overpowering the senses. The waiting-maid, who generally sits in front, first and many persons, overpowered by the strength of their Her little cheek rested upon that of her sister-her
little steps out, adjusts a little footstool, and helps her lady feelings, and gathering fresh energy from the pursuit, hand was clasped in hers-her fair, almost white hair, to alight. On departing, the ceremony is repeated devoted the entire week to the generous purpose of res- unkemped and dishevelled, strewed the wild heath upon that is, the lady and her maid first resume their seats, cuing the dead bodies, if not the lives of the innocents, which they lay. The elder girl appeared to have suffered then the corehman harnesses his mule, and the cortège and Saturday, passed away, and
no farther trace was dis
Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, more. Her eyes were open, as though she had watched proceeds in its former order. The men display mag covered of the babes in the woods ; every newspaper that years of care and anguish had been crowded into those
till the last; her features were pinched and anxious, as if nificence, when they drive abroad, by the numbers of appeared was eagerly
searched for some tidings ; every their followers, who often amount to twenty or more.
two days. If life is to be measured by what we bear, But what followers ! two or three are well dressed, inquiring faces ; Dartmouth was the centre of excite poor girl must have lived more in two days than soine
boat that crossed the harbour was met by anxious and and do, and suffer, and not by moments and hours, that but the rest are ragged and mounted on lame and ment, and the Preston road was constantly occupied people do in twenty years. worn-out mules. Pride, however, never allows a with vehicles and pedestrians moving to and fro.
We pity the man who could have stood over them for Chinaman to lessen the number of his attendants,
As the week closed, all hopes of finding the children an instant without shedding a tear for their fate and although the keeping of these idle bands must be very alive were of course abandoned, and yet nobody thought for their sufferings. There were few who did. We looked expensive. The stir in the streets commences at break of discontinuing the search. An air of mystery began to round us as we broke from the circle: there were men
the part affected in
of all ranks and ages ; soldiers in fatigue dress the mer- Water, however, which is one of the great necessaries of powder. Give yourself no sort of uneasiness, only wrap chant, the mechanic, and the professional man, with the life, may in general be gratuitously procured; but it has
a clean white handkerchief, then get town garb variously disguised--the Preston, Lawrence been well observed that if bread, the other great neces to bed and to sleep as soon as you can, desiring, in the Town, and Cole Harbour farmers, in their homespun sary of human life, could be procured on terms equally meantime, the weapon which did the injury to be well suits-the Chizetcook Frenchman in his mocassins-the cheap and easy, there would be much more reason to fear rubbed, nine times, with a small quantity of the powder, coloured man in his motley garb--and, apart from the that men would become brutes for the want of something and, take my word for it, you may follow your usual occurest, a group of Indians, sharing the common feelings and to do, rather than philosophers from the possession of pations the next day. sentiments of our nature, but calm and unrufiled amidst leisure. And the facts seem to bear out the theory. In Of the pills I need say nothing; they have long prothe general excitement of the scene.
all countries where nature does the most, man does the nounced their own panegyric, and there are full direcThe hill on which the children were found was the least; and where she does but little, there we shall find tions sealed up with them; but as you live rather out of last place anybody would have thought of looking for the utmost acme of human exertion. Thus, Spain pro the way of the great world, it is but fair to tell you that them; and yet when upon it, the reason of their being duces the worst farmers, and Scotland the best gardeners; they procure husbands for single women, and children there seemed sufficiently clear. A smooth platform of the former are the spoilt children of indulgence, the latter for those who are married ; they are great sweeteners of rock, clear of underbrush, and looking like a road, ap the hardy offspring of endeavour. The copper, coal, and the blood, and wonderful improvers of the complexion. proaches the base of the hill, from the direction in which iron of England, inasmuch as they cost much labour to The selling price for these matchless remedies," said the children probably came. They doubtless ascended dig, and insure a still farther accumulation of it when the doctor, “ has been six shillings for time immemorial; in order that they might ascertain where they were; and dug, have turned out to be richer mines to us than those but as I am resolved to stand to my word, and as I do it is more than likely that when they saw nothing but of Potosi and Peru. The possessors of the latter have not practise physic for the love of dirty lucre, if you will forest, bog, and wild barren, stretching for miles around been impoverished by their treasures, while we have been throw up your handkerchiefs, with the small sum of one them, without a house or clearing in sight, their little constantly enriched by our exertion. Our merchants, shilling tied in each, merely to pay travelling charges hearts sunk within them, and they laid themselves without being aware of it, have been the sole possessors and servants' wages, I freely make you a present of the down to refresh for farther efforts, or, it may have been, of the philosopher's stone, for they have anticipated most rest of the money, according to my original promise.". in utter despair, to cling to each other's bosoms and die of the wealth of Mexico before it arrived in Europe, by A small number of the crowd, who were so absurd as
