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Of this organisation the city of Cuzco afforded, according to Garcilasso, a complete miniature picture, the whole being modelled on the pattern of this nucleus and centre of the state, whence civilisation had spread over the surrounding countries. The capital, like the country, was divided into four quarters, called tahuantinsuyu, or .four quarters of the world'— the only name by which the inhabitants of this empire were distinguished among themselves; for the names of Peru and Peruvians, by which they are known to us, were given to them by the Spaniards, and is founded on a misunderstanding at the time of the conquest. The inhabitants of the various quarters of the city took up their abode in these according to the situation of their native province to the east, west, north, or south of the capital, a distinct subdivision of the quarter being assigned to the natives of each province; and as the peculiar costume of each was by law strictly maintained, the numerous inhabitants of this populous city might at any given moment be readily classified according to origin and place of abode. Each of the four grand divisions of the empire, corresponding to those of the capital, was governed by a viceroy; and these divisions were again subdivided into sections of 10,000 souls, each with its governor of the Inca race and its native curaca. The ten thousands were again subdivided into thousands, these into hundreds, and the hundreds into tens; each subdivision being headed by a captain, exercising the functions of a kind of inferior magistrate, the lower being controlled by his immediate superior. The chief duties of these captains consisted in making known the wants as well as the offences of their subordinates to the competent authorities; and their zeal was kept alive by the knowledge, that if they failed to fulfil their duty as public accusers, they would themselves have to bear the penalty of the crime they concealed or overlooked, in addition to punishment for dereliction of duty; while in case of their neglecting to make known the wants of those committed to their care, they were punished in proportion to the suffering their neglect had occasioned. These minute divisions of the people, and the exact account kept of the amount of the population by means of monthly returns, made by the captains of divisions, of the number of births and deaths occurring within their jurisdiction, formed, as it were, the corner-stone of the social and political system in the Peruvian empire.*
All the lands, and almost every kind of property in the empire, were divided into three nearly equal portions—the first being allotted to the Sun (by which was meant the services of religion), the second to the Inca, and the third to the people. The Inca's portion went to defray all his personal expenses, as well as those of his nearest kindred, and was also applied to purposes of state; and when this revenue did not suffice, the sovereign was at liberty to avail himself of the surplus revenues of the Sun. The people's lands were divided so that to each community was assigned an extent of territory proportionate to the amount of its population; and out of this each family had a certain measure of land allotted to its particular use according to the number of its members—a lot sufficient to maintain himself and wife being allowed to each man on his marriage, and a new lot added
* The subdivisions existing among the people, and all the other arrangements connected with them, were equally in force in the army, and were acted upon in war as in peace, so that no confusion could occur thereby in the internal affairs of the state.
was, as it
at the birth of each child, the amount for a male child being double that allowed for a female. The lands thus allotted did not, however, become the property of the individuals to whom they were assigned for use, but continued to be the immediate property of the state; it being appointed by law that the division of the soil should be renewed every year, in order that the amount in possession of each family might be adjusted according to the increase or diminution which had taken place in the number of its members. Even the nobles were subjected to the same system, the amount of territory assigned to them being, however, proportionate to their superior dignity. These arrangements of course precluded the possibility, as regards any subject, of extending the limits of his domains; for the right to sell or to purchase lands, which would at once have upset the equilibrium established by the state, did not exist; and the arrangements relative to labour, to mines, manufactures, &c. were equally opposed to the acquisition of private property. The inconveniences which would be likely in any other country to arise from territorial arrangements such as those described, were in Peru obviated partly by the truly paternal and strongly conservative character of the government, which led it, on the one side, to consult the convenience and happiness of its subjects, wherever this could be done consistently with the exigencies of the state; and, on the other, to avoid every unnecessary change; and thus, though each individual
were, but a tenant at will, in its workings the system seems to have been the same as if he had been a proprietor for life-s0 rarely were any changes introduced in the occupancy of the lands. As regards the negligent cultivation to which so uncertain a tenure might have led, this was prevented by the organisation of labour, which was as much under government control as any of the other affairs of the citizen.
