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with water and the sapping of the city. The com- also seen the great aqueduct of Arcueil, with its sup- octavo, and closely printed, are full of most interesting mission began its work of cure, aided by a very large porting columns. Dy various sinuosities, the visiter matter, and contain, besides, not less than four hun. body of workmen. Great pains were taken in cutting arrives at the gallery of Port Mahon, so called from dred beautiful illustrations, engraved from the original galleries from labyrinth to labyrinth, to ascertain the a sculptured view of the taking of that fort executed paintings. From the large stores of varied matter extent of the mischief, and in vaulting and propping by Decure, an invalid soldier. He perished there by which Mr Catlin presents to us, we shall take leave to every part that seemed to require such support. The a fall of the rocks, while the chisel was yet in his hand. lay before the reader, in the first place, one of the extent of the quarries, however, rendered the labour A fountain was here discovered by the workmen, and a author's experiences as a wandering traveller. He gigantic, and, long ere matters were permanently put basin made for their use, with a small subterraneous was one day riding across an Upper Missouri prairie, in order, the happy idea of converting these excava aqueduct. It was first called the Well of Lethe, and where the grass is seven or eight feet high, with three tions into receptacles for the refuse of the charnel- was inscribed with a couplet from Virgil ; but a Scrip- companions, one an Indian guide of the name of house of the Innocents, had occurred to M. Lenoir, tural quotation, more appropriate to the place, now Pah-me-o-ne-qua, or the red thunder. Three of the the inspector of the city police. The suggestion was marks its site--"Whosoever drinketh of this water, party sat down to their mid-day meal, but the Indian made public, and approved of by the Council of State, shall thirst again; but whosoever drinketh of the stood aloof, sad and thoughtful. “This is the plain who, in 1785, decreed the opening of the charnel-pits water I shall give him, shall never thirst; but the of fire grass," said he," where the fleet-bounding wild of the Innocents, and the removal of the bones of the water that I shall give him, shall be to him a well of horse mingles his bones with the red man, and the dead to the quarries. The first step was to make an water springing up into everlasting life.” It contains cagle's wing is melted as he darts over its surface." entrance into the quarries by a flight of seventy-seven a few gold-fish, which seem to bear that dark abode Notwithstanding these ominous words, after gazing steps, and to sink a shaft from the surface, down which very well, as we find them mentioned by visiters both long around, he gracefully sank down on the grass, the relics of mortality might be thrown. At the same of 1818 and 1832. A few other inscriptions are to be and his relieved companions chatted cheerfully by his time, the workmen below walled off that portion of found here, such as Dante's famous line
side. But on a sudden Red Thunder was on his the excavation designed for the great charnel-house,
" Leave hope behind, all ye who enter here."
feet- his long arm was stretched over the grass, and properly supported the roof. On the 7th of April
and his blazing eyeballs starting from their sockets. 1786, all the preparations
being completed, the new A fire is also kept burning, in an antiquely-shaped White man,' said he, see ye that small cloud lifting catacombs were consecrated with much solemnity, and vase, to purify the air of the vaults.
itself from the prairie -he rises ! the hoofs of our on that same day the work of removal began. Bones A mineralogical collection of some interest has been horses have waked him! The Fire Spirit is awake and partially preserved coffins were brought by night formed from the various strata composing the sides of this wind is from his nostrils, and his face is this
way? to the shaft in funeral cars, followed by robed priests the galleries. But the most interesting collection here No more ; but his swift horse darted under him, and chanting the service for the dead. The nature of the is the Museum of the Dead. On approaching the he gracefully slid over the waving grass as it was bent task, the glare of the torches, and, above all
, the hollow catacomb galleries, the
visiter finds the vestibule
to be by the wind. Our viands were left, and we were swift rattling and ochoing of skeletons, bones, and broken in the form of an octagon. Its gate is flanked by two on his trail. The extraordinary leaps
of his wild horse wood, in their fall down the shaft, sent back as the pillars
, and is inscribed above
with some lines of occasionally raised his red shoulders to view, and he sounds were by the vaults below, rendered the whole poetry. The interior of the catacombs is arranged sank again in the waving billows of grass
. The tremuscene peculiarly impressive and awful.
with propriety and decorum. The crypts holding the lous wind was hurrying by us fast, and on it was borne But the relics of human beings, in their ordinary divisions
of piled bones have each of them
soaring eagle. His neck was condition, were not the most romarkable part of the names, some of which are appropriate, others absurd. stretched for the towering bluff,
and the thrilling materials transferred from one site to another on this There is the crypt or niche
of Eternity, for example, sereams of his voice told the secret
that was behinå occasion. The pits of the Innocents exhibited immense that of Death,
and that of the Resurrection, each him. Our horses were swift, and we struggled hard ; masses of the soft white substance called adipocire, marked by corresponding inscriptions. There is also yet hope was feeble, for the bluff was yet blue, and into which the bodies had been converted, and which a niche for the victims of the Revolution, with some nature nearly exhausted. The sunshine was dying, had been noticed under similar circumstances at for Latin lines above, which may be rudely Englished
and a cool shadow advancing over the plain. Not mer periods. Adipocire had some of the mingled “ THESR, when fierce Discord had usurp'a the throne, daring to look back, we strained every nerve. The qualities of wax and tallow, being capable of use in Prompter of crimes and law and right were scorn'd roar of a distant cataract seemed gradually advancing the manufacture of candles. Respect, however, for
By bloody ruthless men were done to death."
on us--the winds increased, the howling tempest was what had once been the human body, of course dictated Among
the inappropriately named crypts may safely maddening behind us--and the swift-winged beetle the consignment of the masses of adipocire found in be reckoned those to which the names of Ovid, Ana- and heath bens instinctively drew their straight lines the pits of the Innocents, to the new catacombs under creon, and some others, have been applied. An album, over our heads. The fleet-bounding antelope passed the Plaine de Mont-Rouge.
as might have been anticipated, is among the other us also ; and the still swifter long-legged hare, who The catacombs of Paris received in succession the appendages of the catacombs.
leaves but a shadow as he flies. Here was no time for contents of the smaller cemeteries of Saint-Eustache The other galleries of these great excavations need thought ; but I recollect the heavens were overcast and Saint-Etienne-des-Gres, after those mentioned. not be named or described in detail. One general the distant thunder was heard—the lightning's glare There, too, the victims of the revolution found a ready feature marks them all, and it is worthy of mention, was reddening the scene--and the smell that came on and roomy abode; and when the popular fury demo- as reminding us most forcibly that these vaults are the winds struck terror to my soul.
The lished a number of the churches, the bones lodged in not simple objects of curiosity, or to be thought of piercing yell of my savage guide at this moment cama them after the old fashion were removed to the same merely as pleasant spectacles, but are to be lamented back upon the winds ; his robe was seen waving in great receptacle. Between 1792 and 1808, the cata- as the possible sources of calamity and ruin to the the air, and his foaming horse leaping up the towering combs received the exhumations of twelve other minor great city under which blind neglect allowed them to bluff. cemeteries in and around Paris. Between 1808 and be formed. Constant attention to them is imperatively Our breath and our sinews, in this last struggle for 1811, new excavations, made in the cemetery of the demanded to secure the safety of the capital of France, life, were just enough to bring us to its summit. We Innocents for the passage of a canal, rendered it neces and the provision adverted to consists in every subter- had risen from a sea of fire! Great God !' I exclaimed, sary to convey a large quantity of additional relics to ranean street being numbered precisely like the one how sublime to gaze into that valley, where the elethe catacombs; and a few other churches and ceme- occupying the ground above. This is necessary in ments of nature are so strangely convulsed !' Ask teries were emptied into them in the course of the order to apply new supports, on the slightest indi. not the poet or painter how it looked, for they can tell next few years. Having thus made use of the quar- cation of danger, to the exact point where they are you not; but ask the naked savage, and watch the ries, and poured into them in all an immense quantity required.