There was one thing which brightened the scene, sad transmuting their iron and their copper into gold.--Lacon. to doubt any thing the doctor said, marched off in as it was, and seemed to give pleasure even to those
silence, but the mass were not formed of materials cawho were most affected by it—“ in death they were not divided.” It was clear that there had been no desertion Voltaire thus expresses himself on the subject of pable of resisting so complicated an attack on their feel-no shrinking, on the part of the elder girl, from the war:—“ A hundred thousand mad animals, whose headsings and understandings; the present of a crown to each claims of a being even more helpless than herself. If she are covered with hats, advance to kill or to be killed fear of imposition, for how could one who acted so much
man at first so confidently promised, had dissipated all had drawn her sister into the forest, as a companion in by the like number of their fellow mortals covered with
like a gentleman be supposed to want to take them in ? the sports of childhood, she had continued by her in turhans. By this strange procedure they want, at best, His ostentatious harangue had diffused a magic ray over scenes of trial and adversity that might have appalled to decide whether a tract of land to which none of them
his powder of paste, his rosin, and his jalap; for the pasthe stoutest nature, and broken the bonds of the best- lays any claim shall belong to a certain man whom they
sive infatuation of being cheated is not without its pleacemented friendship. Men, and women too, have been
call sultan, or to another whom they call czar, neither of selfish in extremities, but this little girl clung to her whom ever saw or will see the spot so furiously con
He was proceeding in his address, but a shower of sister with a constancy and fidelity worthy of all praise. tended for; and very few of those creatures who thus
shillings interrupted his harangue, and two hours were From the tracks, it was evident that she had led her by mutually butcher each other ever beheld the animal for fully occupied in easing his brother townsmen of their the hand, changing sides occasionally as the little one's whom they cut each other's throats! From time im- shillings, and emptying the green velvet bag of the sixarm was weary. The bodies have been buried in a rural memorial this has been the way of mankind almost over shilling packets ; while
his assistants diverted the anxieand quiet little grave-yard, about two miles from Dart- all the earth. What an excess of madness is this ! and ties and allayed the impatience of the people by music mouth. how deservedly might a Superior Being crush to atoms
and tumbling. this earthly ball, the bloody nest of such ridiculous mur
Handkerchiefs from all quarters dropped round the derers !"
cunning knave; inhabitants of Brentford or Kensington, SCHOOLS IN ATHENS.
AN INSOLVENT'S PLEA.
Chelsea, Turnham, or any other green, were permitted to It is very gratifying to learn that the educational In the Insolvent Debtor's Court, a few months ago, a contribute their shillings without any ill-natured queslabours of the worthy Americans, Mr and Mrs Hill, person named William Charles Empson came up to be tions being asked concerning the place of their residence ;
the business of the day concluded with general satisfacwhose schools in Athens have been already alluded to in heard on his petition. His schedule contained a statethis Journal, are still carried on in that restored city ment that appeared to astonish the court. It was-—" 1 tion; and the artist owned, at an inn in the evening, with indiminished zeal and success. Mr Garston, a late attribute my insolvency to an error of judgment of the
over a duck and green peas, that the neat profit of his tourist, thus speaks of them. " In company with one or late Lord Chancellor Eldon.” In answer to the inquiries afternoon was five-and-twenty guineas.-Lounger's Comtwo other Englishmen, I have been admitted into the of the court respecting this extraordinary statement, the monplace Book. schools which are under the direction of the Rev. Mr insolvent entered into a long detail of the particulars of Hill and his lady. The public establishment, in which a claim he liad on the estate of a bankrupt, which had
PRACTICAL MATHEMATICS. children are educated without charge, is supported by been the subject of a chancery suit; and Lord Eldon, AWARE of the great importance of a study of Mathematics, both funds supplied by the American Missionary Society, after much consideration, havinz still some doubts, di Theoretical and Practical, in a regular course of Education, augmented by the voluntary contributions of European rected an issue to the Court of King's Bench, where he MESSRS CHAMBERS have endeavoured to procure the composiPhilhellenes. It affords the means of gratuitous instruc- obtained a verdict; but the estate being entirely ex tion of the best possible treatises on the subject for their EDUCAtion to about five hundred children of the poorer classes. hausted, he never received any benefit, and having his TIONAL COURse. Aided by Mr A. Bell, formerly mathematical
master in Dollar Institution, and one of the most profound maThe private establishment is devoted to the education of costs to pay, was utterly ruined by the cause he had