In Peru, it seems, the whole mass of the people, the dwellers in cities as well as the rural populations, were tillers the soil; and the greater part of the lands were cultivated in common by the members of the community. The lands assigned to the Sun in each locality were first of all to be ploughed, and sown, and reaped at the proper seasons, by all the able-bodied men belonging to this locality; next in succession came the fields of orphans and widows, of the aged and the infirm, incapable of working for themselves—the wives and families of the soldiers absent with the armies being reckoned among the widows and orphans. Garcilasso relates that there were in each city, and in large cities in each quarter of the town, public officers appointed to attend to the interests of the helpless class of the community, as regarded the cultivation of their fields. These officers, he says, at the time appointed went up at nightfall to the top of some high place, and having attracted attention by sounding a trumpet, pronounced in a loud voice the following words :--To-morrow work will be commenced in the fields of the helpless ; the persons interested therein are hereby apprised of the fact, in order that they may repair to the spot !' When this task of beneficence had been performed, then only the people were allowed to attend to their own fields, the law of mutual assistance prevailing also in these cases. The lands of the nobles came next in succession, and those of the Inca last of all. To this last task the people went as to a national festival. Each labourer was clad in his best attire, wore a head-dress of gorgeous plumes, and was decked with whatever other ornaments custom allowed him to wear; and a spirit of the purest joy, we are told, pervaded every heart, the labour being gone through to the music of the national airs, sung in honour of the Inca. The field-labours were concluded with a ceremony which probably originated in the desire of investing agricultural labour with a sacred and dignified character in the eyes of the people. Within the precincts of the city of Cuzco was a piece of ground supposed to be the first ever dedicated to the Sun in the empire of the Incas, and therefore held in such reverence that none but the blood-royal were allowed to cultivate it; and here the sovereign Inca with a golden implement turned up a few sods as an example to his subjects in the way of 'triumphing over the earth.'
However costly and splendid the agricultural implements used by the Inca, in form it was like those of the people—of most primitive construction. The plough commonly in use among them was nothing more than a strong sharp-pointed stake, traversed by a horizontal piece, ten or twelve inches from the point, on which the ploughman might set his foot and force it into the ground; and there being in the country no animals suited for draught, men had to supply this part of the labour also. Six or eight Peruvians were generally harnessed to each plough, and moved on to the tune of some national song which they chanted to enable them to keep time in pulling. After the ploughers followed women with rakes, to break the clods as fast as they were turned up.
But the Incas did not only take care that the lands were cultivated, they also looked to this being properly done, and saw that each soil was treated in the manner best suited for its amelioration. Allusion has already been made to the general system of irrigation introduced into the low and sandy grounds of the country; but the government supervision did not stop with the construction of the great canals and aqueducts, but was extended over all the minutiæ of the distribution of the water through each particular field. A regular calculation was made of the quantity of water necessary for the proper irrigation of each allotment, during ordinary seasons and during extraordinary droughts, and the allowance of water was measured out accordingly, the field of the humblest as of the mightiest denizen of the land receiving equally a sufficient supply of the necessary element. The same was the case as regards the manuring of the lands : each district had assigned to it some one of the little islands along the coast where the seafowls deposited their manure, and this was divided among the occupiers of land with the same attention to the extent of their requirements as prevailed relative to all other matters; and so fully alive were the Incas to the value of the guano, that it was forbidden under penalty of death to kill one of the sea-fowls that had their homes on the islands, or to disturb them in any way during breeding - time. With the growing necessities of the people new lands were brought under tillage, and it was usual when desert regions had been fertilised by irrigation to transplant thither colonies to cultivate them.
In all other branches of national industry the same arrangements prevailed as with regard to agriculture : the people were in the narrowest sense of the word the servants of the government, labour being the only contribution required from them. All the mines in the country belonged exclusively to the Inca, and were worked for him by classes of his subjects especially educated for the purpose. The mining knowledge of the Peruvians does not, however, seem to have been very profound; for they did not sink shafts, but contented themselves with the simpler operation of hollowing caverns deep in the sides of mountains or in the banks of rivers, and extracted the ore of those veins which did not dip too deeply into the bowels of the earth. This method was principally resorted to for silver; gold was mostly obtained—as it is now in California—by searching the beds of rivers, or washing the auriferous sands at the foot of the mountains. With the art of smelting the ores, and at least partially refining them, the Peruvians were also familiar, and they erected furnaces for the purpose; but the bellows being an instrument utterly unknown to them, an ingenious contrivance in the structure of their furnaces made a draught of air supply its place. As no money was coined in Peru, the precious metals and stones obtained from the mines were used merely for purposes of luxury—such as the decoration of the temples of the Sun; of the other religious houses, of which mention will be made in the sequel; and of the palaces of the Incas; as also for the various articles of personal adornment, and for the household utensils of the sovereign and his kindred--a fact which serves to explain the extraordinary splendour of the royal mansions and others already alluded to; for the natural productiveness of Peru as regards gold, silver, and precious stones, was fully proved after the occupation of the country by the Spaniards. With copper and tin the Peruvians were also acquainted, and by mixing ninety-four parts of the former metal with six parts of the latter, they produced an amalgam almost equal to steel in hardness. Various tools—such as hatchets, chisels, &c.—of this metal have been found in the graves or huacos, and explain the skill of the people in cutting the hardest stones.
