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CURATIVE TREATMENT OF THE INSANE.

dullest moods, some of his own beautiful and pathetic part in sustaining the cause of home industry and agri

verses were read to him. He at first smiled, then ap-culture. If husbandry made respectable, as it ought The following are passages extracted from the last report peared to be awakened to a recollection of the circum to be, it will serve to check one of the greatest evils that of the Crichton Asylum for Lunatics near Dumfries--an

stances and emotions under which they had been com bears now heavily on the community-the rush of our
institution on a splendid scale, founded by a large be posed, then became deeply affected, and wept. He young men into the learned professions, which are already
quest, and conducted by Dr W. A. F. Browne, author of
a work on Insanity :-

was agitated for some hours, but the effects gradually filled to overflowing, especially that of the law, which,
disappeared.

under the present wretched course of legislation, of " It is difficult to convey any adequate notion of the

To engage the minor affections, and, in the absence of making litigation cheap, is starving this once honourable series of operations of which moral treatment consists, higher objects, to call forth that love for animals which and most useful profession.

Yet it is thought to be the to describe the agents which have been, or may be, made has characterised men of refined and serene tempera- high road to office and honour, and ambitious fathers to act directly upon the mind itself, because it is impos- ment, has been considered curative, and tried. Accord- and weak mothers are for making their sons great lawyers sible to mark exactly where physical treatment termi- ingly, sheep have been introduced into one court; in and eminent judges. Infatuated policy! The greater pates, as the efficacy of even a drug may, and often does, another, rabbits have long ingratiated themselves with part of them never rise higher than respectable pettidepend as much upon the feelings of repugnance or confidence with which it is swallowed as upon its intrinsic in a fourth, there is a colony of white mice; and in the dissipation and idleness.

the patients; in a third, urchins have become favourites ; foggers. Many of them get disheartened, and sink into properties. Indeed, every step beyond the regulation of fields, a jackass was courted and conciliated by a con The business of the farmer knows no such anxiety-is the diet and the exhibition of medicine to regulate and valescent.

accompanied by no such risks; it is quiet and peaceful. restore particular functions—there being no specific for

The great objection to all these measures is, that they Make it intelligent, and you open to it the first and highderangement-leads to an attempt to reach the disease embrace only one patient, or a very small number of est honours of your country: there are no prejudices through and by the senses, the intellect, or the affections. patients ; that the application of them is therefore diffi- against it, as against that of the law; there is no limit to The residence of an individual in an asylum, the new cult and tedious ; and that success must depend as much it; it is broad and extensive enough for all—a rich and arrangements, the absence of friends, the subjection to

upon the skill and tact of the experimenter as upon the wide domain, the vast possessions of the government, lie discipline, and the delivery of every thought and wish into the keeping of strangers, are all intended and calcu- wanted is, some plan which shall rouse, arrest, and tend consent of the individual to be acted upon. What is open to us-it invites to cultivation and improvement. If

our rich men will plant themselves in the country, and lated to address the mind itself, and to serve as silent to regulate the intellect of a number of patients simul- educate their sons in the care and knowledge of the farm, arguments and warnings against error—to create a dis- taneously, without rousing or disturbing the passions; they would see the land smiling around them, their chilposition to self-examination and self-regulation, and to and as insanity, in a majority of casos, consists rather in dren would be honoured in their industry, the occupation force the adoption or imitation of rational views and habits. That these instruments often act in this way is

excited feeling than in disordered reason, this precaution of the plough be elevated and respected, their sons prove

is absolutely necessary. It is not pretended that this healthy, robust, and strong men, and they and their deunquestionable ; and because they cannot be assembled panacea has been discovered; but a practice has been scendants become, as the landholders are in England, or applied at home, it is well shown that efficient treat- recently commenced which possesses many of the advan- the great men and strong props of the government. Hard ment can only be found in an asylum. The occupations, tages coveted, is at all events perfectly innocuous, and and incessant toil is not essential in any farmer, nor any recreations, the rigid routine, the varied exercises, the promises to afford a very simple, cheap, and pleasing toil equal to the exhausting unhonoured labours of the stern or soothing tones of the physician's voice, all ope antidote to the darkness and dullness of a winter's lawyer and mechanic: a few hours a day devoted to the rate on the same principle ; and when judiciously selected evening.

regulation and superintendence of the farm, affording a and perseveringly applied, remodel the whole nature, and sometimes restore health. But besides these means,

Tranquil and convalescent patients have been allowed most wholesome and agreeable exercise to the body, is

to attend quiet parties for conversation and music; to all that is requisite to the independent farmer; reading, there are many, such as the following, which are sug

visit the Theatre, the Circus, the Exhibition, the Bazaar, writing, &c., will pleasantly and profitably occupy the gested by the peculiar circumstances of each case, the races, and public concerts ; and the liberty thus rest of the day. To my brother lawyers, in particular; founded upon some former taste or capability, or adapted granted bas in no case been abused, nor-so complete has would I recommend this kind of life as the happiest and to the actual condition of the patient, or the change been the control exercised-have the insane been dis- the best. They are capable of making good farmers, and, which it is desirable to bring about : Our amanuenses, greatly increased in number, have Now, when familiarised with the beneficent influence of strife and rivalship of the law are neither suited to their

tinguished from those by whom they were accompanied. when advanced in life, they are fit for nothing else; the been as industrious as if engaged in productive labour. At one time it was ground for envy and emulation which insane are only partially separated from the sane, such a sounder philosophy, and instructed that many of the temper nor taste. They are often, if not generally, first

and foremost in every good work. Let us set the example should be selected to assist the medical officer ; many facts do not excite surprise or interest. But it it be in this. I regret not meeting more of them on this occa, thousand pages have been copied or written to dictation, recollected that, at a period by no means distant, no

sion. It is said to be dull times for them-three hundred and in one case with a marked humanising and elevating patient ever passed beyond his cell or airing-yard, and

are said to have cleared out from the city of New York. effect. One young lady is at present curing herself of that the very individuals now described as mingling in 1 hoped to have met some of them here ; the country and extravagant ideas of her own greatness by copying, and

the pleasures of their fellow-men would have been con the plough will receive them with open arms, and give then playing music, at which she is an adept. And that demned to perpetual confinement and to chains, the them plenty of honest business. There is room enough the curative powers of the sister art of painting might boldness and triumphs of the humane system will be for them all. I offer my own experience as a slight and not be untried, we have an instance where a convalescent appreciated.”

humble instance of what may be easily effected: I have house-painter aspired to portrait-painting, and executed

had the pleasure of superintending a farm-I have suoa likeness of the matron. The effort was certainly a

ceeded to my entire satisfaction-my farm is growing up failure, but it confirmed and consolidated the recovery

ON THE LAUNCH OF A FIRST-RATE. under my own eye, yearly developing new beauties and of the artist. One amiable, and accomplished, and ex

new sources of income and improvement; and if it does cellent being, who imagined that it was incumbent upon

[From“ The Pilgrim of Glencoe, and other Poems," by Thomas

not make me a richer, it makes ine a healthier, and, I trust, him to abstain from food to increase the comforts of the Campbell, just published.]

a better man. In fact, dyspepsia and the blue devils poor, and to prevent a general famine, and that his brain

England hails thee with emotion,

immediately left me. I am conscious that the occupation was transmuted into fat, and consequently impeded the

Mightiest child of naval art,

is an honest one; I know it is a healthy and pleasant exercise of his faculties, was induced to engage in the

Heaven resounds thy welcome ; Ocean

one; and as it interferes with no man, it is a peaceful one, study and translation of Molière's Malade Imaginaire,

Takes thee, smiling, to his heart.

and all nature tells me it is one that God will bless and He spent many delightful hours at this task, bending his

Giant oaks of bold expansion

prosper.” powers diligently to overcome the difficulties, and to

O'er seven hundred acres fell, discover the beauties, of the author-coming out of him

All to build thy noble mansion, self, as it seemed, forgetting his own sorrows and ail

Where our hearts of oak shall dwell.

CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE. ments, and, it may be, tempted to doubt their reality,

'Midst those trees the wild deer bounded

This Series of Publications, which has for some years engaged while laughing at the hypochondriacal fancies and medi

Ages long ere we were born,

the attention of Messrs CHAMBERS, and been issued with as cine mania of Argan. He subsequently undertook the

And our great-grandfathers sounded

much speed as the nature of such an undertaking would permit, trauslation of the life of St Vincent de Paul, and glowed

Many a jovial hunting-horn.

now approaches its completion. Within the last few days, there and gladdened with the benevolence which pervaded his

Oaks that living did inherit every sentiment in transcribing the eulogiums upon that

Grandeur from our earth and sky,

MAR AND COMPOSITION, PART First" (designed to be Howard of the sixteenth century, the friend and father

Still robust, the native spirit

completed in Two Parts), by Mr D'ORSKY, Head Master of the of the poor lunatic. In one case, where it was important

In your timbers shall not die.

English Department in the High School of Glasgow. ZOOLOGY

and PRACTICAL MATHEMATICS are in the press, and will to impart new springs of conduct, to alter the character

Ship, to shipe in martial story,

speedily appear. and the profession, and yet to recommend what coin

Thou shalt cleave the ocean's path,

The following is the List of Works issued, with their Prices, cided with the previous tastes and training of the indivi

Freighted with Britannia's glory,

all strongly bound in coloured cloth:dual, the study of medieine was engaged in; and the

And the thunders of her wrath.

Infant Treatment Under Two Years of Age, patient read assiduously, acquired a very considerable

Foes shall crowd their sails and fly thee,

Infant Education From Two to Six Years of Age, knowledge of the sciences of anatomy and physiology,

Threat'ning havoc to their deck,

First Book of Reading,

0s. 1st and imbibed a strong ambition to prosecute his studies

When afar they first descry thee,

Second Book of Reading, further. A well-educated gentleman, who conceives that

Like the coming whirlwind's speck.

Simple Lessons in Reading,

Rudiments of knowledge, he is undergoing a temporary penance for an offence

Gallant bark! thy pomp and beauty

Introduction to the Sciences, against a high ecclesiastical dignitary, and who would

Storm or battle ne'er shall blast,

The Moral Class-Book,

ls. 6. willingly spend his days over a Greek or Hebrew work,

Whilst our tars, in pride and duty,
Nail thy colours to the mast.

A Geographical Primer, was bribed to relinquish these severer studies for the

Text-Book of Geography for England, acquisition of the French language, which, with a very

Introduction to English Composition, few hints as to pronunciation, he accomplished, and

First Book of Drawing, would have grappled with German had the necessary

AMERICAN AGRICULTURISTS.

Second Book of Drawing, books been accessible. A schoolmaster, who is too proud | An Agricultural Society for the state of New York has

Animal Physiology,

Rudiments of Chemistry, by Dr D. B. Reid--a new of his caste to engage in manual labour, cheerfully at been instituted lately. The first meeting and cattle-show

and greatly improved edition, tempted the tuition of his fellow-patients. A clergyman was held at Syracuse, in September. At the dinner, to Natural Philosophy, First Book, of inost morose and melancholy disposition, so far forgets which 1200 persons sat down, the Hon. Micah Sterling, Natural Philosophy, Second Book, his dejection and selfishness for an hour each Sunday, in the course of a Jengthened address, reported in the Natural Philosophy, Third Book, that he reads, reverently and correctly, the prayers of Albany Cultivator, made the following remarks:

has been added to the list of works issued "ENGLISH GRAM

Is, 31. 28.

Os 301.
Os. 20d.
Os. 10.
18. 01.

8d. (s. 10. Os. 641. Is. 61. 18. fd. ls. 9t.

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2s. 31.
08. 10x1.
Os. 10l.
Os. 101.
Rs. 60.
2s.
28. Gei.

Elements of Algebra, Two Parts, each the Church of England to such of the patients and officers " It is truth too, beyond all doubt, and as gratifying as

Elements of Plane Geometry, as belong to that communion. When it is added that it is true, that the number of wealthy and independent

Solid and Spherical Geometry,

History and Present State of the British Empire, 2s. 60. the clerk who reads the responses is likewise insane, farmers has greatly increased within the last quarter of

History of the English Language and Literature, it may be imagined that the scene is fraught with inte a century. I can only speak more particularly of my own Principles of Elocution, by W. Graham, rest and emotion, and only surpassed by those which county, where it is a blessed sight to travel among the History of Greece, occurred in the primitive ages of the Church, when the farmers, and see how in a short time things have changed Exemplary and Instructive Biography, energumens crept to the altar and were healed. Re- their appearances for the better-how the log-cabin has

To the foregoing is added a series of SCITOOL-ROOM MAPS covery cannot, in this instance, be directly traced to the yielded to the beautiful stone, or brick, or wooden man of a very large size-Maps of England, Ireland, Scotland, Europe, act of devotion or the feelings excited, but there are sion, the barn of poles to the stately edifice of boards and Asia, Palestine, North America, South America, Africa, and the reasons for supposing that these feelings are of a sedative timber, the front yard of dirt and filth to the neat lane and Hemispheres, designed by James FairBAIRN, Esq., Rector of and salutary kind; and they certainly possess this strik- shrubbery; and how the whole country has assumed, or Bathgate Academy. Each Map measures 5 feet 8 inches in length ing characteristic, that for the time they predominate is rapidly assuming, that appearance of neatness, beauty, by 4 feet 10 inches in breadth.

Price, coloured on cloth, with over every other; and there may be observed the wan- high cultivation, and comfort, to which all American

rollers, 14s. each; the Hemispheres (including Astronomical Dia. dering reason, the turbulent passions, the deluded ima- farmers, with honesty, industry, and economy, can soon

grams), 21s.

Published by W. and R. CHAMBERS, 339 High Street, Edinginations of priest and worshippers, however widely attain. I dare say other parts of the state are equally burgh. Agents-W. S. Ore and Co., Amen Corner, London ; and separated in all others, meeting and uniting in this one changed for the better, and equally sustain the great w. CURKY Jun. and Co., Dublin; and sold by all Booksellers. point-the solemnity of the act in which they are en cause of cultivation and improvement. Add to all this, In cases where Teachers find a difficulty in getting supplies from gaged.

many men of wealth, and taste, and science, have devoted Booksellers, they may apply direct to Messrs CHAMBERS or It was determined to produce a powerful, painful, and their time, and a portion of their wealth, within a few

their chief Agents, as above. retrospective train of feeling in a person who seemed to years past, to the importation and rearing of the first be lapsing from a state of high over-wrought sensibility order of stock; and, while it is hoped they are increasing London: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by into one of apatly and senility. He had distinguished their ample fortunes, they are becoming the true bene W. S. ORR, Pateroster Row. himself as a poet ; and, during one of his darkest and factors of the country, and take an active and prominent

Print by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars.

23. fi
3. 04.
3s.
28. 91.

[graphic]

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF “ CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,”

“ CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,” &c.

NUMBER 534.

SATURDAY, APRIL 23, 1842.