electric twinge of his manly nerves and muscles, as he of human remains, the Parisians did not adopt the
pronounces the lengthened Hush-sh' his hand on catacombs, as perhaps thoy might wisely have done, as their general burying-place. On the contrary, they
CATLIN'S WORK ON THE NORTH
his mouth, and his glaring eyeballs looking you to the created various new cemeteries above ground, though
I beheld beneath me an immense cloud of black under comparatively excellent regulations, as the
smoke, which extended from one extremity of this famous Père la Chaise and Montmartre sufficiently Opall the works
wet published on the subject of the vast plain to the other, and
seemed majestically to roll testify. The revolutionary disturbances impeded the opo- seems to us, can
be compared in point of accuracy and mighty desolation, as it rolled along, the whitened rations still requisite to render the vast quarries and extent of research with that of Mr George Catlin, smoke, pale with terror, was streaming and rising up catacombs of Paris stable and safe. The ordinary newly reprinted in Great Britain from the American in magnificent cliffs to heaven. vaults became, consequently, full of cracks, water fil edition.* A surprising amount of time and labour
I stood secure, but tremblingly, and heard the mad. trated through the roofs, and fresh downfalls seemed has been devoted by the author to the collection of dening wind, which hurled this monster o'er the land impending. The air was rendered noxious by the materials for, his task. Born on the banks of the -I heard the roaring thunder, and saw its thousand tect, began to make new repairs. He built new pil- ginally set to the study of the law;
but, unable to lightnings filash ; and then I saw behind the black and lars, and formed channels for removing the water from the legal profession, and became a painter in occurred to Mr Catlin when travelling alone. Alarmed resist the strong bent of his genius, he turned aside smoking desolation of this storm of fire.”
Another adventure, illustrative of life on the prairies, the upper half of a broken bottle, with the neck outer Philadelphiae lifew years afterwards, a deputa; at the violence of an epidemic at Fort Gibson on the most, into the wells which supply the houses above tion of noble-looking Indians came to the city, and Arkansas, he resolved to leave the baneful spot, and with water, and which had been made
to descend made so deep an impression on his fancy, that he ride across to the Missouri, over a nearly desolate through the quarries to the ground below, like so resolved not only to visit these " beautiful models” tract,
five hundred miles
in breadth. Though much many round towers. By uncorking
these bottle-necks, of the human forin in their native wilds, but also to dissuaded, he started on his jouruey, with no compaair is let in at will. As regarded the catacombs, the devote his lifetime to the task of illustrating, by pictonion but his old friend Charley, a clay-bued horse of bones lay in heaps thirty yards high in some places, rial representations, the history and customs of this the Camanchee
wild breed. After
twenty-five days and the workmen had to make galleries through them, people, destined, it would seem, to be known to future of perfectly solitary travelling, Mr Catlin had
an and pile them along the walls in regular order. Such ages only by such records, timeously formed. Sacrific adventure when he rested for the night. “I generally as exhibited disease were arranged into an osteological ing to this great object the society of a beloved family, halted on the bank of some little
stream, at half an cabinet. In short, order and security
were, for the and all the
comforts of bome, Mr Catlin set out in hour's sun, where feed was good for Charley, and where first time, truly introduced into the arrangements of 1832 for the Upper Missouri, with the fixed resolve I could get wood to kindle my fire, and water for my this subterranean world.
that nothing short of the loss of life should prevent coffee. The first thing was to undress Charley and The catacombs of Paris remain, generally speaking, the succeeding eight years, he traversed North America graze over a circle that he could describe at the end
the full completion of his purpose. In the course of drive down his picket, to which he was fastened, to nearly in the same condition as left by M. de Thury, almost from end to end, saw and mixed with forty- of his lasso. In this wise he busily fed himself until to render the place more interesting to visitants: eight Indian tribes, composing a large portion of the nightfall; and after my coffee was made and drank, Three staircases, of which the best known is that of two millions of red people yet in existence, examined 1 uniformly moved him up, with his picket by my the Barrière d'Enfer, conduet the modern visiter into personally into all their peculiarities,
and, finally, ac head, so that I could lay my hand upon his
lasso in an the vaults. On entering, a black line is to be noticed cumulated a noble gallery of portraits and a rich instant, in case of any alarm that
was liable to drive
him from me. On one of these evenings when he was gaide through them, which the most familiarised lasting monument to himself, and an invaluable record grazing as usual
, he slipped the lasso over his head, and visiter cannot safely neglect. On the right and left of Indian persons, manners, and habiliments. of the first gallery, that of the Rue St Jacques, se vor all the qualities of the traveller, artist, and historian, night approached, I took the lasso in hand and endea
This is a long exordium, but Mr Catlin, combining he chose to prefer it, as he was strolling around. When
deliberately took his supper at his pleasure, wherever Mont Rouge. The visiter cannot penetrate far, until merits no sparing notice. His two volumes, large poured to catch him, but I soon saw that he was be sees startling marks of the fall of rocks, and beholds stalactites hanging down in abundance
from the of the North American Indiang By George Catiin. London: nually ovaded me until dark, when I abandoned the
. Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Condition determined to enjoy a little freedom ; and he contiwalls, Lo the gallery under the street St Jacques, is | Published by the Author at the Egyptian Haul 1841. pursuit, making up my mind that I should inevitably
The Indians, again, who live farther north from various kinds of ornaments. There are, besides a fine self meant that no one should suffer in any respect;
lose him, and be obliged to perform the rest of my | of bravery she had performed-of the incredible num. room are of green satin damask.
We passed again journey on foot. He had led me a chase of half a ber of horses she had stolen-of the scalps she had through the first room to another, the walls of which mile or more, when I left him busily grazing, and taken, &c. &c. ; until her feats surpassed all that had are graced by some of Wilkie's paintings. On one returned to
little solitary bivouac, and laid myself ever been heard of-sufficient to put all the warriors side is a fine portrait of Lady Grosvenor, which had on my bear skin, and went to sleep.
who had boasted to the blush. They all gave assent, had the effect of at one time inspiring a groom of the In the middle of the night I waked, whilst I was however, to what she had said, and apparently cre- chambers with a passion for painting, which he inlying on my back, and on half opening my eyes, I was dence, too; and to rewara such extraordinary feats of dulged by making a very tolerable copy. The Counshocked to the soul, by the huge figure (as I thought) female prowess, they presented to her a kettle, a tess-Duchess of Sutherland took the picture, and. of an Indian standing over me, and in the very instant cradle, beads, ribbons, &c. After getting her presents, rewarded the aspiring groom handsomely. This house of taking my scalp. The chill of horror that paralysed and placing them safely in the hands of another appears to be favourable to the development of genius, me for the first moment, held me still till I saw there matron for safe keeping, she commenced disrobing for we were told of another person, a boy, who acted was no need of my moving—that my faithful horse herself; and, almost instantly divesting herself of å as a kind of supernumerary in the butler's pantry, and Charley had 'played shy' till he had filled his belly, loose dress, in the presence of the whole company, who tried to copy a portrait of the duke. He was and had then moved up, from feelings of pure affection, came out in a soldier's coat and pantaloons, and also taken notice of and encouraged. Next to this is or from instinctive fear, or, possibly, from a due share laughed at them excessively for their mistake.' She the drawing-room, a fine large room, with two handof both, and taken his position with his forefeet at the then commenced dancing and making her boasts of some fire-places, the mantel-pieces being of white edge of my bed, with his head hanging directly over her exploits, assuring them that she was a man, and a marble, beautifully carved. The walls are hung with me, while he was standing fast asleep.”