For the animal food required for their nourishment, the people were even more immediately dependent upon the government than for the fruits of the earth, as each family seems at least to have been allowed to cull at its pleasure the produce of its field and its gardens. But the flocks of llamas and other Peruvian sheep (the only tame animals fit for the food of men indigenous in the country) being, like the mines, the exclusive property of the Incas, and their exalted parent the Sun, the hand of a subject could not be raised against these animals without especial permission. The same was the case with the game of the country; and great hunts were therefore undertaken once every year, under the personal auspices of the sovereign Inca, for the purpose of killing the animals required for the consumption of the people. These hunts bore a great resemblance to the battues so much in favour in some countries of Europe in the present day; only that the Peruvians, more humane than the Europeans, did not persecute the animals for mere sport. For the purpose of the battues, as for all other purposes, the country was divided into four districts, in each of which the great hunt took place once every four years. On these occasions the people, sometimes to the number of 50,000 or 60,000, were called out to form a cordon round the district appointed for the hunt, and, armed with long poles, they went about beating the bushes and driving the game of all kinds towards the centre of the circle thus formed. The noxious animals were killed as soon as discovered; but the wild deer, the huanacas, the vicuñas, &c. were more and more narrowly encircled, until being at last driven together in some open spot marked out beforehand, they became an easy prey to the sportsmen. The male deer, the smaller game, and some of the sheep, were killed, but the greater number of the latter were only caught and sheared, and then allowed to escape. The flesh of the slaughtered animals was distributed among the people, who cut it into thin slices, and subjected it to a long process of drying-thus converting it into what is still in those countries called charqui, and still constitutes the chief animal food of the inhabitants. Fresh meat it would seem the people only enjoyed on occasion of the great religious festivals, when numbers of llamas were slaughtered for the public feasts; and on these occasions also they indulged in baked cakes of the maize flour, which was generally eaten raw, steeped in water only. The skins of the slaughtered animals were reserved for various manufactures, and were deposited, together with the wool of the wild and tame flocks, in government magazines, to be afterwards distributed among the people. The coarser sorts of wool were manufactured into garments for the humbler classes of the community; the finer qualities, and more especially the wool of the vicuña, were reserved for the sovereign and his kindred nobles. The spinning and weaving were entirely performed by the women of Peru, and were apportioned, like every other kind of labour, among the different districts according to the amount of their population ; and the captains of sections were authorised to enter the private dwellings to superintend the work going on. The same regulations prevailed with regard to the manufactures of cotton, and of the fibres of the maguey or agave, in which the inhabitants of the milder districts were clad. The quantity of material required for the various habiliments of each family was afterwards shared out by the government, and then made up by the inmates themselves, each individual of the non-noble classes being his own tailor, shoemaker, &c. The goldsmiths, jewellers, sculptors, and other skilled labourers employed in the production of works of art and luxury, were, however, subjected to a regular apprenticeship, and the employments became hereditary in their families. But whether the people were working directly for themselves, or for the Incas and the nobles, they were equally subjected to government supervision, being equally considered as labouring for the community; idleness or negligence of any of the domestic duties was looked upon as an offence against the community; and government officers were sent round to inform themselves by personal inspection of the particular character of each household, and to punish or reward according to the merits of the case. Even the occupations of children of five years of age were regulated by law, and so likewise those of the aged and infirm, who, though incapable of performing the same labours as the young and able-bodied, had certain light tasks imposed upon them.
In their paternal solicitude for the welfare of their subjects, the Incas, not content even with such provisions as have already been mentioned, guarded against the evils which might arise from unforeseen events-such as deficient harvests, &c.—by storing in public magazines, erected in each province, immense supplies of the natural and manufactured produce of the country, which in times of need, if such arose, were distributed among the inhabitants. Some of these magazines, according to the testimony of the Spanish conquerors, contained at the time of their arrival supplies of grain and other necessaries of life sufficient for the subsistence of the