PRICE lid.

a good plan for relatives to live so very near to each might be the more worthy of, and fit for, his lucky dosWHAT IS MEANT BY “A BEGGAR ?"

other as “over the way" implies that the Comptons tiny ; but as years passed on, he contrived to wrest the It is to the house of death we will ask the reader to did. They often become too intimate, and get a habit argument from them, and turn it as a weapon against accompany us; but he need not fear for his sensibility, of interfering with things that do not concern them. themselves. It was all very well for his cousin Wilif he is over much possessed of it, for we are not going To do justice, however, we must own that Mrs Wil liam (a boy of about his own age) to fag and make to picture any scenes of overwhelming grief. It is liam was a very amiable woman, a great deal too much the most of his time, but for himself, he shouldn't true that the shutters are closed, and the servant who occupied with her own family to trouble herself about be obliged to go into a counting-house at fifteen-he ushers you in looks grave, and speaks in a lower tone other persons' concerns; and in the family disputes shouldn't be a "beggar.” A pretty life they had with of voice than usual ; and Mr Compton, the master of which had arisen, the elder lady had usually been the the hopeful youth long before he was that age. the house, heaves a sigh as he addresses you, while his aggressor. It was quite natural that the younger As for “the people over the way,” they kept on lady-wife raises her handkerchief to her eyes. It is a couple should, and quite true that they did, anxiously their even course. The families visited occasionally, second cousin of the former who is dead—a solitary hope Mr Tracey would leave legacies to their children, and maintained to the world a tolerable appearance of old man, who, after passing nearly forty years in a but they were quite prepared for their disappointment. cordiality, though Mrs Compton abated not one jot foreign land, returned home to spend the independence They had had no spacious apartments to offer him, and of the malice and uncharitableness which rankled at he had acquired, and to find of his early friends some they were even aware, that when he had visited them, her heart. Envy, too, was there ; for ever since she dead, others separated, and the few, the very few, who the necessary unquiet of a small house which contained had known her she had envied Mrs William's youth remained, almost forgetful of his existence. But a so large a family, was any thing but agreeable to a and good looks (youth always remains comparative), childless widower, in independent circumstances, Mr nervous invalid. Latterly, however, they had been and now she envied her her tractable, well-managed Tracey was not long without relatives who proved conscious of a sinister influence, though, had they family. Certainly, a school, or an assemblage of chiltheir affinity; and after a severe but half-concealed known precisely in what manner it had been exerted, dren, is a miniature world, in which each, generally struggle, Mr and Mrs Compton were the successful perfect candour on their part would have been more speaking, finds its level, and it is usually an excellent candidates, under whose roof Mr Tracey took up his than a match for the duplicity of their enemy. But discipline for only, or spoilt, children. The conseabode. Shortly following that event, a little stranger this was not the case ; poor Mr Tracey's behaviour quence the young heir assumed almost immediately arrived, who was named, after his godfather, James for the last two years had grown gradually cooler and after Mr Tracey’s death, was not lost upon his sprightly Tracey Compton ; and now, after eight years of de- cooler, and yet there had been neither word nor action cousins. At first, they could not quite make out why Foted attention, the anxious parents' hopes were in sufficiently marked to demand an explanation of it. he had grown so fond of playing at “grand people" some degree realised. Mr Tracey had not forgotten This is a common state of things, and it must be con. (what a study of character it is to watch children's bis godson in his will ; indeed, he was the only rela- fessed that the pride which accompanies a clear con- play!) and at “fine houses,” where he must always tion he seemed to have remembered. About three science in such matters often stands in the way of be the master ; but at last it came out, and what a hundred a-year was bequeathed to little James on his one's worldly interest. In a downright, tangible laugh there was ! With one sweep of his foot, little reaching one-and-twenty; and the remainder of his quarrel, even the party offending is seldom the one William knocked down a make-believe house, which property, amounting to several thousands, was divided first to hold out the olive branch; but the case of the had been manufactured of tables, chairs, and boxes, between a few inconsiderable legacies and bequests to secret maligner is far worse, for he has the advantage and, mounting in glory upon the loftiest of the ruins, charitable institutions.

of making the first or “proof” impression, and the he exclaimed, “Now, Master James, I want to know It was the day following that on which Mr Tracey credulous listener seldom opens his eyes and ears of exactly what you mean by a “ beggar !'” died, but the mournful necessary arrangements had his own accord to the other side of the question ; nay, This was a question which might have puzzled a much been made, and the will read the preceding evening. if pride does yield, and the innocent volunteers a wiser head to answer. It did occur to the young heir Mr and Mrs Compton had deserted their usual sitting- defence, facts, circumstances—the very flood-gates of to tell his cousins that they were often called “beggars ;" room, as being a storey nearer to the chamber of death, truthful eloquence—must be opened before the “ stuffed but there was something in William's manner which but were, nevertheless, sitting very cozily after dinner bosom" can be cleansed of the “perilous stuff which told him it would not be quite safe to venture so far, in their back parlour, the young legatee being present. weighs upon the heart.”

so he stammered out, that “papa and mamma called “Well, James, my boy,” said the father, patting Unfortunately, the latter plan had not been adopted people who had no money "beggars.”” his son's head caressingly, " at all events you cannot by the younger Comptons, and Mr Tracey died with “Oh! then, we shan't be beggars,” rejoined Wil. be a beggar, though I did think your poor godfather the firm conviction that every trifling act of kindness liam, “because I mean to make a fortune, and one would have provided more bandsomely for you. He and civility had been dictated by the hope of a legacy, rich man in a family shows the others the road.” was not blind or deaf ; I wonder what on carth could and that even the children had been tutored to please The sisters, who were a little older, had not joined have put it into his head to leave his thousands to the him ; faults also had been hinted at which did not in the noisy play; but Emily raised her eyes from Blind School and the Deaf and Dumb Asylum.” exist, and to the most innocent observations a false her work, and, with an arch look, said very quietly,

" At all events, I am glad he did not leave them meaning had been given. Surely nothing under the “When you have quite done with Susan's box of over the way,” chimed in Mrs Compton, with all the sun is so easy as misrepresentation, except—telling colours, I am sure, James, she will be glad to have it ill-nature of a selfish, cunning, and narrow-minded the truth. Of course, Mrs Compton senior had in- back again, for she had begun to paint the green voman.

sinuated (it was out of her line of policy to assert) parrot that hangs out in the next balcony before she “I fancy, my dear, you took care of that,” rejoined that she and her husband were not " beggars”—they lent it you; and there it remains in her portfolio, one her husband, while they exchanged looks in which the wanted nothing from him—which, we are afraid, if wing penciled and the other green, just as if he were ghost of a smile was on each face visible.

sincerely believed, is a most persuasive argument with half plucked for roasting.” Now, “over the way” was a comprehensive phrase, a certain class of persons who have money to leave. This was really spiteful, for the sisters knew persignifying Mr and Mrs William Compton and their These people have such a dread of their money being fectly well that the colours, every one, were either six children. It must be acknowledged that, in a spent—not considering that, wisely distributed, one spoilt or lost ; and so, with a red cheek, Master James worldly sense, the elder brother had been the more spring may fertilise many plains, and make seeds confessed. prudent. He had established himself in a thriving grow where all before was barren. Certainly, even a “ Never mind,” continued Emily, “you know, inbusiness before he thought of looking out for a wife, few hundred pounds to William Compton would have stead of pocket-money, mamma pays us for the work while, about the same time, his brother William, smoothed an anxious brow, and spared many an act we help her with ; and we have saved up three and though some years his junior, fell in love, without of self-denial ; however, he and his family did without sixpence already towards buying a new box.” being at all on the “look-out” for such a catastrophe, them.