great brave. They all gave unqualified assent to this, yellow satin damask; the sofas, chairs, &c., of yellow Intending to take another glance at the compre- acknowledged their error, and made her other pre- and blue satin damask. In the middle of the room hensive contents of these volumes, we shall go on with sents of a gun, a horse, of tobacco, and a war-club. there is a raised pillar, of some kind of white compoextracts taken almost at random on the present occa After her boasts were done, and the presents secured sition, with a thick wreath of gilding twining round sion. Reaching the country of the Camanchees, on as before, she deliberately threw off the pantaloons it. This pillar supports a globe or ball of bronze, enthe upper parts of the Red River, he found this large and coat, and presented herself at once, and to their circled by a belt of gilt, with numerical figures round tribe to be one of those whom the introduction of great astonishment and confusion, in a beautiful it. Under the ball there are little bronze figures, holdhorses by the Spaniards had totally altered in cha- woman's dress. The tact with which she performed ing up a serpent, and the head of the serpent acts as a racter and position. Great troops of wild horses, small, these parts, so uniformly pleased, that it drew forth hand of a clock, the machinery being within the ball, but strong and delicately limbed, traverse the prairies thundering applause from the Indians, as well as from which revolves, the figures indicating the time: round here, and the Camanchee almost lives in the saddle. the spectators; and the chief stepped up and crowned the base of the pillar is a circular sofa. In the next He wars on horseback, and his main sports are eques- her head with a beautiful plume of the eagle's quill, room, over the mantel-piece, is a splendid full-length trian. Racing horses, it would seem, is a constant rising from a crest of the swan's down.”
portrait of the Duchess of Sutherland, with a beautiful and almost incessant exercise, and their principal At another opportunity, we shall present a further child seated on her knee. Opposite to this is a picmode of gambling ; and, perhaps, a more finished set notice of these highly interesting volumes.
ture by Martin-the Assuaging of the Waters of the of jockeys are not to be found. "The exercise of these
Deluge. This is the last of the suite of rooms on people, in a country where horses are so abundant, and
LETTERS FROM A LADY IN LONDON TO
the ground-floor to the back, all of which look into the country so fine for riding, is chiefly done on horse
St James's Park. You issue from this into another back ; and it 'stands to reason, that such a people,
HER NIECE IN THE COUNTRY.
long corridor, corresponding exactly with the one on who have been practising from their childhood, should
the other side by which we entered, also filled in the become exceedingly expert in this wholesome and
same tasteful manner with some very fine paintings, beautiful exercise. Amongst their feats of riding, MY DEAR JANE,-As my last letter appears to have vases, &c. There were two pictures, so beautiful that there is one that has astonished me more than any afforded you some degree of gratification, I am again we could have lingered before them for hours. These thing of the kind I have ever seen, or expect to see, tempted to address you, in the hope that this epistle represented the children of the Duke of Sutherlandin my life ; a stratagem of war, learned and practised by every young man in the tribe, by which he is able may prove equally amusing to you. Since I last lovely little creatures, elegant in form and feature, and
gracefully grouped together. to drop his body upon the side of his horse at the wrote, I have been making the best use of my time, to
I find myself obliged to allude so frequently to instant he is passing, effectually screened from his dispose of which judiciously in London requires no members of the family, that it seems necessary I enemies' weapons, as he lies in a horizontal position small degree of management. Some days ago, I was should acquaint you with a few particulars respecting behind the body of his horse, with his heel hanging fortunate enough to procure a note of admission to it. You are aware of an immense county in the north over the horse's back-by which he has the power of Stafford Ilouse
, the town residence of the Duke of of Scotland, called Sutherland, which is composed side of the horse, if necessary. In this wonderful Sutherland. This is not one of the common sights belonged, from the latter part of the twelfth century, condition, he will hang whilst his horse is at fullest of London, no one being admitted without an order to a family supposed to be of Flemish origin, who speed, carrying with him his bow and his shield, and from the Duke or Duchess of Sutherland. Along took their name from it, and became its earls, as a also his long lance of fourteen feet in length, all or with two friends, I availed myself of the privilege title inferring the possession of and dominion over either of which he will wield upon his enemy as he which had been obtained, on Friday last, and what I the land, The Earls of Sutherland continued to exist passes ; rising and throwing his arrows over the horse's back, or, with equal case and equal success,
baw on that occasion will be the subject of my presenting part in most of the great transactions of their under the horse's neck. This astonishing feat, which communication.
time. I may mention, for instance, that the Earl of the young men have been repeatedly playing off to Stafford House is next to St James's Palace, the Sutherland was the first person who signed the Naour surprise as well as amusement, whilst they have back looking towards
St James's Park, and the front tional Covenant, on its being brought before the people been galloping
about in front of our tents, completely entrance looking in the same direction as the front of in the old Greyfriars' Church in Edinburgh, in the of magic, rather than of skill acquired by practice
. the palace ; the side windows command a view of the the Scottish people in resistance to Charles I. A I had several times great curiosity to approach them, door of St James's, which is not in the front of the numerous clan and following recognised the Earl as to ascertain by what means their bodies could be sus- building--at which door, I believe, the Queen always their chief, calling him, in their own language, Morar pended in this manner, where nothing could be seen
enters. The drive or carriage-road leading to the Chat, or the great man of the Clan Chattan. At but the heel hanging over the horse's back. In these park, divides Stafford House from the Palace of St length, after
an unbroken line
of seventeen earls, the day 1 coaxed a young fellow up within a little distance James's. The house is a large, handsomely built, months old, notwithstanding a powerful legal opposiof me, by offering him a few plugs of tobacco, and be square edifice, possessed originally by the Duke of tion from two male relatives. She was called by the in a moment solved the difficulty, so far as to render York, after whose death it became the residence of Highlanders the Banie Morar Chat, or Woman Morar it apparently more feasible than before ; yet leaving Dirs Coutts, afterwards Duchess of St Albans. It Chat. She was one of the cleverest peeresses of her it one of the most extraordinary results of practice was ultimately bought by the late Duke of Suther day, being in particular a remarkably good drauglitsthat a short hair halter was passed around under the land ; but the furnishing and arrangements internally nobleman of ancient lineage, and property immense neck of the horse, and both ends tightly braided into were not completed until after it came into the pos- as her own, though, perhaps not covering so large the mane, on the withers, leaving a loop to hang session of the present noble proprietor, who has spared a piece of the globe's surface „George Earl Gower, under the neck, and against the breast, which, being nothing that could add to the effect of the internal afterwards Marquis of Stafford. In the latter part caught up in the hand, makes a sling into which the
of their lives, this couple, by the favour of Wildecorations. elbow falls, taking the weight of the body on the
liam IV., became Duke and Duchess of Suthermiddle of the upper arm. Into this loop the rider
The main entrance to Stafford House is surmounted land, a 'title which has now descended to their drops suddenly and fearlessly, leaving his heel to hang by a stone pediment supported on pillars. On enter- eldest son. It used to be said of the Duke of Sutherover the back of the horse, to steady him, and also to ing the lobby, which is laid with black and white floor- land, that his income was equal to a thousand pounds enable him when he wishes to regain his upright cloth, you find yourself reflected in the opposite doors, a-day. Some years before you knew the world, he
Besides this wonderful art, these people have several which are entirely composed of mirror glass. There is change of a most remarkable nature, converting what other feats of horsemanship, which they are continually a small apartment on the right and another on the left had formerly been an enormous cluster of small farms, showing off ; which are pleasing and extraordinary, side of the door, for the accommodation of the porter, where the people in general lived very miserably, into and of which they seem very proud.. A people whs I suppose. You ascend one or two steps, and by a
a series of large sheep-farms, where the people are few spend so very great a part of their lives actually on side door are admitted into a long corridor, lighted by Auous people being mostly removed to villages on the
but comparatively affluent and comfortable, the supertheir horses? backs, must needs become exceedingly a window looking to the front. This gallery is hung coast, where they practise fishing and other indusexpert in every thing that pertains to riding-to war or to the chase ; and I am ready, without hesitation, with pictures, and along each side there are close trious arts.