thematicians in Scotland, they have already issued—Ist, Euclid's the children of persons in the higher walks of life who gained. The insolvent was declared entitled to his dis
Elements of Plane Geometry (improved), which may be taken can pay for their instruction, and to that of children who charge, but was ordered to amend his schedule, that the
as the basis of the science; 2d, solid and Spherical Geometry; are brought up at the charge of the government. of imputation it contained against Lord Eldon's judgment 3d, Algebra, in its Various Branches ; and have now published, these classes there are about one hundred and twenty, might not remain on record.— Flowers of Anecdote. 4th, A Treatise of Practical Mathematics. This latter work, nearly two-thirds of whom are resident in the house,
which is indispensable to Mechanics, Civil Engineers, Mariners, under the immediate care of the amiable directress of
and various other professional persons, is in Two Parts, enibracing the institution. The school-rooms of the private esta
THE QUACK-A HINT FOR JOHN BULL. --Practical Geometry; Trigonometry; Mensuration of Heights,
Distances, Surfaces, and Solids; Barometric Measurement of blishment exhibited a series of gratifying and beautiful A STORY is told of a travelling quack or mountebank, who Heights; Land Surveying ; Gauging ; Projectiles; Fortification ; pictures of infantine life. The pupils are for the most exhibited on a stage at Hammersmith, in the reign of Astronomy; Navigation; and other subjects. Being anxious that part very young girls, distinguished, with few exceptions, King George I. Having collected an audience, he ad the works should fall within the reach of persons in the humbler by an air of extreme intelligence and vivacity, and in dressed them in the following words :
ranks of society, MESSRS CHAMBERS have issued them, like many instances by countenances of singular delicacy and
"Being originally a native of this place, I have, for a
other books in the series, at an exceedingly small price, consibeauty. When we were admitted into the rooms, they long time, been considering in what manner I can best
dering their size and the expense incurred in their production.
The following is the list of works now issued in the series of were pursuing their studies in classes, and it was evident show my regard for my brother townsmen ; and after CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE, all being designed for use that their occupations were regarded by them rather as maturely weighing the subject, I am come to a resolu in schools, and neatly and strongly bound in coloured cloth :an enjoyment than as a task-a pledge, I should think, tion of making a present of five shillings to every inhabi Infant Treatment Under Two Years of Age,
18. 31. of future proficiency on the part of the students. Having tant of the parish. It will, I own, be a heavy expense, Infant Education From Two to Six Years of Age, observed that several very young damsels had produced and I hope no one will attempt to profit from my libe First Book of Reading,
06. 1. drawings of considerable merit, as also that the musical rality who is not really and truly a parishioner.”
Second Book of Reading, pupils were less numerous, and apparently less advanced The multitude pressed forward, with open eyes as well
Simple Lessons in Reading, in their studies, although under the guidance of an ac- as mouths, casting earnest looks on a green velvet bag, of
Rudiments of Knowledge,
Introduction to the Sciences, complished musician, I was tempted to inquire whether ample dimensions, which hung on the arm of this gene
The Moral Class-Book,
Is. 6. this difference arose from a preference accorded to the rous man.
A Geographical Primer, former study by the parents, or from a peculiar taste for " I know you are not so sordid and so mercenary,”
Text-Book of Geography for England, it on the part of the pupils, and was informed in reply continued the orator, “ as to value my bounty merely be Introduction to English Composition, that, among the latter, a decided talent for design is of cause it would put a few shillings into your pockets; the English Grammar, Part I., frequent occurrence, whilst a taste or talent for music is pleasure I see sparkling in your eyes cannot be produced
First Book of Drawing, comparatively rare. Mrs Hill numbers among her pupils at the thought of dirty pelf, which to-day is in your
Os. &1. Os. 10d. Os. 60. Is. 60. 1s. 61. Is. 6d. ls, M. 43. Od.
Second Book of Drawing, the daughters of many of the first Greek families of Con- hands, and to-morrow may be in the gripe of a miser, a
Rudiments of Zoology, stantinople, as well as of the most distinguished of Greece highwayman, or a pawnbroker.
Rudiments of Chemistry, by Dr D. B. Reid-a new Proper. The names of Kriezis, Mavrocordato, Grivas, I perceive what it is that delights you : the discover
and greatly improved edition,
28. 31. &c., fall oddly but pleasingly on the ear in this scene of ing in one whom you considered as a stranger, the warm Natural Philosophy, First Book,
Os. 104. youthful loveliness and simplicity. The impression whichest and most disinterested friend you ever had in your Natural Philosophy, Second Book, remains with the visiter who has the gratification of see lives. Money, my good people, too often tempts the Natural Philosophy, Third Book,
08. 01. ing Mrs Hill in the midst of her flock is, that she pos- young and the indiscreet to indulge in liquor and other
Elements of Plane Geometry, sesses that .jewel beyond all price' to the instructress of excesses, to the destruction of their health and morals.