“ And when do you mean to begin to write your and married as soon as it was possible (to use a homely Of the worldly retribution so often remarked, own Latin exercises, Master James ?" chimed in Susan, phrase) to make both ends meet. His family increased nothing is more common than to find money, not perhaps a little vexed at the loss of her colours. in at least an equal proportion to his means ; so that, altogether honestly acquired, either in a few years The poor child burst into tears, exclaiming, “Oh ! at the time of his cousin Mr Tracey's death, he, with scattered to the winds, or become a source of misery you tell-tale!" his six children, occupied a smaller house, kept fewer instead of a blessing to the possessor; and so did it in “No, Jemmy, I didn't tell ; indeed, I didn't,” reservants, and in every respect a more moderate esta some degree prove with Master James's legacy. The plied William, jumping down from his throne. blishment, than his elder brother, who was blessed, or assurance that he would not be "a beggar," was at “No, he didn't tell," echoed the sisters ;

we found encumbered, with one only child, the James Tracey to first used by his parents as an encouragement to good it out. We saw it on the slate, and we knew he was whom we have before alluded. We question if it is behaviour, and to exert himself in his studies, that he through that book six months ago.”

“Oh! you dunce !" lisped an urchin of six years ant. James had been articled to a solicitor (the law Compton. Tears sprung to her eyes, and she raised old.

seemed a profession suitable to his prospects), and the packet to her lips; but she could not have enThe young heir was glad to beat a retreat; the odds though he had been any thing but studious, by dint of countered her father at that moment for worlds. She were against him.

“grinding" and "cramming” he managed to pass his bent her steps to the garden—not that she expected It was a short scene of a drama, acted in the minia- examination. With a portion of his fortune the share William to be there, for the term of his probation ture world to which we have alluded; and had there not of a business in his native town was purchased, and had not expired, but it was a holy spot, endeared been a counteracting influence at home, Master James thus seemingly established, to the elders on both sides, to her by the tenderest recollections. It was full a Tracey Compton might have gained a useful lesson as well as to the gentleman himself, the match seemed quarter of an hour before she returned to the breakfrom it. He might have comprehended that the term in every respect desirable. Poor Alice! what an fast-room; her father had waited with exemplary

beggar" applied to himself rather more than to his array against her—and what bitter tears she shed ! patience for her fulfilment of the duties of tea-maker, cousins, and thence have suspected that neither money Still, though like a reed she seemed bent to the earth, although he had been down stairs long enough to read nor station places us beyond the need of assistance the firm spirit of her resolves was not broken. all his letters ; he did not, however, make an observafrom our fellow-creatures. But no such wholesome They had long loved each other, but only in a mo- tion upon one of them. seed was allowed to germinate. He told his story-ment of sorrow did the secret escape the lips of Surely that day was the longest poor Alice had was pitied and caressed ; a handsome box colours William Compton. It is true he had never lost sight ever known; and it is doubtful if the night was was sent, out of pique, to Susan (the only person who of the one great object which had been the ambitious shortened by sleep. Morning came; a thin mist had benefited by the circumstance); and a childish quarrel, hope of his childhood, namely, to achieve something been raised like a veil from the earth, and the thirsty the bitterness of which might have passed off in a few more than independence; but he was still far from the sun was quickly drinking up the drops of dew which hours, and yet some good effects have remained, was goal, and he felt he had no right to ask the hand of still hung upon the roses, when Alice Merton stood fretted and swelled till Master James fancied himself | Alice Merton. Yet when deep emotion and the at the garden gate ; but not alone this time. The shamefully used by his cousins. Poor child! his parents strong temptation of opportunity had wrung the tried one was there, who came to prove his faith. were far more to be blamed than himself; and as truth from him, he certainly had not philosophy Ah! that hour made ample amends for a year's pain ; suredly they reaped their reward. They taught him enough to do other than rejoice in the sweet promise indeed, some people would think a year of very tolerto cringe to those above him, and to scorn an obliga- of her affection-for she did promise that though she able enjoyment might fairly have been bartered for tion from such as they considered were beneath him ; would not wed in opposition to her father's wishes, it. There was a third to breakfast that morning; but they repeated so often the advantages of his indepen- she would at least be firm in the rejection of all others. first, William Compton told to Alice the contents of dence, that he grew to consider it an inexhaustible We do not believe the pretty Alice ever made any the yesterday's letter. He had been made a partner sum, and one which was to exempt him from all toil appointments with her lover, though it was strange in the house he had so faithfully served, and that or trouble. It took about seven years to convince how very often they chanced to meet. However, a packet contained a copy of the deed of partnership. them of their error, and then they tried to repair it- trial of their constancy was at hand.

He was now a suitable match for the pretty heiress. by telling a lie. They hinted that the property was We have said that William Compton had contrived A great change came over the Compton family. contingent on circumstances—that they could prevent to make himself eminently useful to his employers—80 Within the next year William and Alice were mar. his touching it; but he had a keen memory, and much so, that his salary had been regularly increased ; ried; but he did not forget his childish promise of recollected, child that he was, hearing the will read. but the sudden death of the most active partner deter- showing his younger brothers the road to riches. Any lingering respect there might have been, the mined them to send William to London for the next Now that the family were grown up and settled, it discovery of a mean falsehood shook off, and, before twelve months, for the purpose of conducting their was astonishing what a pretty and commodious house he was eighteen, Master James Tracey had plunged business in the metropolis. Assuredly, he felt that that of the younger Comptons became. Throwing into a headlong career of folly and extravagance. the implicit confidence they placed in his talents and two rooms into one, and new furnishing, made a rast

Mrs Compton grew more cross, discontented, and integrity did him honour, and would most probably difference. As for Mrs Compton senior, she had a ill-natured than ever. At the very time that her prove one of those stepping-stones to fortune which serious fit of illness, said to be brought on by fretting darling son had become the plague of her life, all“ the do occasionally present themselves to such as have eyes at the good fortune of the people over the way,” and world” of their acquaintances were praising the steadi- to see, and skill to take advantage of them. Still, it was at her own son's disappointments. Instead of blam. ness and good conduct of William, who had entered a hard trial to part from Alice, and he was forbidden ing her own folly, and learning, however late, a useful a merchant's counting-house, and had contrived, even to write to her. Such a separation is a trial of lesson from its consequences, she took to scolding and although still so young, to make himself of the greatest constancy, very different from the condition of those reproaching the “fortunate legatee” more unmerconsequence in it. A blow, too, had been threatened who, thanks to the humane dispensation of the penny cifully than ever. This state of things could not last. to the pride of the family by the rumour that Emily post, may “waft a sigh,” every day if they will, from He left home in high dudgeon; and as he had not was endeavouring to establish herself as a teacher of one heart to the other. Letters under such circum- courage to break through the habits of idleness he music and singing, and the consummation was only stances may be all true, without containing all the had formed—and as his property was dwindled to a prevented by a very opposite, and to Mrs Compton, truth. Like our earth, which is half in light and half mere pittance—and as, of course, "to beg he was perhaps, a more vexatious, catastrophe. A young by itself shadowed, is the human character ; but in ashamed”—he has married a rich widow nearly double gentleman, with excellent prospects, had thought such a correspondence the bright sides only are shown, his age. Her fortune, to be sure, is settled on herself, proper to fall in love with and marry her. Susan, and, aided by that burning-glass the imagination, there still he derives many advantages from it. whose taste for drawing had always been remarkable, is little chance of a year's absence cooling the lover's If any parent is led to reflect on the folly of teachhad devoted herself to miniature painting, and though passion. No, no, no; an absence brightened by unre- ing children to rely on adventitious circumstances, little more than twenty, already earned quite enough strained and frequent letters is not so great a trial of instead of on their own conduct and exertions or if for pocket-money. It was ridiculous to call the girls constancy as daily intercourse may chance to prove, the thoughtless but common and obnoxious term “ a beggars” any longer. Neither was Mr James Tracey for there the dark side is turned occasionally-faults beggar" is in one proper instance withdrawn—this himself by any means exempt from the inward feeling and follies are sometimes seen.

sketch from the life will not have been written in of envy and the outward show of scorn which charac But to return to William and Alice. Mr Merton vain. terised his mother's sentiments towards their poorer positively forbade all communication between them : relations; and before he was one-and-twenty, two cir- although a little struck by the evident consideration cumstances occurred which appeared to him insults in which William was held by his employers, he