The change was productive of great to pronounce the Camanchees the most extraordinary cabinets, painted cream colour, containing books. The discontent, and not in every case effected without borsemen that I doubt very much whether any people in the world are of white marble, surmounted with busts, vases, and such was then his title) were good, and that he himhave seen yet in all my travels, and tops of these cabinets, which were about four feet high, somewhat strong measures ; but it is every where
acknowledged that the views of the marquis (for can surpass them.” Mexico, and who are compelled to live as their fathers portrait of the present duke by Sir Thomas Lawrence, and, while Sutherlandshire now sustains as large a did, far excel the Camanchees in all ball-plays, games, marble busts of the duke and duchess, beautifully population as ever, it cannot well be doubted that and sports performed on foot, and these form much executed, the one on the right and the other on the the individuals composing it are much better off, of the business of Indian life. To entertain our left hand in walking along. At the extremity of in all essential points, than they ever were before. readers, we quote one scene which Mr Catlin saw at this corridor, we were admitted to a moderately You may believe, as I was walking amidst the splena great Indian dance at St Anthony on the Upper sized apartment, in which there were some of the dours of Stafford House, I was constantly thinking Mississippi. “During this scene, a little trick was played off in the following manner, which produced them so singularly pleasing was their appearing per- cient Dunrobin on the Sutherlandshire coast, where finest landscape paintings I ever saw—what made of the connexion of the family with various scenes in
my native country of a very different kind-from ansize, and in woman's attire, danced into the ring fectly natural. We were led from this into an apart- they once lived in a single lofty tower, to Leven (which seemed to excite some surprise, as women are
ment on the right, where there is a bronze statue House in the suburbs of Edinburgh, where the late never allowed to join in the dance), and commenced of the present Marquis of Stafford, the eldest son of Duchess-Countess was born in 1765_a mansion then sawing the air, and boasting of the astonishing feats the duke, in a Highland dress. The walls of this considered a neat villa for a nobleman's residence,
20 to 30 30 to 40 40 to 50 50 to CO
1:14 1.32 1-97 3.60
1:54 1.83 2.36 4:32
172 2:30 3.10 4.51
but now fallen into a very poor condition, and gene- told, is the grand door of entrance leading from the For each year there is an exact amount-as, for inrally occupied by a very humble class of people. outer lobby; so that, when this splendid door is thrown stance, at the age of twenty-eight, he has the chance of
In the corridor last mentioned, we found a bronze open, the staircase is seen from the lobby. These glass being just about six-tenths (0-603) of a week sick ; but cast taken from the face of Napoleon after death. The panels, we were told, were fitted up at the cost of we need not here specify so closely. Between thirty features are sharp and angular, although the outline | L.700. So much, dear Jane, for the “sight” of and forty, the probable annual duration of sickness of the face is that with which every one almost is Stafford House, than which I could scarcely wish you is a little higher, or about two-thirds of a week overfamiliar. From one side of this gallery we were led a greater treat; but, until such time as you can ac head (strictly from 0-621 to 0.758 parts of a week). into the grand hall and magnificent staircase, which complish this, I hope you will rest contented with this At forty-six, his chance is a-week per annum. At exceeds any thing I have ever seen or imagined. There gossiping description from your affectionate aunt. fifty-seven, it rises to two weeks. A man's whole is a similar entrance from the opposite gallery, so that
chance of sickness, from his twenty-first to his sixyou can approach from either side. This hall is 73
tieth year, inclusive, is nearly forty-two weeks. Above feet high, and in space 79 feet by 50. The proportions PROVISION AGAINST THE EVIL DAY. that period of life, the days of disability multiply fast. are on a noble scale, and every thing is in keeping ONE remarkable feature of the social condition of this at seventy, he is nearly eleven weeks out of the fiftywith the grand plan. The floor is black and white,
two seriously unwell. and the walls are of variously coloured scagliola, inlaid country, is that, while the upper classes have real and
Since the Highland Society made these observa. with a transparent kind of spar, and highly polished, well-secured funds to depend upon in all contingencies, tions, the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowso that one might mistake it for some precious kind and while tho middle classes have generally business ledge has exerted itself in a similar way, and a theoof stone. To relieve the great expanse of the walls, funds not to be exhausted in a short time, and by life- retical table has been compiled by Mr Edmonds. We which would otherwise meet the eye with a tame effect, parts are raised in such a manner as to appear widows and orphans against want, the working-classes of 100 persons living at certain intervals of age :assurance can and to a great extent do secure their shall present the results of all the three investigations
in a tabular form, showing the proportion of sick out panelled. A spacious gallery runs round three sides of this hall, supported by bronze figures ; and on one in general live from hand to mouth, not only making side, in the lower hall, stands a superb table of por no provision for those they may leave behind them, phyry. The ceiling is white, richly gilt ; and under but scarcely assured of having the means of putting
Ages. the dome is a row of windows, each divided from the
over a week's sickness, without being obliged to have other by a figure (of which there are twelve), the upper half being of bronze, and the lower part termi.
recourse to some humiliating expedient. This is a nating in a gilt scroll. The figures appear to support deplorable state of things; for, while the competitive the dome on their heads. The effect of this at night, system lasts, he who is always on the verge of depenwhen brilliantly illuminated, must be very grand : we dence is necessarily the slave of those to whom he In these three tables there is, it will be observed, a were told that there are a hundred lights in the hall looks for succour. "A right condition of the working- considerable difference. We may mention, that some in the
roof, which pour in a flood of softened light, being perfectly self-dependent. and staircase, besides a row of jets outside the windows classes would, we apprehend, include the idea of their societies in Edinburgh have found their experience of
sickness exceed the Highland Society rate by, at an like brilliant stars, I should suppose. We were now taken up the grand staircase, which To this end it seems absolutely necessary that they average, 87. per cent.; a result which we find ac
counted for in a very intelligible way by a report of branches off on each side ; that on the right leading should husband their gains in such a manner as to
the Edinburgh Compositors' Society. In the societies to the private apartments of the duchess, and the left enable them to provide against the usual evils of life. from which the Highland Society obtained returns, taking us to the public rooms. The gallery is very | Their gains are either sufficient for this purpose, or the extension of relief was considered as a kind of spacious, with a massive balustrade running round, the they are not : if they are, it is an obvious duty that charity, and applications were therefore only made in effect heightened by beautiful pillars of grey marble, they should be used for that amongst other purposes ; extreme cases. But in the societies in question, the of immense height. The doors opening out on the gal. if not, then the predicament of the working-classes is pension during sickness is regarded as a right, and lery are all panelled with mirror-glass ; and by one of in some way wrong, and should be amended. As therefore freely taken. these, on the right hand, we were conducted through suredly, while this large portion of the community A few years ago, some interesting observations were & small room purposely fitted up as a stove-room, for has to look to the middle and upper classes for suc- made with respect to the large body of men employed heating plates, &c., adjoining the grand dining-room. cour in every kind of distress, to however small an as artisans and labourers in the dockyards at WoolThe latter is a beautiful apartment indeed, and extent that succour may be required, in so far do wich, Chatham, Portsmouth, &c. In the three years evinces more than any thing the exquisite taste of they forfeit their independence and suffer a moral included in the observations, 1831, 2, and 3, there was the proprietor of this princely mansion. I think deterioration. They ought to be enabled, by the cor that general uniformity of result which tends to give the length was 80 feet by 50; but I may mistake rectness of their views on these points, and by the confidence in the arrangements made in consequence in this. The floor is of inlaid oak, highly polished ; amount of their gains, to ensure themselves against of such inquiries. We shall give the results for 1831 the walls are white, with an elegant gilt scroll. At erery casualty, even the temporary failure of employ and 2, as the number of men was nearly the same in each end, the room is contracted, forming a recess, ment. All who are acquainted with the doctrine of those years, namely, 2079 and 2002. The cases of supported with massive pillars of white, futed with probabilities, know that to ensure against even that diseases in the two years were, respectively, 697 and gold ; at the upper end is the sideboard for the dis- last peculiar casualty would be merely a matter of 888 ; of hurts, 357 and 325; the total days of sickness, play of plate-all above and behind it being of mirror calculation, and easily practicable if a sufficiently large respectively, 15,072 and 14,225. If we might be jusglass, which will reflect not only the plate but the number were to unite.