Solid and Spherical Geometry, youth--the talent of winning the heart, while she forms
Practical Mathematics, Two Parts, each
Elements of Algebra, Two Parts, each
Exemplary and Instructive Biography, have since supplied the schools in Hydra with teachers, by knife, sword, or pistol; if applied on the patient's To the foregoing is added a Series of SCHOOL-Room MAPs of and thus may be said to be pouring the blessings of edu- going to bed, I pledge my reputation that the ball, if
a very large size-Maps of England, Ireland, Scotland, Europe, cation into Greece through a variety of channels. It is there is one, shall be extracted, and the flesh be as sound
Asia, Palestine, North America, South America, Africa, and the gratifying to know that the youth of Greece, both male as the palm of my hand before morning.
Hemispheres, designed by JAMES FAIRBAIRN, Esq., Rector of
Bathgate Academy. Each Map measures 5 feet 8 inches in length and female, display as much ardour as capacity for the But for those who dislike the pain and smart of such
by 4 feet 10 inches in breadth. Price, coloured on cloth, with icquisition of knowledge." things as plasters and ointment, and who are not fond
rollers, 14s. each ; the Hemispheres (including Astronomical Diaof trouble, let me recommend the powder: it acts, ladies grams), 21s. LABOUR A BLESSING.
and gentlemen, by sympathy, and was the joint inven Published by W. and R. CHAMBERS, 339 High Street, EdinA certain degree of labour and exertion seems to have tion of three of the greatest medical men that ever lived burgh. Agents—W. S. Orr and Co., Amen Corner, London ; and been allotted us by providence as the condition of hu- | -Galen, Hippocrates, and Paracelsus. If you have a few W. CURRY Jun. and Co., Dublin ; JOAN MACLEOD, Glasgow; manity. “In the sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat thy grains only of this powder in your possession, you may
and sold by all Booksellers. In cases where Teachers find a bread." This is a curse which has proved a blessing in without fear rush into the thickest of the battle, and difficulty in getting supplies from Booksellers, they may aptly
direct to MESSRS CHAMBERS or their chief Agents, as above. disguise. And those favoured few who, by their rank or defy broad-sword, pike, or bayonet. All I say is, get their riches, are exempted from all exertion, have no wounded, get crippled, get mangled and hacked like a reason to be thankful for the privilege. It was the ob- crimped cod; the longer, the deeper, the more nume
LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by
W. S. ORR, Paternoster Row. servation of this necessity that led the ancients to say rous the cuts are, the better shall I be pleased, the more
Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars. that the gods sold us every thing, but gave us nothing. I decisive is the proof it will afford of the merits of my
28. 64. 28. G.
60. 2s. 64. 2. 6. 38. 01. 38. 00, 28.
CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF “ CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,"
“ CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE," &c.
SATURDAY, JULY 30, 1842.
observed that the tendency is a thing inherent, and and Latin–and constituting the present German, and LANGUAGES.
therefore of constant operation, while the check de-Dutch, and partly the French and English. Next The least learned are aware that there are many pends on accidental social conditions. Where these came the Sclavonic, occupying Russia, Poland, Hunlanguages in the world, but the actual number is are weak, the tendency will get so much the freer gary, and northern Turkey. The leading features of probably far beyond the dreams of ordinary people. scope, and the diversities will become wider and more the Indo-European class of languages are the comThe geographer Balbi enumerates eight hundred and numerous. When a society becomes close and inti- pounding of words to make new meanings, and the sixty which are entitled to be considered as distinct mate, the uniformity will be, on the contrary, great inflection or changing of beginnings and terminations languages, and five thousand which may be regarded as and permanent. Hence we see few changes take to form cases, tenses, and other variations. dialects. Adelung, another modern writer on this sub-place in such civilised densely-peopled countries as
The second great class of languages, occupying ject, reckons up 3064 languages and dialects, existing those of Western Europe ; where, also, a written lite
China and other countries of Eastern Asia, is usually and which have existed. Even after we have allowed rature is constantly operating to maintain a standard, called the Monosyllabic class, because every word in either of these as the number of languages, we must at least in phraseology. But where people are few them consists of only one syllable. These words may acknowledge the existence of almost infinite minor and sparse, or where single families are constantly be combined, as in the English words welcome and diversities ; for, in our own country, we see that every parting off into new grounds of settlement, the prin- relfare ; but every syllable is significant, and therefore province has a tongue more or less peculiar, and this ciple of diversity must be comparatively powerful, is itself a word. One writer says, that the syllables we may well believe to be the case throughout the and new varieties will be constantly arising. We see of the Chinese language are under three hundred in world at large. It is said there are little islands lying something of this in the progress of American coloni
number; another, that they are above four hundred ; close together in the South Sea, the inhabitants of sation.