POPULAR INFORMATION ON SCIENCE. as well as injuries. rather implied than promised, that if, at the expira

NITROUS OXIDE (LAUGHING GAS). Like most extravagant persons, Mr James was not tion of a year, the young people were in the same

ONE of the most remarkable, though not by any means very particular and punctual on the nice point of mind, he would consider the subject. Here was an paying debts; and on one occasion his cousin William inch of ground on which hope built a fairy castle. the most gravely important, scientific discoveries of chanced to be with him when a tradesman made some They felt the justice of the case, and parted. We the last age, was that of the effects of nitrous oxide little demur before acceding to his demands. He was believe they loved each other with a confidence that upon those who breathed it. To hear that the chequite aware that James was a minor, and the article, was superior to jealousy ; still

, during a whole year mist could produce a gas which, when inhaled into the à gun, not being absolutely a necessary, he thought deprived on each side of one fond assurance, they lungs, threw the tamest philosophers into state of the young gentleman's honour not the best security would scarcely have been human had not William he could obtain. But he knew the character of the sometimes envied, if he did not fear, his cousin's op- mind resembling that of the excited bacchanal, was cousin, and turned to him saying, “ If you, sir, will portunities of pleasing Alice Merton; and had not calculated to strike all with astonishment; and such promise it shall be paid for at Christmas, I have not she pictured with a sigh the many fair faces he must was really the effect of the discovery. For a time, the least objection."

meet, and questioned for a moment if they would the laughing gas, as it was called, was the theme More than half offended at the tradesman's doubts, draw him from his allegiance. and never suspecting the honest intentions of James, But the year had nearly passed — for the lovers of every mouth ; and many who had never given he answered, without a moment's hesitation, “ Cer- parted in June, and May was come—when James a moment's thought to chemistry, when it was worktainly, I will take care you are paid.”

Compton renewed his addresses more pertinaciously ing out principles of the greatest consequence to the Here was a mortifying example of a “beggar's" than ever. It was, however, remarked that on this weal of mankind, lent it a delighted attention when reputation being worth more than the expectations of occasion Mr Merton gave him but slight encourage they heard that it could intoxicate them, if they arrived the affair was nearly forgotten, and William that the concern into which Mr James had entered pleased, by a few mouthfuls of an impalpable fluid. paid the twenty pounds out of his own earnings. It was not in the most flourishing condition. He had The early experiments upon this gas were attended is true, his cousin afterwards refunded it ; but what brought money into it certainly, but he had neither by circumstances of high moral interest. Towards then? He had submitted to obligation from William improved it by connexion nor his own perseverance. the close of the last century, a young man, whose only because he dared not mention it at home. As From an inaptitude for business habits, he was either early days had been partly spent in a druggist's shop for William, it was certainly hard to be called on to behind in his duties, or a dupe : this perhaps might spare such

a sum from the sweet money he had earned have been amended; but his ignorance of the value of at Penzance, was promoted to a situation in a medi-- that money which seems beyond any other so espe- money and love of petty indulgences spoiled all-as a cal institution in Bristol, where an association of phycially one's own-but it was preferable to forfeiting sagacious neighbour very graphically observed, “ That sicians were endeavouring to add to the resources of his word. The next preference, however, which was young gentleman's expenditure on kid gloves and their science by investigations in pneumatic chemisshown, was one far more difficult to pardon. cigars would certainly form a very handsome revenue try. He was obscure and unrecommended, but pos

For once the views of Mr James Tracey and those for many a respectable family.” of his parents chanced to coincide. He fixed his affec- thing and another, a great portion of Mr James's pro- sessed genius, with all its usual enthusiasm. This, in tions on one of the belles of the place, Alice Merton perty was sunk, and what income he might draw from short, was no other than Humphry Davy, ultimately by name, who was pretty and

clever, and, moreover, it was at least problematical. The idea of such a the most eminent British man of science of his day. entitled to five thousand pounds, independently of the personage claiming the affections of Alice Merton It was his duty to make experiments on various aërifortune it was probable her father would leave her. was unutterably ridiculous. But she actually preferred “poor" William. Whether Mr Merton, as we have said, knew something of all form fluids, with a view to ascertain their effects on it was on account of the three or four inches in height this; and Alice's spirits rose 'when she felt that her the human constitution. One of those which he by which he outstripped his cousin James, or that his father

was becoming her ally, and she looked forward thought worthy of investigation was nitrous oxidea hair was darker, or that his voice was deeper, or that with trembling hope to the next month. The first week gas, however, of a very formidable kind, seeing it is the pretty Alice

suspected he loved her the better of came, the second-three more days, and the twelve- nearly allied to one of the most noxious fluids with the two, it is impossible to decide, for there is no month would have expired. It was the second morn which we are acquainted, aqua fortis. This terrible accounting for the caprices of women. However, ing from this time that Alice descended to the break" the course of true love never did run smooth,” and fast-room a few minutes before her father, and beheld, association of ideas had no effect in restraining Mr on this occasion the “ flinty-hearted” father' most conspicuous among a heap of letters, a thick packet Davy. After some preliminary experiments in breathdecidedly favoured the views of the wealthier aspir- directed to him, in the handwriting of William | ing the gas diluted with common air, and finding no

results of any consequence from it in that state, he an hour 99-5 degrees, when the pulse was 102 and we should hear him count the number of books on a resolved to inhale it in its pure form, although it was fuller than before.

shelf in front of him, while under its influence. While

At this period, 20 quarts more of nitrous oxide were he was inhaling the gas, he kept his eye steadily on impossible to tell that the first inspiration would not thrown into the box, and well mingled with the mass the books; and when the pipe through which he destroy him. He obtained it in this condition by the of air by agitation. In twenty-five minutes, the ani- breathed was withdrawn from his mouth, he pointed decomposition of a salt known by the name of nitrate mal heat was 100 degrees, pulse 124. In thirty minutes, with his finger, and attempted to count, but comof ammonia, by the application of a regulated heat; 20 quarts more gas were introduced. My sensations pletely failed. He had all the appearance of being and, on the 11th of April 1799, he first inhaled it into

were now pleasant; I had a generally diffused warmth drunk; and such, he afterwards stated, was his sensa

without the slightest moisture of the skin, a sense of tion. his lungs.

exhilaration similar to that produced by a small dose Mr Cranstoun was the next subject. His temperaFinding that a single inspiration produced no un- of wine, and a disposition to muscular exertion and to ment, I believe, is chiefly nervous, with a little of the easy feeling, he became convinced that a further trial merriment."

lymphatic. After he had inhaled the gas by three or might be made without danger. This was done a few At three quarters of an hour, 20 quarts more were four inspirations, he threw one arm over the back of days after, when Dr Kinglake was present. From a

admitted. “I had now a great disposition to laugh; the chair, and his head fell on his shoulder. His

luminous points seemed frequently to pass before countenance became deadly pale, and we were a good silk bag containing three quarts of the gas, he breathed my eyes, my hearing was certainly more acute, and deal alarmed. I ran for water, and

when I began to in and out for three minutes, and experienced “an

I felt a pleasant lightness and power of exertion in sprinkle it on his face, and tried to rouse him, he said uncommon sense of fullness in the head, accompanied my muscles. In a short time, the symptoms became in a low voice, and with some hesitation, as if it were with loss of distinct sensation and voluntary power-stationary.”

a trouble to him to speak, 'Let me-alone, I'm-ina feeling analogous to that produced in the first stage box, Mr Davy came out, and instantly began to respire He remained for three or four minutes in the same

After having been an hour and a quarter in the heaven.' Assured by this, we ceased to trouble him. of intoxication, but unattended by pleasurable emo- twenty quarts of unmingled nitrous oxide. “ A thrill position, till the gas ceased to operate. He lamented tion. Being still doubtful whether the gas was stimu- ing, extending from the chest to the extremities