tified in taking this body of working-men as a critecompany. The ceiling is superbly decorated, being Passing in the mean time from the general question, rion, it would appear that, in the year, every 1 man divided into compartments of white, and richly orna let us consider the means which at present exist to in 6 of this class is seriously hurt, and that 2 in 5 fall mented with gold; from the centre depends one large enable working-men to provide against the evils of ill. Each man is liable to have an attack of illness, chandelier, lacquered with gold. There are two fire their lot. We once showed (No. 357) by what simple either spontaneous or caused by external injury, every places, of richly carved white marble, and opposite to means a union of working-men could provide them- two years ; and at an average each disease lasts 14 them a window, the only one in the room, looking to selves and their families with medicines and medical days. When we see these painful contingencies presented the front of the house. The dining-room was used, attendance, thereby rendering themselves quite inde in so distinct and certain a form, the necessity of providing for the first time, last year, on the occasion of the pendent of infirmaries and dispensaries-institutions against them becomes strikingly apparent. Queen and Prince Albert visiting the Duke and which, though necessary in the present state of society, Amongst the East India Company's labourers in Duchess of Sutherland. The entertainment was laid and creditable to the good feelings of the wealthier London-men selected at first as sound and strong, here, and a splendid one it would be, I have no doubt. classes, are in reality a degradation to the classes but working and also dwelling in somewhat unfavourUnknown to her Majesty, the band of the Guards was benefited by them. Let us now see by what means able circumstances, in the centre of a crowded cityconcealed somewhere about the gallery, and when she an association of working-men could provide that each, it was found, by a calculation made a few years ago, had entered, struck up the national anthem; this during sickness, should have an independent means of that, between the ages of 20 and 30, there were sick appeared to gratify the royal visiters not a little. A support, and also enjoy an income when the days for 1:36 per cent. ; between 30 and 40, 1:38; between 40 small, curiously-formed chamber or ante-room, leads toil are past.
and 50, 1:46; between 50 and 60, 1:91 ; being a less from the dining-room to the grand saloon, the largest It is well known that institutions for these objects rapid advance of sickness with advancing age than has apartment in the house, being 124 feet long, by 33 feet have long existed under the name of Friendly or been observed in other cases. in the centre, where it widens, contracting to 24 feet Benefit Societies. A disposition to enter into and sup From the difference observed in these and other at each end. The floor is polished oak, the walls a port such societies may be said to be general amongst cases, it would appear necessary, in forming a friendly sort of cream colour, and the furniture crimson velvet the labouring portion of the community; yet not by or benefit society, to look to data adapted to the speand gold. In the centre stands a semicircular sofa, any means so general as could be wished, while it is cial class who are to form it. at least 20 feet long, covered with crimson velvet, the equally to be lamented that many of the societies What, in a general view, are the proper principles back high, and covered with the same rich material ; which do exist, are founded upon no certain calcula- for forming a benefit or friendly society, which shall a sort of broad ledge or finish, of white marble, runs tions, so that their permanence cannot be depended include a provision for both sickness and old age? It all the way along the top, and terminates in an ele- on, and many of their members must be disappointed is clear, in the first place, from what we have seen, that gant scroll and figure at each end. The ceiling is of the object they have in view.
the contributions of the various members should have lofty, and is in the same style as that of the staircase ; We cannot sufficiently impress upon all who have a respect to their different ages. We may have an idea windows of ground glass, surmounted by a sort of to do with friendly societies, that, if these have not of a benefit society in its simplest form, if we suppose oblong pediment supported by fanciful pillars of gilt. been founded on calculations, and calculations of a a hundred men, of exactly 33 years of age, to associate, On each side of the fire-place there is a splendid paint proper kind, no good is to be expected of them. and make such a payment
at first as may be sure to ing by Murillo--one representing the Prodigal Son, Supposing a friendly society to contemplate a weekly afford each man that shall fall sick during the ensuing and the other the Angels appearing to Abraham. aliment in sickness and an annuity in old age, the year one shilling a-day during the term of his sickness.
There are various portraits in the room, all more or points to be ascertained for its right foundation, are- Taking (for the sake of illustration) the Scottish less interesting, most of them by the old masters. The first, what is the amount of time per annum in the tables, we find that, amongst such a body of men, windows in the side of this room look towards St ensuing life of each member, which may be expected, there will be about 66 weeks of illness in the course James's, and that at the end looks into the Park, and from the average of a vast number of like cases, to of the year. This, multiplied by 7, gives the whole commands a view of Westminster Abbey. The use be spent by him in sickness ?-and, second, how many sum required, L.23, 23., or a little more than 4s. 6d. of this beautiful room was kindly given by the Duchess out of each set at a certain age, may be expected each, which, less by a small sum for interest, will of Sutherland, a year or two ago, to some of the most to survive sixty, and for how long? A wide range accordingly be the entry-money of each man. A distinguished musical performers in London, who of experience makes it possible to calculate these society of individuals of different ages, each paying the combined their respective talents in aid of the Polish things with some degree of precision. That pa sum which would in like manner be found proper to refugees. The saloon was fitted up as a concert- triotic body, the Highıland Society of Scotland, ob- his age, would be quite as und in principle as one on room, and had the effect of drawing a crowded tained returns from a great number of friendly the above simple scheme. 'It is only a step further to audience, for the opportunity of seeing the interior societies, from which tables were compiled for the equalise each man's annual payments over the whole of Stafford House was itself a powerful attraction. purpose of showing the true probability of sickness period during which he undertakes to be a paying The state drawing-rooms lead off from the saloon ; and mortality amongst the working-classes. It is member. but neither these nor the private apartments were now acknowledged that, from the imperfection of the We shall suppose that the superannuation allowance shown. We had no reason to complain, however; we returns, these tables give too favourable a view of the or pension is contemplated as commencing at 60 years had seen enough to impress us with gratified wonder | case, and would be an unsafe basis to ground upon in of age. It is necessary to consult tables of mortality, at the exquisite taste and refined ingenuity which have practice. Yet we may enter a little into them for the in order to ascertain how many may be expected to been displayed by the duke in the fitting up of this sake of illustration. It appeared that, between twenty reach that age, and how long each of these has a splendid mansion. In descending the stairs, we found and thirty years of age, a man has the chance of being chance of surviving it. We have so recently treated on the wall opposite a series of mirrors : this, we were a little more than half a week per annum indignosed. I of tables of mortality (under the article Rates for
the funds of the society may be improved. In most year it falls on the 8th of February.] Throughout and Teddington, in the vicinity of London, where the they enjoy by act of parliament, to deposit their money the forty days of Lent with one, two, or more days of not aware of any part of the kingdom where this making every allowance for other existing means of It was customary to present the first pancake to the the Newarks whom they can catch, and this as long
Life Assurance, in No. 505), that we shall not say one who resorts to such a society makes an advance The revels of Shrovetide were of a very miscellamuch on this subject. The table presented by the in a true moral condition, and gives incalculable neous order-some being innocent, and others, we Highland Society, as proper for friendly societies, is strength to his position in life, and the peace of his grieve to say, much the reverse. We shall first advert a mean of the Northampton, Carlisle, and Swedish own mind.
to those of an innocent character. The chief of these tables, and may be regarded as tolerably safe for both
seems to have been foot-ball, which was conducted life-assurance and annuity schemes. It shows, that
POPULAR ENGLISH FESTIVALS.