but the number may be considered as greatly inwhich do not understand each other. Of the 860 dis
lig" "atle is well known that, although so many languages creased by differences in the tone in which they are tinct languages enumerated by Balbi, 53 belong to are enumerated, there are many resemblances to be pronounced, these differences being either four or five Europe, 114 to Africa, 153 to Asia, 423 to America, observed amongst them, both as to words having nearly in number. There are none of what we would call and 117 to Oceania, by which term he distinguishes the same signification and as to grammatical forms. grammatical forms in the Chinese. Tenses, moods, the vast number of islands stretching between IIin. These are justly regarded as evidences that the lan- cases, and the like, are left to be understood by the dostan and South America.
guages in which they are found have something like a context, or by the order in which the words are placed. Looking for the cause of this immense diversity of common origin, and that the people now speaking
In their pronunciation, they have some of those peculanguages no farther than immediate natural condi- | them, albeit remote from each other in country, are
liarities which could only have arisen from organic tions, it is not difficult to come to satisfactory conclu- more or less nearly related-sprung, in short, from one peculiarities in the originators of the language : they sions. Man is invested with the power of speech by root. Of late years, indeed, a new and most interest- want the consonants b, d, r, v, and z, and when remeans of certain organs; but the organisation of no ing light has been shed upon human history by the quired to sound one of our double consonants, they two individuals is precisely alike. Every single human inquiries which have been made into languages. Na- always put a u between them; thus, Christus is with being has something peculiar to himself, and in the tions far separated from each other, and between which them Kul-iss-ut-00-suh. organs of speech as well as in every thing else. Hence, no affinity was suspected to exist, have been shown to The Chinese, though they have been longer a rethe sound of every voice is palpably different in tone, be connected, in consequence of the discorery of words
fined people than any other known to exist, may be and every body pronounces some particular words in common to both their languages. The grand fact of
said to have a simple language. In some respects, it a particular manner. There are fainily likenesses in the original colonisation of Europe from Asia, and is such a speech as we should expect to find amongst voices and in pronunciation, or general resemblances even some of the leading particulars of that colonisa- a primitive savage tribe. What completes this wonpeculiar to all the children of one pair; and there are tion, are inferred from the investigations of the philo
der is, that the Indians of North America, who have resemblances of a more general kind in the people of logist. But the most curious of all modern discoveries made no advance in arts, literature, or institutions, one town, or district, or country. These peculiarities of this nature are certainly those relative to the struc- possess a language remarkable for its richness in words spring from peculiarities of organisation precisely ana- ture of languages. Many of my readers have, no doubt, and for its profoundly complicated grammatical forms. logous to those peculiarities of physiognomy, figure, heard of universal grammar, that is, grammar appli
One character pervades all the original languages of colour of hair, and so forth, which characterise fami- cable to all tongues. This was an idea very natural, America, from Greenland to Cape Horn. As a class, lies, and the inhabitants of districts and countries. when it was observed that there were nouns and verbs, they have been called the Polysynthetic, from their Their direct tendency is to give rise to peculiarities voices, tenses, and so forth, in the Greek and Hebrew, combining many ideas in the form of words. They of language—that is, to different words and forms of in the French and German, as well as in the English. present inflections, but their most remarkable means phrase for representing the same ideas ; but there is But when we became acquainted with the languages of adding and varying sense is in a process which, for also something to check this tendency. The check of remoter parts of the earth, we found that some of want of a better term, has been called agglutination. is found in the disposition to imitate, which causes a them had no such forms, and that the grammar which Fragments of words are taken, and, as it were, patched number of persons living in one community to follow we have called universal is bounded by a certain geo- to each other, so as to make up a kind of short-hand more or less one tone of voice, one kind of pronunci- graphical line, beyond which all is as different as if sentence. For example, a Delaware woman, playing ation, and one form of phrase. The operation of both the people belonged to a different planet. There are with a little dog or cat, will be heard saying to it, the tendency and the check may be studied very well at least three other forms of language-structure, all of Kuligatschis, meaning “ Give me your pretty little in any family of young children. Each babe will be them of a perfectly original and distinct character. paw :” the word is made up in this manner--K the found to have some peculiarity, causing a certain tone Our own form covers nearly the same parts of the second personal pronoun, uli part of the word wulit, and manner of speech, and leading it to pronounce earth which have been assigned to the white or Cau- signifying pretty, gat part of wichgat, signifying a leg certain words in a peculiar way; which peculiarities casian variety of mankind. It extends from India or paw, schis conveying the idea of littleness. In the almost entirely give way before the influence which along Western Asia and into Europe, which it entirely same tongue we find a youth called pilape, compounded the conversation of its seniors in