, was the cessation of feelings, which he described as exlant or depressing, he tried another experiment next almost immediately produced. I felt a sense of tan- quisite. day; and now, for the first time, after a repetition gible extension highly pleasurable in every limb; my I had been several times before under the influence of the former feelings, experienced that pleasurable visual impressions were dazzling, and apparently mag- of the gas, and its effects on me were known to have thrilling for which the gas was afterwards so cele- and was perfectly aware of my situation. By degrees, that I was requested to become the next subject. I

nified. I heard distinctly every sound in the room, been so different from what had been just witnessed, brated. His hearing became more acute, and the ob- as the pleasurable sensation increased, I lost all con- begged of all present to keep out of my way, for though jects around more dazzling. He was irresistibly nexion with external things ; trains of vivid, visible I should do all I could to repress the strong desire to prompted to make a variety of lively movements images rapidly passed through my mind, and were exert my muscles, I might upset some of them in throughout the room. These effects did not subside connected with words in such a manner as to produce trying leap-frog, or some such freak. The taste of for ten minutes ; but so completely did they after- sensations perfectly, novel. I existed in a world of the gas is very much like fresh liquorice root. At

newly-connected and newly-modified ideas. When I first I felt a singular tingling proceeding from the wards vanish, that he was next day sceptical as to was awakened from this semi-delirious trance by Dr extremities towards the body. Then the brain betheir having taken place. On this point, however, he Kinglake, who took the bag from my mouth, indigna- came affected, and I imagined I possessed the strength was quickly resolved by the results of fresh experi- tion and pride were the first feelings produced by the of Hercules ; and the propensity to muscular exertion ments, both upon himself and others. To pursue his sight of the persons about me. My emotions were became irrepressible. Away went the bag containing

enthusiastic and sublime ; and for a moment I walked the gas-up I started, and ran about, leaping over own modest narrative—“ Having thus ascertained the round the room perfectly regardless of what was said chairs and tables, feeling as if I flew, and not heeding powers of the gas, I made many experiments to ascer

to me. As I recovered my former state of mind, I damage to my shins and other casualties that occurred tain the length of time for which it might be breathed felt an inclination to communicate the discoveries 1 during my violent frolics. During the rest of the day with safety, its effects on the pulse, and its general had made during the experiment. I endeavoured to I felt exceedingly happy, and laughed in every body's effects on the health when often respired. I found recall the ideas they were feeble and indistinct. One face whom I met on the street. My temperament is

recollection of terms, however, presented itself ; and sanguine-bilious, with some portion of the lymphatic. that I could breathe nine quarts of nitrous oxide for with the most intense belief and prophetic manner, I have nothing of the sanguine complexion except three minutes, and

twelve quarts for rather more than I exclaimed to Dr Kinglake, Nothing exists but blue eyes, but my chest is of great size. four. I could never breathe it in any quantity so thoughts ; the universe is composed of impressions, Sir William Forbes, when under the influence of long as ten minutes. Whenever its operation was ideas, pleasures, and pains.” This dose was repeated the gas, imagined he was at the head of his own table carried to the highest extent, the pleasurable thrilling, immediately after, completing what might well be enjoying himself with his friends, and became quite at its height about the middle of the experiment, called a debauch of nitrous oxide. But, unlike the uproarious about filling bumpers and fresh bottles of gradually diminished ; the sense of pressure on the

case of the wine debauch, no unpleasantness or debi wine. In mixed company Sir William was quiet and muscles was lost ; impressions ceased to be perceived; tinued to be unusually, lively and active during the cular friends, among whom he had now to reckon the

lity followed ; on the contrary, the experimenter con- reserved, and he was only at his ease with his partivivid ideas passed rapidly through the mind, and vo- remainder of the day.

gas, which took away all feeling of shyness. The luntary power was altogether destroyed, so that the

Many other persons, including Mr Southey, who temperament, I think, was bilious-nervous. The most mouth-piece generally dropped from my unclosed then resided at Bristol, consented to inhale nitrous remarkable exhibition was that made by John Leylips.” He adds—“Generally, when I breathed from oxide; and generally there was a variety of experiences den-of sanguine-nervous temperament, and an odd six to seven quarts, muscular motions were produced in the different cases, though increased vividness of being in his way. I was standing at the fire-place to a certain extent; sometimes ļ manifested my sensation and sense, and a current of agreeable ideas, with the Rev. Sydney Smith, when I observed Leypleasure by stamping or laughing only; at other times, were nearly uniform results. One person said that he den, after he had inspired the gas once or twice, fix by dancing round the room and

vociferating.” had been excited exactly as he once was by witnessing his eye with a peculiar expression on our reverend Our intrepid young chemist did not stop here. He a heroic scene upon the stage. Another compared his and facetious friend, whose attention I immediately felt anxious to ascertain how far there was a resem- sensations to what he experienced when he heard an directed to it. We stood wondering what was to blance between the sensations experienced from nitrous orchestra of seven hundred instruments performing happen, when Leyden started up, clenched his fists, oxide and those attending the breathing of the gases the Messiah at the commemoration of Handel in and holding them up, still fixing his gaze on Mr which are declaredly fatal to life. Some of these Westminster Abbey. We are inclined to believe that Smith, marched slowly towards him, with the exclagases he inhaled with the same fearless boldness : we the variety of the sensations of different persons from mation, solemnly pronounced, “Confound him-I'll have from him an account of his taking three draughts nitrous oxide, has never been observed with the care murder him now ! Notwithstanding this alarming of hydrocarbonate, and falling into total insensibility which the importance of the subject demands. If the threat, and the ferocious expression of his countenance, - he was certain that fire would have killed him! On different affections of different persons bear any rela- it did not appear he had any intention of slaying his another occasion, he took one scorching draught of tion to their leading and ruling passions, or to what friend; for he stopped short, as if something had nitrous gas, and afterwards thought it likely that he are now called their temperaments, it would be an turned the current of his thoughts into a new direconly escaped destruction from it, in consequence of extremely curious fact brought to the too little culti- tion, and the influence of the gas gradually ceased, his lungs being at the moment pre-occupied by a por- vated field of mental science. On this subject, we and his expression became almost that of a fatuous tion of the nitrous oxide or laughing gas.

present the principal part of a letter addressed to us person for some moments. From the account he gave Anxious to compare its effects with those of alco- by Sir George S. Mackenzie, Bart., in which he de- of himself, it did not appear that his reverend friend hol, he, although a habitual water-drinker, ventured scribes an experiment with laughing gas upon a group was the special object he had in view, and that the on drinking a whole bottle of wine at once. He dis of remarkable men, some of whom are still living. We fixing of his eye and his marching towards him were patched it in large draughts within the space of eight shall allow Sir George's views, which are those of a accidental. His organs of ideality and destructiveness minutes. “Whilst I was drinking, I perceived a phrenologist, to speak for themselves.

had been for the time excited, and he was in a sort of sense of fullness in the head, and throbbing of the “ According to my promise, I now send to you in dreaming delirium. arteries, not unanalogous to that produced in the first writing what I told you respecting the effects of a Phrenology not having been known in those days, stage of the nitrous oxide excitement." The other con dose of the laughing gas on different individuals, whose nothing can be said of the effects of the gas in refesequences were those which usually attend an excess constitutions or temperaments were considerably dis- rence to cerebral development. But there can scarcely in wine. During the debility afterwards, he took similar. Of these I must speak in doubt ; for, at the be a doubt that in many persons, though not in ali, nitrous oxide without increasing the debility. On a time I witnessed the scene I am about to describe, the the predominant cerebral organisation would be chiefly subsequent occasion, he submitted to an experiment doctrine of temperament had not been promulgated, excited. It strikes me that considerable light might of an extraordinary kind, in order to ascertain if an

nor was the influence of organisation on the manifes- be thrown on the doctrine of the temperaments by excess of the laughing gas would produce the same tation of mental faculties known. Still, I have a pretty experiments with the gas, made on men of philosodebility as that attending a common wine debauch. distinct recollection of the forms and appearances of phical minds, who, being aware of the object, would