with great spirit, the old looking delightedly at the of 1005 persons of 21 years of age, no fewer than 528
feats of the young. At Alnwick, the ball is thrown reach the age of 60, 336 that of 70, and 127 that of
to the populace from the walls of the castle. The 80 ; thus making it evident how absurd it is for a working man to think that he has an extremely small 22 of February and the 8th of March, being the day in Finsbury Fields. The sport continues to be prac
SHROVE-TUESDAY may occur on any day between the apprentices of London, all of whom were let loose , a cases, we believe, it is best for such societies to rest times, to preface the solemnity and sober living of windows to protect them from the balls. But we are
Christian Europe, it has been customary, from early people have to put hurdles and bushes over their (considering the half yearly payment of interest) about practical
jokes, as if men were anxious to season
them at the village of Scone, near Perth, in Scotland." The selves for what they felt to be a period of dullness, by men
of the parish assemble at the cross, the married L.3, 17s. 6d. yearly, The scheme of a right benefit society may be further thing cheerful. In Rome, as is well known, this merry thrown up, and they play from two o'clock till sunset.
on one side and the bachelors on the other; a ball is proved character, which happens to be well known to prologue to Lent is called the Carnival, meaning the A person who witnessed the
sport in the latter part We callade' to the Edinburgh School of Arts farewell to fleshno such food being used during the of the last century, thus describes it :The game ago. This society, although originating with certain styled Shrove-tide
, from its being
it till overtaken by one of the oppo(a species of mechanics” institution, and taking its be shriced, or shrome, at that time. They also had the from those on the opposite side who seized him, he ran name), is not otherwise connected with that institu- Tuesday, while Ash-Wednesday was the title of the wrested from him by the other party, but no party
on; if not, he threw the ball from him, unless it was residing in Edinburgh. It has three separate funds or observance of this season has been in use for centuries, men was to hang it, that is
, to put it three times into schemes-namely, a Sickness Fund, Deferred Annuity Fund, and a Life Assurance Fund. One share of the Shrove-Tuesday is slightly known as St Fasten's Eve or Fastren's E'en.
a small hole on the moor, which was the dool, or limit, sickness fund entitles the member during sickness to
on the one hand : that of the bachelors was to drown 105. a-week for 52 weeks, 78. 6d. a-week for other 52 from a custom all over England of dining on collops the limit on the other : the party who could effect
Collop-Monday, it may be remarked,, got its name it, or dip it three times in a deep place in the river, weeks, and 58. a-week for all future period of sickness until the age of 60 or 65, according to the age (steaks of salted meat) and eggs on that day. The either of these objects won the game ; if neither
won, of superannuation fixed at entry; and thereafter his boys on that day went about in bands, singing,
the ball was cut into equal parts at sunset. In the contributions cease, and he enters to the enjoyment of
“ Shrove-tide is nigh at hand,
course of the play, there was usually some violence the Deferred Annuity Fund, one share of which en
And I am come a-shroving;
between the parties; but it is a proverb in this part titles the member to an annuity of L.8 a-year, com
Pray, dame, something,
of the country, that 'A' is fair at the ba' o' Scone.'”
An apple or a dumpling, mencing at the age of 60 or 65, as fixed at his entry.
Or a piece of truckle cheese
A similar foot-ball play took place at Inveresk in the One share of the Life Assurance Fund is a sum of
Of your own making,
county of Edinburgh. L.10 payable at the member's death. In this case, as
Or a piece of pancake."
Taylor, the Water Poet, alludes to the custom of a in the others, the contributions cease at the age of On this day it is a regular practice of the boys at fellow carrying about" an ensign made of a piece of a 60 or 65.
Eton to write Latin verses, in all kinds of metres, in baker's mawkin fixed upon a broom-staff,” and make The rates are calculated from the Highland So- praise of Bacchus, and fix them to the college doors. ing orations of nonsense to the people. Perhaps this ciety's sickness table, increased by 50 per cent., which Perhaps this is a vestige of a supposed connexion custom may have been of a similar nature and design in this case may be considered as sufficient (seeing between the Christian festivals of this season with the to one practised in France on Ash-Wednesday. The that only sound healthy men are admitted), and Gentile rejoicings and festivities of the same period of people there “ carry, an effigy, similar to our Guy a mortality table compounded of the Northampton, the year in honour of the god of wine.
Faukes, round the adjacent villages, and collect money Carlisle, and Swedish, assuming the rate of interest at Shrove-Tuesday has been from time immemorial in for his funeral, as this day, according to their creed, 4 per cent. accumulated yearly; and the only charges England a day of unusual merriment, feasting, and is the burial of good living. After sundry absurd for management are 28. 6d. entry-money to each fund, sport. “Welcome, merry Shrove-tide ?” sings gentle mummeries, the corpse is deposited in the earth."* and 1s. a-year payable by each member of each fund.
Master Silence. At an early period of the day, the In the latter part of the last century, a curious cus The following is an example of the payments re- bells were set a-ringing, generally by the people them- tom of a similar nature still survived in Kent. A quired for one share in all the three funds ; namely- selves, and it was from that time till a late hour in group of girls engaged themselves at one part of a Payments to Cease at the age of Sixty.
the evening held allowable to indulge in an unlimited village in burning an uncouth image, which they Age.
preparing and devouring of pancakes. So conspicuous called a holly boy, and which they had stolen from the Payment. Payment.
was this fare on the occasion, that the day was some boys ; while the boys were to be found in another part £1 105 £0 2 61
times called Pancake Day.' Shakspeare makes his of the village burning a like effigy, which they called 1 17 3 0 3 1$
clown in " All's Well that Ends Well” speak of some- the ivy girl, and which they had stolen from the girls ; 2 6 3 03.113
thing being “as fit as a pancake for Shrove-Tuesday.” the ceremony being in both cases accompanied by Payments to Cease at SIXTY-PIVE.
It will be recollected that the parishioners of the loud huzzas.* These are fashions, we humbly opine,
Vicar of Wakefield" religiously, ate pancakes at smacking of a very early and probably pagan origin.
Shrove-tide." Hear also our quaint old friend, the At Bromfield, in Cumberland, there used to be a still £1 5 9 £0 2 2
Water Poet—“Shrove-Tuesday, at whose entrance more remarkable custom. The scholars of the free 1 1073
in the morning all the whole kingdom is inquiet, but school of that parish assumed a right, from old use and 0.3 lj 1 17 5
by that time the clock strikes eleven, which (by the wont, to bar out the master, and keep him out for three so that a person of the age of 25, for an entry-money help of a knavish sexton) is commonly before nine, days. During the period of this expulsion, the doors of 78. 6d., and a payment of 2s. 20. a-month until the there is a bell rung called Pancake Bell, the
sound were strongly barricaded within ; and the boys, who age of 65or L.1, 58, 9d. a-year-may secure an whereof
makes thousands of people distracted, and defended it like a besieged city, were armed in general allowance of 105. a-week during sickness for 52 weeks forgetful either of manners or humanity. Then there with guns made of the hollow twigs of the elder, –75. 6d. a-week for other 52 weeks and 5s. a-week is a thing called wheaten flour, which the cooks do or bore-tree. The master, meanwhile, made various during the whole remaining period of sickness, until mingle with water, eggs, spice, and other tragical
, efforts, by force and stratagem, to regain his lost the age of 65, an annuity
of L.8 a-year during life magical enchantments, and then they put it by little authority. If he succeeded, heavy tasks were imposed, after 65, and a sum of L.10 at death.
and little into a frying-pan of boiling suet, where it and the business of the school was resumed and subOr, for 48. 4d. a-month, or L.2, 11s. 6d. a-year, double makes a confused dismal hissing (like the Lernian mitted to; but it more commonly happened that all of these allowances.
snakes in the reeds of Acheron), until at last, by the his efforts were unavailing. In this case, after three At an examination of the society's transactions and skill of the cook, it is transformed into the form of a days' siege, terms of capitulation were proposed by funds in December 1840, it was found that, after flip-jack, called a pancake, which ominous incantation the master and accepted by the boys. The terms twelve years of business, when the deaths of unfree the ignorant people do devour very greedily." It is curi- always included permission to enjoy a full allowance members, or persons who died in the first year of ous to learn from old Hakluyt, that pancakes were also of Shrovetide sports. I membership, were deducted, the mortality was within eaten in Russia at this time. A poem published in
Of a similar jocular character is a custom kept up that allowed for by the tables, and that all the three 1634,* thus speaks of the custom in England :
at Leicester. There is in this ancient town an open funds were in a good condition, each showing a surplus over what was necessary to make good the claims
“ It was the day whereon the rich and poor
space called the Newarks, of a cross form, accessible Are chiefly feasted with the self-same dish;
by three gates, and surrounded by tall buildings. In to which it was liable, when the value of the future
When every paunch, till it can hold no more,
the afternoon of Shrove-Tuesday, three men take contributions was taken into account against the
Is fritter-filled as well as heart can wish;
possession of this place, armed with waggon whips, value of the promised benefits.