time exercises upon fills; thence it pursues the line of European colonisa- from the first part of pilsit, innocent, and the last part it. For example, in a large family which happens to tion in America and elsewhere. The lines along of lenape, a man. We cannot enter farther into this be under my observation, I have found various infants which its origin is traced all point to the Sanscrit, a subject; but it seems fully ascertained that an extraat first pronounce the word fly in a particular way, dead language of Upper India, containing a valuable ordinary degree of order, method, and regularity, prethe varieties extending to no fewer than six. With literature. The class of languages formed upon it is vails in the language of the Red man, and that it is one it was fy, with another ly, with another eye, with therefore called the Indo-European. Of this family of entirely different from the tongues of the eastern another my, with another ty, and with a sixth ky. tongues the Celtic may be presumed to be one of the continent. The pronunciation was, in each case, persisted in for oldest cadets : it was the language of the first occu- Balbi assigns 117 languages to Oceania, and these a considerable time, but of course was at length pants of Europe of whom we have any record. Then, are all found to be connected with each other in such obliged to give way before the influence of correct another and superior race, the Gothic, speaking an- a way as to show one common origin. I am not aware pronunciation in others. To a minute and assiduous other variety, appear to have advanced in the same
that this class of languages is distinguished by any observer of nature, there can be no doubt that such direction, gradually overpowering the Celts, and driv- peculiar structure, so much as by identity of words ; peculiarities originate in peculiarities of organisation, ing them into the corners of Spain, France, and Bri- but they are considered as standing, in one way or which make each wrong pronunciation in each case tain ; sending off the Scandinavian variety of speech another, quite apart from the other great classes. the most convenient and agreeable, if not the only into the north—perhaps sending off other offshoots to They pervade an immense extent of the world's surone possible at that period of life. Now, it will be the south, which became component parts of Greek | face, namely, from Madagascar to Easter Island, half
less than all countries where that bird exists. But this class marked that we are upon the same ground to which 218 way across the Pacific, a distance not much ten thousand miles.
of words is, after all, less numerous than might be we came in the inquiry as to the rise of nations in a Philologists usually reckon as a distinct class the expected. Nor is it necessary that it should have late paper. It was there shown to be probable, from languages spoken from early ages in the south-western been numerous, if there be, as above suggested, a gift the law as to the production of varieties, that the parts of Asia, of which the Hebrew and Arabic are in some persons for enunciating chance formed terms, origins of nations strongly distinguished in colour and the most conspicious tongues ; but though there is which become applied to things. But the application feature were from single migrators of strongly marked much to distinguish these languages, they do not seem of a sound or a term to a thing, quality, or act, is but character. The unity of these results is certainly a to be sufficiently peculiar in grammatical structure a first step. Many subsequent processes are needed support to both views. to be entitled to rank as a distinct class. It appears before a language can be made up. It is at this stage It is scarcely possible to survey this wonderful hismore likely that they are an early offshoot of the that the great diversities commence ; now arise those tory without emotions partaking of the sublime. We Indo-European class. The African languages are un- great accidents of instinctive mental working which are accustomed to look back to the tongues of Achaia derstood to be sufficiently well marked to form a dis- result in making one language monosyllabic, with and Latium as of great antiquity, because they really tinct class.
every single syllable signiticant, and another poly- are by comparison old, and partly because they have Assuming that the distinctions are here correctly synthetic, with not one single syllable significant, as been so long with the things that live no longer. But stated, we arrive at the important fact, that the funda- already shown. To borrow some explanation on this these languages were but small offshoots of others mentai varieties of human speech are comparatively subject—" What are called ideas, are rapid percep which had probably existed for ages before them, and few-probably less than six'; that is to say, while tions continually flitting before the mental eye. Like still partly exist ; for the Teutonic is thought to be there are so many varieties in the words employed by objects viewed through a kaleidoscope, they pass before one element of the Latin. Those tongues came into various nations to represent thought, there are less us in ever-changing shapes, and, in endeavouring to existence, were the vehicles of the finest and prothan six great idiomatic formulæ, or fashions of word- fix them on the memory by articulate sounds, the foundest thoughts of uninspired man, and then, as and-sentence-structure. In many of the languages appearance of the moment will decide the form to be beautiful things are doing every day, they died. And comprehended under each of these forms, there are given to those representative signs. The man of quick it has been the fate of many other languages which words in common, besides the general grammatical perceptions will try to retain the idea of a whole at one time flourished, thus to fade and perish, resemblance; but there is no community of words physical or moral object, or perhaps a whole group crushed down, perhaps, by some rude conquest, or between the various classes—at least it is now ac- of objects, in his memory, by means of one single