“ To habituate myself," he says, “ to the excitement, two of the individuals I shall mention, who are dead, attend to the inward effects, while others observed the and to carry it on gradually, I was enclosed in an air- and if I be mistaken as to the living, you have it in manifestations. After a good many trials, I at length tight breathing box, about the capacity of nine cubic your power to correct me.

could sit still under the influence of the gas, and attend feet and a half, in the presence of Dr Kinglake. After I The value of the facts I will state is not trifling, to my feelings without yielding to them. had taken a situation in which I could, by means of a whether they are viewed physiologically or psycholo It appears to me important to ascertain the influence curved thermometer inserted under the arm, and a gically. The gas was very carefully prepared by the of various substances on the nervous system, and the stop-watch, ascertain the alterations in my pulse and late Dr Kennedy, whose name is associated with that modifications of temperament which they may effect, animal heat, twenty quarts of nitrous oxide were of Sir James Hall in his experiments on greenstone as well as their special effects on particular organs. thrown into the box. For three minutes I experienced and lava, and whose death in 1803 deprived his coun It is known that morphine gives confidence where it no alteration in my sensations, though immediately try of the most accurate analytical chemist of his may be wanting, and excites the organ of language ; after the introduction of the nitrous oxide the smell time. There were assembled at his house Professor while tea, and especially strong coffee, excite the inand taste of it were very evident.

Dugald Stewart, the Rev. Sydney Smith, John Ley. tellectual and reflective faculties. But no attention In four minutes I began to feel a slight glow in the den, George Cranstoun, Esq., Sir William (then Mr) has yet been paid to such effects in reference to procheeks, and a generally diffused warinth over the Forbes ; and I think Lord Webb Seymour and Proportional organisation or temperament. The effects chest, though the temperature of the box was not fessor Playfair were also present.

of the introduction into the lungs of certain gases, on quite 50 degrees. I had neglected to feel my pulse Professor Stewart was the first who breathed the the temperature of the body, may assist in testing before I went in; at this time it was 104 and hard, gas. His temperament, I think, was nervous-bilious. Liebig's discovery of the liver being the furnace in and the animal heat was 98 degrees. In ten minutes, Before it was administered to him, he expressed him which animal heat is produced by the slow union of the animal heat was near 99 degrees, in a quarter of self sceptical in reference to its effects, and said that oxygen and carbon without incandescence. Various

SCREWING DOWN TEACHERS.

substances taken into the stomach cause an increase and the breeds of cattle are poor and ill-kept. An- of those coming under the description of gentlemen of temperature, by an over supply of carbon. The other result will by and by become painfully apparent who had attempted to convert the forest into cornthermometer may become as useful as the stethoscope —the land will be deprived of all its nutritive proper- land by the force of money, the greater number in directing to the seat and to the nature of disease ; ties, and, unless where there is a good subsoil to turn quickly got rid of it, and then either betook them. for we know that different parts of the body indicate up, will be a caput mortuum-vegetatively dead. selves to other pursuits, or, as sometimes happened, various temperatures, in different states, though little At the Genesee flats, a rich district of meadow-land becoming disgusted and reckless, gave themselves up or nothing has yet been done to render this fact avail. beyond Albany, Captain Barclay visited the large to dissipation." able. As increased heat is a symptom of fever, if farm establishment of a Mr Wordsworth, who con. The ideas of Captain Barclay on this subject are in Liebig's discovery be true, then hepatic derangement ducted his affairs a degree better than his neighbours, unison with those of every impartial tourist. He is clearly indicated, as well as the remedy—a dimi- but still very imperfectly. “ He has a numerous ten- thinks that Canada is chiefly to be recommended to nished supply of carbon and oxygen. Coldness of the antry, but under a tenure which can yield neither poor and hardy labourers, who will be contented to extremities, likewise, would indicate hepatic derange- profit to the landlord nor benefit to themselves ; they erect a rude hovel of log, and clear a few acres of ment of another kind, and indicate a further supply have no leases, but plough and sow from year to year, land for a plain subsistence. He says the price of of the same things. But the cause may be found in the landlord receiving for rent a portion of the pro- clearing an acre of forest cannot be less than L.20, both cases not to be an over nor an under supply, but duce in kind. His portion is ascertained on the field and for a lower sum an acre of good cleared land an organic defect, preventing the union of the two after the crop is reaped, and is delivered by the ten can be had in the States. We need not follow the substances, or rendering it too facile. The great diffi- ants at an appointed hour, where it is instantly captain through the remainder of his journey, but culty to be encountered are the periodical accessions ; thrashed out,

and the straw given to the winds. Such conclude with the advice which he offers to agricul. but even this may be removed by judicious experi- a system must be a bar to every improvement ; it in turists who think of emigrating: “Where the Briments, now that we have a theory to be tested. The fact operates as a prohibition of all exertion and ex- tish farmer is possessed of capital sufficient for the stomach, the lungs, and the skin, are the means of penditure by the tenant for increasing the fertility of purchase, and also the stocking and cultivating, of a access for introducing into the system whatever we his farm—it being unreasonable to expect that any farm, he might certainly find his account in inaking may imagine to be remedial substances. In the sto

tenant will use exertions or lay out capital where the a purchase in the States. From the generally modemach and lungs analytical and synthetical processes landlord is to reap, certainly a large share of the be- rate price of land, and the opportunity he would have go on which to us are mysterious. Still, as it has nefit thence accruing, and, from the precariousness of of reclaiming a fertile soil, or, by his superior skill, been discovered, in respect to the vegetable world, that the tenure, perhaps the whole.” It might have been rendering that which is already reclaimed greatly the proper articles for sustaining vegetable life may added to this just observation, that in many parts of more fruitful, he might assure himself of such a return be presented in a compound form with success, we England the same yearly-tenant, or tenant-at-will sys- for capital as I believe is not to be had from agriculmay predicate of animal life, that changes in the com tem, prevails, so that in such places the land does not ture in any other country equally abounding as the position of the atmosphere in which patients may be produce perhaps more than a half of what ought to States are in all the comforts of life.” placed, and attention to the proportion of carbon in be its legitimate crops. their food, may effect changes of temperature, and Near Mr Wordsworth's, our tourist was shown two remedy functional disorders in the liver, if it really be desirable estates for sale—“ One of 300 acres, the

OCCASIONAL NOTES. the body's fire-place. No effects of the laughing gas other of 500, with a capital mansion-house and orchhave been attended to except external manifestations; ards on each; and I was told the price of such land in In former notes, we adverted to the under-payment and these have been the objects of mere curiosity, and this locality ranges from L.10 to L.20 an acre.” He of teachers as one cause of the deficient supply of not of philosophical investigation, for which a wide visited the farm of a Mr Macnaughton, a Highlander, educational talent. Our remarks then had reference and interesting field is open. It is well known that about sixty years of age, from Lord Breadalbane's chiefly to stated salaries or endowments, as provided certain substances taken into the stomach of many country, who “ came to America fifteen years ago, by town.councils and heritors. We would now adpersons produce no particular sensation, while they with a small capital, and now he possesses 500 acres dress a few words to parents, on the too common prove irritating and poisonous to others. We have of the best wheat land, all cleared, and his own pro- practice of negotiating with teachers for a reduction seen some variety of effect from the laughing gas in perty. He showed me a field of 60 acres of wheat, of the school fees. the cases I have described as merely curious ; and I and mentioned, in connexion with it, a circumstance

