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the words τη δε απολλωνιακη και μαντικη, the words την αποδεικτι .
κην ως αποφαντικην της αληθειας are wanting. For as I have be-
fore observed the dialectic of Plato consists of definition, divi-
sion, demonstration, and analysis; and unless the above words
are added, the sentence will evidently be defective. P. 108. I.
19. Αυται μεν ουν πασαι αι ειρημεναι μανιαι κρειττους εισι της σω-
φρονουσης ψυχης. εστι μεντοι της σωφροσυνης συστοιχος μανια, ην και
κατα τι πλεονεκτεισθαι υπο της σωφροσυνης ελεγομεν. κατα γαρ τους
μεσους λογους της ψυχής και ετι τους δοξαστικους επιπνοιαι τινες γι-

ας υπες

ελπιδα αποτελουσι τινα οι τεχνιται, και θεωρηματα ευρισκουσιν, ως Ασκληπιος φερε εν ιατρικη, και Ηρακλης εν πυκτικη. Here in the first place, in πλεονεκτεισθαι υπο της σωφροσυνης, for vmo I read uteg. For the mania of which Hermeas is speaking, though it is co-ordinate with a sound condition of mind, yet in a certain respect has a prerogative superior to it, as is evident from what he immediately adds. And in the second place, for εν πυκτικη, it is necessary to read εν πρακτικη [subintellige far]. But though the Professor found ipaxtıxy in one of the manuscripts which he consulted, yet he has retained πυκτικη. Hercules, however, was never celebrated as a pugilist; but is renowned for having excelled in the practic life. Nothing is more common among Platonic writers than the division of human life into the practic and theoretic ; and two of the Dissertations of Maximus Tyrius are employed in discussing which is the better of these two lives.


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NOTICE OF Recherches Géographiques sur l'intérieur de l'Afrique

Septentrionale : comprenant l'histoire des voyages entrepris ou erécutés jusqu'à ce jour, pour pénétrer dans l'intérieur de Soudan, l'exposition des systèmes géographiques qu'on a formés sur cette contrée, l'analyse de divers itinéraires Arabes pour déterminer la position de TIMBUCTOO ; et l'examen des connaissances des anciens relativement à l'intérieur de l'Afrique. Suivi d'un Appendice, contenant divers itinéraires traduits de l'Arabe, par M. le Baron Silvestre de Sacy et M. de la Porte, et plusieurs autres relations ou itinéraires, également traduils de l'Arabe, ou extraits des voyages les plus récents: ouvrage accompagné d'une carte; par : M. C. A. WALCKENAER, membre de l'Institut. A

Paris. 1821. pp. 525. 8vo.

Tre object of this publication is to ascertain and fix a point in the interior of Africa (“un point fixe de départ”) from whence to calculate the relative distances of nations, towns, territories, and encampments; for this purpose the author endeavours to ascertain the true position of Timbuctoo, that celebrated city in the interior of Africa, of which we have lately heard so much, but know so little.—The Arabian authors, more particularly the African geographer Edrissi, and the historian and traveller Ben El Waty el Tanjawy (known by the uame of Ben Batouta) have told us the distances from place to place and from country to country, without, however, informing us of the precise situation of any one place, so that we are left without " a fixed point of departure.” For example, Edrissi tells us, that from Koukou to Ganah is 45 days' journey, and from the latter place to the lake or sea where the island Ulil is situated, whence they convey salt to Timbuctoo, is 40 days, but he tells us not, where Koukou, Ganah, or the island of Ulil is situated Ben El Waty in his work on Marocco,' entitled a Narrative of

1 This work is in the King's Library at Paris.

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matters concerning Marocco, mentions the distances from place to place, and from town to town, in that empire, most accurately, but he gives nu fixed point of departure. Nothing has more contributed to involve the geography of Africa in obscurity, than the imperfect information transniitted to us by these interesting authors; yet how could it be otherwise, when the knowledge of either of them did not afford the means of ascertaining the longitude or the latitude of any particular place. To remedy this defect, which in the present enlightened age ought no longer to exist, is the declared object of M. Walckenaer's work; how far it has been accomplished we are now to enquire, for it must be generally admitted, that when the situation of the great emporium of central Africa shall have been ascertained, the relative position of all the other considerable countries and towns, will be the more easily determined.

Much confusion has been thrown on Africa by late travellers
in that country, having been unacquainted with its languages,
particularly the Arabic, (the travelling language of that continent);
but each negro kingdom or state has a distinct language of its
own, so that the river called in Sudan El Bal’r El Abeed, or
the Niger, which runs from west to east, and waters many negro
lands, is called by various names, which are given to it respec-
tively by the people through whose territory it passés, these
names have multiplied and are multiplying. They are calculated
to impress European travellers with an idea that the rivers are
as various as their names, accordingly we perceive that every
traveller brings home a new name for this river; thus there is
too much reason to believe that the travellers in, as well as the
writers on, Africa, have become the dupes of words. For all
these words, if their etymology were analysed, would probably
be found to signify, the great water, the great river, the father of
waters, the Nile of Niles, &c. &c, but in the respective languages
of the countries through which it passes, all designating ihe
Niger or its adjunct streams.
The same confusion has been thrown on the terms

Marais de Wangara
Merdja, ou mer de Nigritie
Grand lac du Sudan
Bah'r Kulla, i. e. Alluvial or submerged country

Balı’r Sudan, i. e. Sea of Sudan,
all which designate possibly the same thing; viz. the Bahar
Sudan or Sea of Sudan.