overpowered by the contact of a superior people. On knowledged that the few terms which have been word : another of slower comprehension, seeing or the other hand, some languages have had the fortune traced with great effort between the Asiatic and Ame- perceiving a part only, will appropriate a word or a to last for thousands of years without any material rican languages are only the result of accident. We syllable to the expression of that part, and another and change ; for instance, those of China and India. It is are now called upon to remark the curious fact, that another to each of the other parts that he will succes- also strange to reflect that, till comparatively a recent the classes of languages correspond pretty nearly with sively perceive. In this manner syntactic and atactic time, western learning knew only of a few languages, those great natural divisions of the human race which idioms* have been respectively formed; the impulse and these all of one general character as to form, and physiologists have for some time concluded upon. The first given has been followed, and thus languages have partly also as to the constituent sounds ; while there Indo-European class, if we include in it the languages received various organic or grammatical characters and were not only thousands of other languages totally of South-western Asia, comprehends the whole of the forms. Let us give an example : At the first forma- unknown, but variations as to form such as no EuroCaucasian race. The Yellow people, or Mongolians, tion of a language, one man, by signs or otherwise, pean could have ever dreamed of, as if there had been have to themselves the Monosyllabic class of tongues; asks another to do something ; the other, anxious to something like four other human natures upon earth the Red race have the Polysynthetic. The Oceanic express his consent at once, and conceiving the whole besides our own. Finally, we see new chapters in class of languages is the inheritance of what has been idea, answers, Volo. Another man, whose mind is the early, and as yet obscure, history of mankind, called the Malay variety of mankind, and the African slower in its operations, divides the idea, and answers arising from the investigations of a class of inquirers class belongs to the Negro or Ethiopic race. Thus, all in two words, Ego rolo, or, I will. Another demand altogether apart from the historical-chapters un. are parcelled out amongst as many families of human is made to which the first man does not agree ; he an- dated, or whose dates do pot admit of being fixed kind, all of which are considered as marked by many wers, Nolo ; the other says, Ego non rolo, or, I will not. within a thousand years, but which are yet, from essential distinctions in stature, colour, character of Applying this hypothesis to all languages, and their their basis being in fact and science, more probable the hair, physiognomy, and mental endowments. different forms, it will be perceived how in the begin and more true than many of the chronicles of recent
From this, some very curious and interesting de- ning they were framed, and how their various struc- and familiar events. ductions may be made. In the first place, language tures have been more or less regular, and more or less is placed amongst the organic distinctions of mankind. elegant in their grammatical analogies, according to Hair is different, visage is different, colour is different, the temper and capacities of the nations that first
MISS PARDOL'S “HUNGARIAN CASTLE.”+ general mental character is different ; different, also, formed them, and of the men that took the lead in Many readers will remember that Miss Pardoe, the are speech, and the forms in which thoughts are ar that promotion, who may not always have been the authoress of “ The City of the Sultan," and other ranged for enunciation. To find this last and most most sensible of the whole band; for it is to be pre- works of merit, gave to the public some time since remarkable distinction in connexion with others, forms sumed that, in those early times, as in our own day, the fruits of her observations during a visit to no small addition to the considerations which have the affairs of men were not always directed by the Hungary, and added largely thereby to her previous led to the classification of mankind into five races. It ablest, but oftener perhaps by the most forward and literary reputation. She has now thrown together gives and takes proof to and from that hypothesis. presuming individual.”+
a number of the legendary tales of the Magyars, But the researches of Prichard have settled that the The reader will probably have anticipated the such as could not very fittingly have been introduced five races are only varieties of mankind, or at least particular fact in the early history of our race to be into her reflective and useful account of the manners, that there is a sufficient variety-producing power in inferred from all this namely, that the five great customs, and present condition of that remarkable nature to have raised up these different tribes from varieties or families had been originated or thrown off
, people. The plan which Miss Pardoe has adopted one original stock. Are we to suppose that the fun. dispersed and far separated, before language had pro- for uniting her series of traditions is not a very novel damental distinctions of languages are irreconcilable ceeded beyond probably some of its simplest elements, one, but it answers the purpose sufficiently well
. She with this doctrine? By no means. They only make and certainly before the rise of any of its various idio- supposes a large party to have assembled at the castle good a particular fact in the early history of our race, matic forms. The physiologist could never suppose of a Magyar noble, and, on the occurrence of weather to which we must now advert; but before doing so, it that the production of the rarieties, nor could the phi- so severe as to debar the gentlemen from hunting, to is necessary to touch slightly on the process of lan-lologist ever with any show of reason suppose that the have resorted to story-telling as a mode of passing guage-formation.