And every man and maid do take their turn,
and each attended by another man carrying a bell. This society numbers 250 members, which is far
And toss their pancakes up for fear they burn;
These fellows, who are called Whipping Toms, claim below what might be expected in so large a city, even
To see the pancakes fall upon the ground."
a right to flog every body entering or passing through
the attendant can ringing . We would hope that the present paper will be of greatest. silut or lie-a-będ of the party," which com; The amusement consists in surrounding the bellman some little service in calling the attention of the monly falls to the dog's share at last, for no one will and silencing his bell, for during the cessation of working-classes to the benefits which they have it in
own it their due.”+ Some allusion is probably made ringing the whipper is powerless: this, however, is a their power to confer upon themselves by means of to the latter custom in a couplet placed opposite service of some hazard, and requires the combined rightly constituted benefit societies. To make them. Shrove-Tuesday in Poor Robin's Almanac for 1677:
address and activity of the young men who take part selves independent during sickness and old age, and
“ Pancakes are eat by greedy gut,
in the frolic. As soon, however, as a Whipping Tom to ensure that their wives and children shall have
And Hob and Madge run for the slut."
finds his companion silenced, and subject to the laugh something to look to in the event of their decease- In the time of Elizabeth, it was a practice at Eton of the spectators, he hurries with his attendant beli what objects of a merely this-world kind can be for the cook to fasten a pancake to a crow upon the to the rescue, and the scene becomes one of considernobler! It costs money and a little restraint on im- school door; and, till a recent period, the under-clerk able mirth and animation, and many daring attempts mediate desires to accomplish these ends, but it does at Westminster School was accustomed on this morn- are made to capture the succouring bell ard increase not cost, upon a right system, nearly so much
as might ing to enter in solemn wise, preceded by the beadle their amusement on the one hand, and to liberate the be supposed; and though it were to cost more, would and other officers, and throw a pancake over the screen captured bell and get both whips into action on the it not be worth while ? We verily believe that the which divides the forms of the upper from those of working-classes are not generally informed as to the the under scholars.
Morning Chronicle, Maroh 10, 1791. principles of benefit societies, or they would take much
+ Gentleman's Magazine, 1779. * more extensive advantage of them than they do. Every • Pasquil's Palinodia. | Notes to Tusser Rediviyas, 174
Hatchison's History of Cumberland
25 30 35
25 30 35
from the identity of their name in Latin (Galli), of which we present first. It is entitled Notice to per put you in the way of obtaining-though the first in
other. By the three outlets from the place escape is came a national divertisement, and has continued ever cient; and any person who shall absent himself, witheasy; in a nook called Little London, if you can attain since the Danes first lost the island.” Such is the out being permitted to do so by the agent, or who shall it, you are entitled to sanctuary. The bustle, activity, story told, it seems, by an old German author named remain away from the settlement for a longer time than and address, elicited by the whole affair, and the Cranenstein, who writes of the customs observed by such permission shall authorise, will be considered as merriment of the spectators as bells are captured or Christian nations. We need scarcely remark that it having forfeited his location. 8thly, An assignment, or luckless wights subjected to whipping, render it an seems insufficient to account for a sport of so peculiar attempt to assign any ticket or location, will also be conafternoon of great excitement, which the young espe- a nature and so universal.
sidered as a forfeiture of all right in the locatee or the cially talk of for months before and after.*
The other Shrovetide observances were chiefly of a assignee ; or if it shall appear that the locatee has preWe have now to advert to some of the sports of local nature. The old plays make us aware of a license viously obtained a grant of land from government, his this day, which cannot be considered as of an innocent which the London prentices took on this occasion to new location shall be forfeited. Sthly, In all cases of character. The chief and most conspicuous of these assail houses of dubious repute, and cart the unfortu- abandonment of location, the located land will be conwas the practice of throwing at cocks. It seems to have nate inmates through the city. This seems to have sidered immediately open for new location or sale. been universal in England a century ago, and perhaps been done partly under favour of a privilege which 10thly, As it is not the intention of the government to still lingers in some of those places which William the common people assumed at this time of breaking offer the settlers any assistance, further than the free Howitt calls nooks of the country, where modern re- down doors for sport, and of which we have perhaps grant of land, and the opening of the road, applicants finements have not yet penetrated in great strength. It some remains, in a practice which still exists in some are specially desired to consider for themselves, whether will be recollected that Hogarth makes this sport the remote distriets, of throwing broken crockery and other or not they have the means of maintaining themselves first subject in his series of pictures entitled the Four rubbish at doors. In Dorsetshire and Wiltshire, if and their families until crops can be raised from the Stages of Cruelty. The poor animal was tied to a stake not in other counties, the latter practice is called ground. by a short cord, and the unthinking men and boys, Lent Crocking. The boys go round' in small parties, Government agents have been appointed at the northwho were to throw at it, took their station at the dis- headed by a leader," who goes up and knocks at the ern and southern extremities of the settlement, and tance of about twenty yards. Where the cock be- door, leaving his followers behind him, armed with a further information may be obtained on application to longed to some one disposed to make it a matter of good stock of potsherds—the collected relics of the Mr John Telfer, Owen's Sound, and Mr James M.Nabb, business, twopence was paid for three shies at it, the washing-pans, jugs, dishes, and plates, that have be- Garrafraxa. R. B. SULLIVAN, Commissioner Crown missile used being a broomstick. The sport was con come the victims of concussion in the hands of unlucky Lands." tinued till the poor creature was killed outright by or careless housewives for the past year. When the the blows. Such tumult and outrage attended this door is opened, the hero, who is perhaps a farmer's
The letter of reply to our correspondent, dated" Emiinhuman sport a century ago, that, according to a boy, with a pair of black eyes sparkling under the grant Office, Montreal, 9th Ootober 1841,” is as folwriter in the Gentleman's Magazine, it was sometimes tattered brim of his brown milking-hat, hangs down dangerous to be near the place where it was practised. his head, and, with one corner of his mouth turned up here, placed your letter (dated 23 August) in my hands,
“Sir_The gentlemen composing the Emigrant Society Hens were also the subjects of popular amusement at into an irrepressible smile, pronounces the following this festival. It was customary in Cornwall to take lines :
in reply to a considerable portion of which I have any one which had not laid eggs before Shrove-Tues
deemed not amiss, for your information and that of
* I be come a-shrovin, day, and lay it on a barn-floor to be thrashed to death.
Vor a little pank ink,
your farming acquaintance, to send the annexed printed A man hit at her with a flail; and if he succeeded in
A bit o' bread o' your biakin ;
notice. Land may be had on the saine principle at the killing her therewith, he got her for his pains. It was Or a little truckle cheese o' your own miakin.