Mr. Jackson was the first to mention this sea or Bah'r Sudan: Aly Bey corroborated his report, and gave it precisely the same

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situation, and Colonel Fitzclarence has confirmed both these reports. But our author having published a work, entitled “ l'Histoire des voyages et des decouvertes faites en Afrique, depuis les siecles les plus reculés jusqu'à nos jours," in 4 vols, in 8vo. and speaking of Murray's account of Dr. Leyden's discoveries in Africa (which by the way forms the basis of his work) thinks that the Sea of Sudan is not identified with the Merdja ou Mer de Nigritie, but that they are distinct seas ; for he says,

p. 244.

“ Dans la carte qui accompagne l'édition donnée par M. Murray en 1817 de l'ouvrage de Leyden, intitulé, Histoire des Découvertes en Afrique, on a aussi dessigné cette Mer de Soudan à l'Est de Timbuctou, mais il n'y a point de Merdja ou de Mer de Nigritie.

Thus our author in the foregoing passage says, there is a Sea of Sudan east of Timbuctoo, but no Sea of Nigritia, evidently demonstrating, what he however does not attempt to conceal, his ignorance of the language of Africa, and that he does not know that Nigritia and Sudan are synonimous terms, signifying. the same thing!

This confusion of rivers and seas, which are for the most part verbal, being premised, we shall now proceed to the investigation of our subject.

The basis, on which M. Walckenaer's geographical researches on North Africa turn, is-An itinerary of a certain Arabian chief or guide of a caravan, who performs a journey from Tripoli to Timbuctoo; this itinerary is originally written in Arabic, but is translated by M. de la Porte, interpreter to the French consulate at Tripoli. Another itinerary of a journey to Timbuctoo through Housa, is soon after seen by our author, originally written in Arabic, but translated by the celebrated Oriental professor at Paris, M. le Baron Silvestre de Sacy, our author then becomes indebted to M. de la Porte for a third journey in Africa; viz. from Tripoli to Cashna, also a journey from Fas to Tafilelt, together with several extracts from Hornemann, Shabeeny, Jackson, Bowdich, and other travellers.

The work is divided into three parts:




" We use this orthography instead of that of Fez aud Tafilet, because we consider the Emperor of Marocco's (Muley Soliman) authority as paramount to custom, for which vide his Imperial Majesty's Letter to our late revered sovereign, George 3d, in Jackson's account of Marocco, last edition, page 320, line 5. N. The Itinerary here alluded to is inserted in the Class, Journ. No, LII,

The 1st treats of the progress of geographical knowledge in North Africa, of the journies undertaken in that part of the world, and particularly of those whose object it was to reach Timbuctoo.

The 2nd part contains the manner in which geographers have treated the notions suggested to them on this subject by various travellers in Africa.

The 3rd part consists of a geographical analysis of these itineraries. The position of Tafilelt is tirst fixed by our author from the itineraries of Shabeeny, Ibn Hassen, and from Jackson, for the purpose of ascertaining more accurately that of Timbuctoo by other itineraries; a point of African geography is thus fixed, and is important, inasinuch as Tafilelt is a place which maintains a direct and uninterrupted intercourse with Timbuctoo.

The difference between the distance from Fas to Tafilelt, as given by Shabeeny and Ibn Hassen respectively, is, it appears, only 12 or 15 miles. “ Il en résulte que la distance de Fez à Tafilet selon l'itinéraire de Ibn Hassen est d'environ 191 milles géographiques; et comme la route se dirige d'abord à l'Est, et que les ruines de Pharaon sont sur la carte de M. Jackson placées au Nord-est de Fez, on trouve relativement à la distance de ces deux lieux avec Tafilet, une différence d'environ 12 à 15 milles : ainsi donc les renseignements qu’a obtenus M.Jackson s'accordent avec ceux de l'itinéraire de Ibn Hassen relativement à la position de Tafilet." P. 281.

We apprehend M. Walckenaer has overlooked the note in the first

page of Shabeeny's account of Timbuctoo, wherein part of the time consumed in the journey to Tafilelt is attributed to the sojournment in, and to the crooked paths across, the mountains, which necessarily extends the time in performing the journey beyond what the distance would indicate. The supposition of three or four miles a day in crossing the mountains, being added to the journey, would annihilate this difference of 12 or 15 miles, and would make the two accounts agree exactly. We consider the corroboration of these two accounts confirming and establishing the position of Tafilelt,a important to African geography.

I This direction east relates only to the passage across the mountains, for afterwards, in passing through the plains, it is south-eastwardly.

2 We learn from Mr. Jackson that Tafilelt is invariably allowed to be considerably nearer to the city of Marocco than to that of Fas, in a direct line, and that the reason travellers from the former are longer on their journey than from as, is, because they are obliged to travel far to the south on departing from Marocco, till they reach a pass in the

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