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shores of this lake, and that there certainly are no crocodiles there. This Lucus Nigrorum extends along the shores of the Atlantic ocean from Meheduma to El Kasr-El-Kabeer, an extent of about 50 miles, and is from 3 to 9 miles broad, it is called El Murja, i. e. the morass. We forbear to detain the intelligent reader with any observations on the absurdity of supposing this lake to be the source of the Niger or the Bahar Sudan.
The author of this interesting work concludes with the following apt and judicious observations, p. 412. which we translate.
“We now terminate our researches, in which we have endeavoured to probe and to discuss the most interesting and the most important question that the science of geography offers to our attention, and to facilitate the progress of discoveries in those rich and populous countries. We presume to say that the result of these discoveries would be immense, and would operate a grand, prompt, and salutary influence, not only throughout Africa, but also in Europe, from an intercourse promoted to maturity with a continent considerably nearer to us than Asia or America. This enterprise, which has so often been attempted and so often baffled, which promises glory and immortality to whoever shall accomplish it, appears to us neither difficult nor expensive, but (like all great enterprises) physical courage alone cannot achieve it. It must be undertaken with prudence, it must be executed with skill. The number of those who have failed in this mighty attempt proves nothing against the probability of its success. If millions of boats had been launched from the various ports of Europe to traverse the Atlantic ocean, it is probable that all would have perished, but it was sufficient that one vessel, directed by a Christopher Columbus, should reach and land in the New World.
“ The discovery of Sudan, and the increase of commerce which might be the result, appear to be, in the present civilised state of society, the object the most worthy of the ambition of the nations of Europe. Jo presenting an unlimited career to those courageous and adventurous spirits, whose number has multiplied incalculably by the chances of war and political catastrophe, it would contribute to the actual tranquillity of states as well as to their future prosperity, and these results would be such, that no class whatever would find itself altogether exempt from its influence.
“ Iudeed when nations have made great progress in navigation, when they have widely extended their commercial intercourse,
when the liberal arts and sciences have distributed among them glory and magnificence, when all the paths which men can pursue are illustrated with names which glitter with true glory, when the improvement of the industrious arts are continually approaching perfection, and augmenting the wants of individuals of all classes, and have created an appetite for luxury and ease, even among the most ordinary ranks, when, finally, rapid and successive catastrophes have overturned so many projects, dissipated so many illusions, frustrated so many hopes, then the possibility of discovering unknown rich and fertile countries excites, even amidst the greatest events, an universal attention.”
After enumerating the advantages to be derived by the geographer, the naturalist, the physician, the philosopher, the historian, the poet, the artist, the rich and voluptuous, and, finally, the laborer, our author concludes with the following words.
“ But those whom such events more immediately interest, are, the speculator, who aspires to open new sources of riches, and, finally, the statesman, who contemplating the changes which such discoveries may produce in the destinies of the people, is vigilant to prepare with wise experience, and prudent determination, the means of turning it to good account for the benefit and prosperity of the nation, whose interests have been confided to his management."
THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LITERATURE, Instituted under the Patronage, and endowed by the
Munificence, of His MAJESTY King George THE Fourth, for the Advancement of Literature ; By the publication of Inedited Remains of Ancient Literature, and of such Works as may be of great intrinsic value, but not of that popular character which usually claims the attention of Publishers :-By the promotion of Discoveries in Literature :-By endeavours to fix the Standard, as far as is practicable, and to preserve the Purity, of our Language, boy the Critical Improvement of our Lexicography:-By the Reading, at Public Meetings, of interesting Papers on History, Philosophy, Poetry, Philology, and the Arts; and the publication of such of those papers as shall be approved, in the Society's Transactions:-By the assigning of Honorary Rewards to works of great Literary Merit, and to important discoveries in Literature :-And by establishing a correspondence with Learned Men in Foreign countries, for the purpose of Literary Inquiry and Information.
First General Meeting, on Tuesday, the 17th day of June,
1823. Printed by order of the Council. The first general meeting of the Royal Society of Literature, convened by public advertisement, and by a circular, stating the business with which the meeting would be chiefly occupied, (both issued under the authority of the Provisional Council,) was holden on Tuesday, June 17th, at the House of the Literary Fund Society, in Lincoln's Inn Fields.
At half past two o'clock the chair was taken by the Bishop of St. David's, Provisional President of the Society.
His Lordship read to the meeting an address on the origin and progress of the Society; ou the means of promoting its success; and on the subjects of literary investigation suited to its constitution. See p. 97.