Some parents go to a school, as they would to a hope that some medicine philosopher will take up the furnishing a striking instance of the rapid rise of the shop, to purchase a certain quantity of education, as subject-indeed, not one, but many, as the field is so value of land in this quarter. Soon after his arrival, they would food or clothing, at the lowest possible extensive. A knowledge of phrenology will greatly a neighbour wished to purchase this field of him, and price. They inquire the amount of the fee, and assist."

he accordingly parted with it for 900 dollars, which whatever that may be, a guinea or a half-crown, they It may be mentioned, in conclusion, that nitrous was considered the full value of it. In the course of object, and propose an abatement. Their arguments are oxide has not proved of any important service in me three years his neighbour determined on selling the amusing : "Schooling is very dear to what it was dicine. The views as to the gases which originated whole of his property, and offered this field to Donald, when they were young—Mr So-and-so charges far less the Pneumatic Medical Institution at Bristol have but now at the price of 3000 dollars ; this he at once -teaching is but little trouble,” &c., Others, we have all been disappointed; but while the name of Davy agreed to give ; a bargain was struck accordingly, and heard, claim a reduction because the pupil is very shall survive to the respect of the world, that institu- | the first crop of wheat yielded the purchase-money." tion can never be forgotten.

young, or very little, quite forgetting that there is At Caledonia, a town in the vicinity, the tourist at least as much trouble in teaching a very young procured an interview with a Scotsman, from whom, child as one more advanced, and that a greater

says he, “. I learnt that 250 Scotch families are settled amount of professional skill is requisite in the forCAPTAIN BARCLAY'S AGRICULTURAL in this neighbourhood ; the greater part of them came mer than in the latter case. Parents of a third vaTOUR.

over forty years ago with very little capital, many of riety may be found demanding a discount because

them with hardly sufficient to purchase a yoke of they have three or four to pay for; and they quietly. In the month of April last year, Captain Barclay oxen; they all got wealthy, and now they own farms hint, that if the teacher will not give education to Allardice, of Ury-a gentleman who a number of varying from 200 to 600 acres each.”

four for three fees, he shall have none. Would these years ago distinguished himself by his feats in walking, but has latterly occupied himself on his estate in the where he was shocked with the different aspect of parties admit such a practice in their own trades north as an improver of breeds of cattle and

of agri: affairs. “On entering Canada, I had been impressed pounds for the interest of three? Would a landlord culture-proceeded on a tour to the United States of with a marked difference between it and the United set four houses for the rent of three? Would a baker America and Canada, of which, since his return, he States. In the latter, the people were every where sell four loaves for the price of three ? Again, a fourth has favoured the world with a neatly written account.* distinguished by that cheerfulness and appearance of class will advance many pleas to the same purpose; The principal object which this enterprising gen contentment which attend activity and exertion in such as—“The boy joined the class a week after the tleman had in view in his visit, was, as he informs peaceful pursuits. In Canada, there prevailed an quarter day; now, there are twelve weeks in a quarter, us, to examine the condition of the rural affairs of almost universal

. gloom, the consequence of recent and the fee is six shillings; therefore sixpence inust be the States and Canada, in order to assist a near rela- internal commotion ; of the still existing conflict and deducted !” These people would be astonished, were tive to determine in which a purchase of land should rancour of political feeling; or of the withered hopes they informed that the teacher, instead of granting a be made. The nature of the captain's inquiries ap- of many who, having speculated largely in land, have deduction, would be justified in charging double fee, pears to us to bear so materially on the designs of received little or no return for their money. This

as a trifling compensation for the extra trouble caused intending emigrants to America, that we propose was my early impression, and any thing I have since by his urging the laggard pupil on to overtake the giving a glance

at them for their benefit, referring to observed, or by inquiry ascertained, has served to con- class. They will also plead, "The boy was unwell for the work itself those who are desirous of full informa- firm it, and to satisfy me, that of the two countries the three days and a half? In short, each economical tion on the subject.

States hold out, for agricultural pursuits, by far the father or managing mother believes that every shilling The line of route pursued began at Massachusetts, greater advantages to persons possessed

of any capital. kept off the teacher is a shilling justifiably gained. near Boston ; then to New York, and thence, by the With the exception of portions of cleared land, vary Besides these attempts at reduction, which every Hudson, to the western parts of New York state ; ing from fifty acres in some situations to several hun- independent teacher should resist, there are others to the frontier was next crossed into Canada ; and a re dreds in others, Upper Canada is an immense and which the benevolent must yield. A widow struggling turn made to New York by Pittsburg, and different trackless forest, forlorn and forbidding at best, and in to give her child a good education—a professional parts of Pennsylvania--the whole occupying ten weeks many places rendered more gloomy and repulsive by brother having a family to bring up on limited means of the summer of 1841. The observation made by the the trees having been burnt preparatory to being cut

-a merchant, suddenly unfortunate, whose children tourist in every quarter of the states, was that there down, and consequently now presenting to the eye no

may

have been with the teacher for years—all have was great natural fertility in the soil, much that was thing but bare and blackened poles. And with regard claims upon his gratuitous services. Thus, if eren very beautiful in the scenery, and not less to praise in to what is called cleared land, it consists of no more those who are the most successful, and hold the most the manners and appearance of the people; also, that than a patch here and there, on which the huge pines lucrative situations, realise far less than calculators in most places land could be obtained at moderate that for ages had been tenants of the soil, have, by the suppose, how great must the privations be to men of prices; but that every where there prevailed the same application of fire and axe, been reduced to stumps very limited incomes, thus cruelly diminished ! objectionable system of agriculture-no attention paid four feet in height, so thick set as in many places to In one word, let parents economise every where, to breeding stock, no process of manuring, no leases bid defiance to the plough, and to preclude any mode that they may be generous, or at least just

, to the granted to tenants, each being allowed to crop his of cultivation except sowing and hand-raking the most laborious and worst remunerated of all profesland as he pleases ; and, consequently, there is a pro- seed. There are here no railways, and no interior sions. digious waste of means and resources. The leading water-carriage, advantages so amply enjoyed in the error is inattention to what is called concertible hus- States; and although there are roads, they are of such bandry, or the proper rotation of crops, by which a a description as to be nearly impassable, excepting in Juries are sometimes a set of very stupid people. sufficiency of green food would be raised to feed stock winter, when the sleigh is made use of. Úpper Canada, At the trial of a gentleman for accidentally shooting during winter, so as to use up the straw, and pro- too, is comparatively destitute of local markets, or of his servant (thinking him to have been a robber on duce a quantity of restorative materials to the soil. any proper outlet for the surplus produce of the land; the premises), which took place a few weeks ago in an The common practice, the captain mentions, is to for the population is not only thin and widely scat- English provincial town, the jury returned a vergrow clover along with wheat ; the wheat is reaped, tered, but themselves chiefly agricultural, each family dict of " a deodand of L.1 on the gun, which we reand, after being thrashed, the straw is burnt in order therefore raising sufficient for its own supply; and commend to be forthwith destroyed." Was there to get rid of it; the clover, after being suffered to there are no towns of any magnitude to create any ever any thing to match the absurdity of this ?-the grow till the second summer, if so long, is ploughed considerable demand for the surplus, nor if there were, gun, the unoffending instrument, the insensate matedown as manure. The result of all this is, that the

are easy means of transport afforded. In such cir- rial, is ordered to be put out of existence, for thic land does not yield half the grain crop it should bear, cumstances, it is by no means surprising to find that murderous crime of which it has been found to be

the greater number of those who had speculated in guilty! The thing reminds us of the consoling declaland have suffered grievous disappointment, and that I rations of a nurse, when her baby knocks its head

THE CONDEMNED GUN.

* One volume. Blackwood and Sons. 1812,

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