forination of language, would be effected otherwise the time agreeably. Each individual is called upon Man has from nature a set of organs expressly and than in a considerable space of time. Thus, inquiries to choose a theme from the history of his or her most admirably calculated for the production of speech. in these two different lines come to the same point, ancestors ; and many thrilling narratives, largely (too Ilis mind has also-though this is a fact not capable that the commencement of all the great leading races largely, though almost unavoidably) mingled with the of the same lively demonstration—a faculty for the took place while as yet language, if it existed at all, supernatural and superstitious, are the consequence expression of thought by outward signs, of which must have been in a condition of simplicity so great of this arrangement. speech is the principal. A being so endowed, placed that it left no trace of itself in the various tongues One of these stories refers to the age of the early upon the world, would have within him the inclina- and idiomatic systems afterwards constructed. It crusades, when Hungary was invaded by a powertion to speak, and also the power of uttering sounds; has always been remarked with surprise of the civi- ful tribe of Mongol-Tartars from the far east, who, but there would at first be no social agreement as to lised nations found in Mexico and Peru, that they had under their chief Caday, and others, spread ruin what sounds were to be held to represent various ideas. not the use of iron, from which it was presumed that through the land. The Hungarian king called on his It would be for time to bring about such an agree they had parted off from the original stock in the nobles and vassals to take the field against the foe. ment, when there was a sufficient number of people eastern continent before that metal had been adapted Amongst other chieftains, this order extended to that at once to occasion a decided need for language, and to use ; but here, in their language, we have evidence of Loewenstein, upon which the good knight Emmerick to form this said agreement. For a long time the of their having descended from that stock while it instantly prepared to obey the summons of his sovenumbers of mankind were probably few, and their was as yet literally in infancy. They probably had reign; and so efficiently and zealously was he seconded faculties ill developed. The process of forming lan- devised rude means of navigation, before they had by his retainers, that, ere the lapse of many days, noguage would accordingly be slow. Out of the gabble formed any thing entitled to the appellation of a lan-thing remained for the brave soldier to do but to take in which their faculties would indulge, through the guage ; for it only could be by drifting over the inter- a fond and affectionate farewell of his family, and sally ordinary instinct which leads all faculties to delight mediate seas that they reached America. The law as forth to dare the issue of the coming struggle. in exercise, only a sound now and then would come to
to diversity and uniformity, spoken of in the early Until the hour of his departure came, the knight be recognised as appropriate to some certain object, part of this essay, at the same time indicates pretty had not found time to bestow a thought upon this quality, or act. The forming of words in this way, clearly that, during the early ages of the world, man- parting ; nor was it until he saw his gallant Arab and their recognition by other partics, are things kind were few in numbers and widely scattered. It fretting in the court-yard, and flinging large flakes which we see almost every day. Children are con has been shown that, where population is dense, lan- of foam in the air as it tossed its graceful neck, and stantly forming new words, which become recognised guage inclines to uniformity; where sparse, to diver-strove to escape from the hands of the groom, that in a little circle as representatives of ideas. The sity. Now, not only are the five classes altogether he became aware of a sinking of the heart and a vicious classes of civilised communities create cant various, but amongst each class there is a very great sadness of the spirit, which he would willingly have languages for themselves. There must be a constant difference both as to words and grammatical forms. shaken off, but could not. new-making of terms for things in the mechanical For example, the foundations of the Celtic, Gothic, Next to his country and his honour, the gallant arts. A peculiar readiness of tongue in some indivi- and Sclavonic, the three great genera of the Indo- Sir Emmerick loved the lady Agnes. She had been dual creates the sound : the bystanders make it a European class, could only have been laid amongst so young, so beautiful, and so innocent, when he made word. A friend states that one of his children has families placed widely apart, and which had brought her his bride ; she had become so excellent a wife, and from infancy shown a turn for making new words, away from the stock only a few common terms and a so staid and queenly a matron; and she had reared which the rest constantly adopt. The inclination in general tendency to one set of idiomatic forms. The his brave boys and his fair and gentle girls in such this instance seems almost unconscious, and none of varieties of these genera must also have been formed sweet peace and beautiful obedience, that the housethe rest of the family has ever exhibited a similar amongst a small and widely separated set of people. hold of Loewenstein had grown into a proverb in the tendency. Such a person would probably have taken The colonisation of the earth way, therefore, be pre- province. Sad indeed was the parting ; for the lady a lead in language-making in a primitive society. sumed to have generally been effected by extremely Agnes well knew the half-savage and barbarous naThere is a class of words which has evidently been sma!! parties, perhaps in many instances by single ture of the enemies against whom her lord was about suggested by sounds connected with the objects they families. In arriving at this point, it may be re to contend, and the most gloomy forebodings pressed stand for. The word for calf in Gaelic, for instance, is an exact fac-simile of the cry of the animal. It
upon her spirit. was almost unavoidable that nearly the same word
*Syntactic, presenting complicated grammatical forms; alactic,
destitute of such forms, which last is the case of the Chinese. * “ The Hungarian Castle." By Miss Pardoe, author of " The should be applied to the cuckoo in the languages of | American Cyclopædia, article Languages.
City of the Sultan," &c. 3 vols. London: T. and W. Boone.