His Lordship having concluded, the Provisional Secretary read the letter of Sir William Knighton, conveying to the Provisional President and Council of the Royal Society of Literature, His Majesty's most entire approbation of the constitution and regulations of the Society, and bearing the royal sign manual. The constitution and regulations, as thus approved, were also read to the meeting by the Provisional Secretary, together with an exposition of the principles and objects of the society, prepared by the Provisional Council.
The Provisional President announced, that the regular meet. ings of the Royal Society of Literature will commence on the first Wednesday in November, at a time and place to be fixed by the council, of which due notice will be given to each member.
As preliminary to the ballot for the Officers and Council for the ensuing year, Robert Bradstreet, Esq. and A. J. Valpy, Esq. were nominated Scrutineers.
The ballot then commenced.
The following Resolution, proposed by the Provisional President, was carried unanimously :-
That the Council be authorised to meet, from time to time, to take the requisite steps to provide a suitable place for the Society's regular meetings, and to proceed upon such other business as the interests of the Society may require.
After the ballot had continued open till four o'clock, the hour fixed in the circular notice, it was closed, and the lists were examined by the scrutineers; who reported that the following persons were unanimously elected Officers and Council of the Society, viz:
President: The Lord Bishop of St. David's.
Vice-Presidents: The Lord Bishop of Chester, the Right Hon. Lord Chief Justice Abbott, the Right Hon. John Charles Villiers, The Right Hon. Sir Gore Ouseley, the Hon. George Agar Ellis, Sir James Mackintosh, Knight, the Rev. Archdeacon Nares, Colonel William Martin Leake.
Treasurer: Archibald Elijalı Impey, Esq.
Council: The Marquis of Lansdowne, the Right Hon. Lord Grenville, the Right Hon. Lord Morpeth, Sir Thomas Acland, Bart. Sir Alexander Johnstone, Knight, Francis Chantrey, Esq. Taylor Combe, Esq. the Rev. George Croly, James Cumming, Esq. William Empson, Esq. the Rev. Dr. Gray, Prince Hoare, Esq. William Jerdan, Esq. the Rev. Archdeacon Prosser, the Rev. Dr. Richards, the Rev. Charles Sumner.
This announcement having been made, the Bishop of Chester rose, and, in an animated address, representing to the meeting the uniform anxiety of the Right Rev. President for the advancement of piety and learning, and the peculiar earnestness with which it had been directed to ensuring the formation and welfare of the Royal Society of Literature, proposed :
That the thanks of this meeting be given to the President, for bis unwearied zeal in promoting the cause of learning, and
uniting its interests with those of religion and morality, as well as for his perseverance in overcoming the obstacles that have been opposed to the formation of this Society.
The motion was seconded by the treasurer. The Society, he said, had passed through the labors attendant upon its organization,-it bad surmounted the impediments that had been placed in the way of its advancenient,-it now existed with every promise of success : in all these respects, too much could not be ascribed to the anxious and laborious care of the learned president. The motion was then carried unanimously.
The secretary was directed to issue notices to the members of council, to meet on the following Saturday, at the apartments of the librarian, in the British Museum.
RICHARD CATTERMOLE, Sec.
An Address to the Royal Society of Literature, read at its First
General Meeting, previously to the election of its officers, by the Bishop of St. David's.
Anxious, as I have beey, that the chair, in which you have done me the honor, provisionally, to place me, should have been filled by some person, whose rank, and experience, and talents, would have done justice to your choice, and have been not unworthy of the royal munificence, which founded, and which patronizes the Society, which is here assembled to hold its first public meeting on this day; yet I am fortunately relieved from the difficult task of laying before you an exposition of the views, and objects, and advantages of a Society of general Literature, by the ample statement, which has been prepared by the provisional council of the Society, of which statement such parts as will be more inmediately interesting to the present meeting, will be read by the secretary, after the recital of the constitution and regulations of the Society. I have therefore little more, on this occasion, to do, than to state briefly the origin of the Society, and its progress to that consummation, at which it has arrived by His Majesty's gracious approbation, with which it has been very recently honored.
To His Majesty's love of learning, and desire to promote the literature of His country, the Society owes its existence. A general outline of a Society of Literature having been, by the command of the King, submitted to His Majesty, on the 2nd of November, 1820, it was His Majesty's pleasure, that a Society should be formed by completing this general outline with such VOL. XXVIII.