Kennebec and Lambton settlements, in the lower part customary for a fellow to get a hen tied to his back,
If you'll gie me a little I'll ax no more,
of the province, by the intending settler applying, on his with some horse-bells hung beside it. A number of
If you don't gie me nothin, 1'11 rottle your door.'
arrival at Quebec, to A. C. Buchanan, Esq., Chief Emiother fellows, blindfolded, with boughs in their hand, Sometimes he gets a bit of bread and cheese, and at gration Agent. followed him by the sound of the bells, endeavour some houses he is told to be gone ; when he calls up Healthy settlers, who are steady, industrious, and ecoing to get a stroke at the bird. This gave occa his followers to send their missiles in a rattling broad-nomical, cannot fail in rapidly improving their condision to much merriment, for sometimes the man was side against the door.”+ It is rather remarkable that, tion in this truly fine country. Farmers, farm-labourers, hit instead of the hen, and sometiines the assailants in Prussia, and perhaps other parts of central Europe, coopers, joiners, blacksmiths, brickmakers,
bricklayers, bit each other instead of either. At the conclusion, the throwing of broken crockery at doors is a regular stone-masons, plasterers, and common carpenters, genethe ben was boiled with bacon, and added to the usual practice at marriages. Lord Malmesbury, who in 1791 rally succeed well in this country. It would be well to pancake feast. Cock-fights were also common on this married a princess of that country as proxy for the bring out all your tools. All intending settlers should day. Strange to say, they were in many instances the Duke of York, tells us, that the morning after the endeavour to reach here on or before the 1st of June, sanctioned sport of public schools, the master receiv- ceremonial, a great heap of such rubbish was found at especially agriculturists; and I consider it highly iming on the occasion a small tax from the boys under her royal bigliness's door.
prudent of any man to quit his native country without the name of a cock-penny. Perhaps this last practice
feeling confident that he has sufficient means to support took its rise in the circumstance of the master sup
his fainily at least two or three months after his arrival plying the cocks, which seems to have been the cus NOTICE TO AN HUMBLE CLASS OF here. By you and your friends calling at my office on tom in some places in a remote age. Such cock-fights
your arrival, it will be to me a pleasurable duty to afford regularly took place on Fasten’s E’en in many parts A CORRESPONDENT who was desirous of receiving some twenty-seven years' experience) is calculated to render
you all such information as I humbly conceive (from the master presiding at the battle, and enjoying the distinct
information on the subject of Canadian emigra- essential service. It is a matter of course, that those perquisite of all the runaway cocks, which were tech- tion, which unfortunately we had it not in our power who can bring most money and property, are, with good nically called fugies. The greatest of our alarmists to afford, lately made application to the Emigration management, likely to prosper most rapidly; you, as must surely allow that in some small particulars we Agent at Montreal, and has been favoured with a reply an industrious joiner, will doubtless do well in this counhave improved upon the customs of our forefathers. Latterly, an idea seems to have prevailed that the reply is written on the back of a printed document, upon easy terms of payment, which, no doubt, I can which he has placed in our hands to make public. The try, especially by having at the same time from fifty to
one hundred acres of good land, in an eligible situation, , our great national enemies the French. And we can
sons desirous of settling at the Owen's Sound Settle- stalment (especially should there be a few acres cleared easily imagine some country justices being led by this ment, situated in the upper part of the province of and a small hut upon it) is generally expected to be notion to encourage the sport, thinking that every shy Canada," and is dated" Crown Lands' Office, Ist No- paid about the time of taking
possession of it. It may taken at the unfortunate cock was fostering a salutary vember 1840."
be necessary for me to observe, that no kind of emihatred of the French in the breasts of those who were
“ Notice is hereby given, that a road through the grants receive government aid in being forwarded to yet perhaps to fight their country's battles. There crown land from the north-west angle of the township work, except such as are totally destitute, with large was even a supposition, to which Hearne the anti- of Garrafraxa to Owen's Sound, upon Lake Huron, is quary gave some countenance, that the practice took opening at the expense of government. Lots of fifty
Improved farms can be purchased on favourable its rise at the time when Henry V. was pursuing his acres of land each will be laid out on each side of the terms. Practical British farmers, with some means, wars in France, being designed to show that the Eng- road.
always succeed remarkably well here: by prudence and lish could as easily overthrow the Galli of their own
Settlers who have never obtained a grant of land perseverance, their capital increases rapidly. For the Gentleman's Magazine of 1737, suggests that perhaps following conditions :species as the Galli of the farm-yard. A writer in the from government, may obtain a lot of fifty acres on the general good of your friends and the public, should you
see fit to make it known, I deem it proper to observe, we find a trace of this notion in the architectural
1st, They are to make application to the commissioner that men engaged in the silk, cotton, or woollen manuconceit placed over the portal of Blenheim House, of crown lands, or to the agent on the ground, when factures, such as weavers, spinners, printers, dyers, &c., where a monstrous lion is seen tearing to pieces a ever they shall be ready to become resident on the will at this time find no employment here in their reharmless cock. And he adds a just sentiment with re
tract to be granted. 21, Upon giving a satisfactory spective callings, and are obliged to betake themselves gard to the Shrovetide cock-throwings, supposing them account of their means of providing for themselves, to the task of the day-labourer, and cannot at all tirnes expression of our rage, even in time of war." But the receive a ticket from the commissioner at the Crown ment; and but few of these classes that have reached idea of a reference to the French is totally inadmis- Lands" Office, entitling them to locate the land. 3dly
, forty or forty-five years of age become expert labourers, sible, when we find that the custom existed long before Upon application to the agent in the first place, he will and when they settle on land, the ocess of clearing is the commencement of our wars with France. Another forward a statement to the Crown Lands’ Office, of the slowly and unskilfuly executed, and poverty, as their popular notion is, that it took its rise in consequence applicant's age, family, and means of settlement, upon lot, is scarcely to be avoided. I have the honour to Danes were masters of England, and lorded it over 4thly, The tickets issued will be useless to any but the of a very early incident in our history, "When the which, if approved, authority for location will issue. be, &c., JAMES ALLISON, General Emigration Agent,
Montreal.” the nations of the island, the inhabitants of a certain applicants, and unless presented to the agent within one great city, grown weary of their slavery, had formed month from the date, they will not be received by him. à secret conspiracy to murder their masters in one Any person who shall receive a ticket, and who shall bloody night, and twelve men had undertaken to enter not proceed to the settlement within one month ; or fond of their own discord, that they would not suspend
Some praters are so full of their own gabble, and so the house by stratagem, and, seizing the arms, surprise who, having been placed upon land there, shall abandon their eternal monotonies to hear the wit of Sheridan or the guard which kept it ; and at which time, their it, will be considered as having lost all claim to receive the point of Swift; one might as well attempt to stop fellows, upon a signal given, were to come out of their land, 5thly, Settlers will be required to clear, and place the saw of a task-working stone-cutter by the melodies houses and murder all opposers : but when they were
once under crop, one-third of the land located, and to of an Æolian harp. Others, again, there are who hide putting it in execution, the unusual crowing and flut- reside on the land until this settlement-duty is per- that ignorance in silent gravity that these expose by tering of the cocks about the place they attempted to formed ; and after one-third of the grant shall have been silly talk, but they are so coldly correct, and so methoenter at, discovered their design; upon which the cleared and under crop, the settler shall be entitled to dically dull, that any attempt to raise the slumbering Danes became so enraged, that they doubled their his patent, free of expense. 6thly, The
settlement-duty sparks of genius by means of such instruments, would be Soon after they were forced from the Danish yoke, the ticket. 7thly, Settlers who are under the necessity of compound of the two former, and possessing many of cruelty, and used them with more severity than ever. is required to be done within Pur years from the date of to stir up a languishing fire
with a poker of ice
. There and to revenge themselves upon the cocks, for the being temporarily absent from their locations, will apply the properties peculiar to each; thus, they have just misfortune they involved them in, instituted this cus to the resident agent, stating the length of their intended ignorance enough to talk amongst fools, and just sense tom of knocking them on the head on Shrove-Tuesday, absence, and the reason for it, which will be entered on enough to be silent amongst wits. But they have no the day on which it happened. This sport, though at the agent's book, if the reason for absence seems suffi- vivacity in themselves, nor relish for it in another-to first only practised in one city, in process of time be
attempt to keep up the ball of conversation with such * Sir W. Ellis's Edition of Brand's Popular Antiquities. partners, would be to play a game of fives against a bed * Hone's Year Book, 538. Hone's Year Book, 1540.