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Dr. B. contains almost as many typographical errors, scil. apaψηου καταπαύσαιου ήχειν" προσλακβάνει. .

It is remarkable that the word temetum is omitted in the Gra. dus ad Parnassum, although used by Horat. (Ep. ii. 2. 103.) Pullos, ova, cadum temeti,--and by Juvenal. (xv. 24.) Et Corcyræa temetum duxerat urna, given as a synonymn.

Burton, in one of the most nervous chapters of his Anatomy of Melancholy, that singular farrago of original thoughts and multifarious erudition (P. 3. Sect. 4. p. 628. 4to ed.) quotes this line from Juvenal (Sat. xiii. 210.)

Perpetua impietas, nec mensæ tempore cessat;

Exagitat vesana quies, somnique furentes. Now the word in the first line, as Juvenal wrote it, is anxietas, and the second line does not exist in the works of that satirist. This quotation shows that Burton was in the habit of citing from memory, and many others might doubtless be found to confirm this idea. But what a storehouse of classical and general literature must the memory of such a man have been! Burton appears to have had in his recollection the words of Job (vii. 13, 14. “Then thou scarest me with dreams, and terrifiest me through visions.”. Qu. Is the second line, as quoted by Burton, his own composition, or does it occur in any classical author? Soph. Philoct. 1289. (ed. Br.)

απώμοσαγνού Ζηνός υψίστου σέβας: . This line is well parodied by the magnificent oath which we read to have been in frequent use with William the Conqueror, who was wont to swear by the splendor of God.

A good motto to be placed over the door of the Louvre, at least, prior to the restorations made in 1815 to the right owners, might be furnished by Sallust (Bell. Cat. ii) “ Ibi primum insuevit exercitus signa, tabulas pictas, vasa cælata mirari; ea privatim ac publice rapere; delubra spoliare; sacra profanaque omnia polluere.” The French, indeed, appear to have been always anxious to emulate those wholesale spoilers, the Romans.

It is related of Charles I., that on his trial, an omen of its deadly issue was drawn from the top of his gold-beaded cane dropping off without any apparent cause. Nearly the same improbable story is related by Hadrian in Ælius Spartianus' Life of that emperor (p. 35. ed. Le Maire.)

Signa mortis hæc habuit

Anulus, in quo imago ipsius sculpta erat,

Sponte de digito delapsus est.” Credat Judæus Apella.

C. A. W.

1

OBSERVATIONS ON The ScHOLIA OF HERMEAS on the PHÆDRUS OF

Plato, published by FrederiCUS Astius, Professor Landishutanus, Lipsiæ, 1810, 8vo.

PART 1. Great praise is certainly due to Professor Ast, for rescuing from an oblivion of more than a thousand years these invaluable Scholia on one of the most important Dialogues of Plato; and for the

very

learned notes which he has also added to his edition of this work. But though the Professor is certainly a man of great erudition, yet as he does not appear to have been an adept in the philosophy of Plato, certain necessary emendations and deficiencies in these Scholia have escaped his notice, as I trust will be evident from the following remarks.

Hermeas, the author of these Scholia, was a disciple together with Proclus' of the celebrated Syrianus, who for his very estraordinary attainments in the knowledge of the philosophy of Plato, and the Chaldaic and Orphic theology, was dignified with the appellation of the great, both by his contemporaries, and the philosophers that succeeded him in the Platonic school. But though these Scholia were doubtless originally written with consummate accuracy; for all the Platonists that were contemporary with, and succeeded Proclus, appear to have been no less accurate in their diction, than profound in their conceptions ; yet, as the Professor himself seems to have been well aware, they have been transmitted to us, through the carelessness of

· That Hermeas and Proclus were fellow disciples, is evident from p. 107. of these Scholia, in which Hermeas says, naopno ay to stalpos ITpordos,

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transcribers, in a very imperfect and mutilated state. There is every reason also to believe, that they are nothing more than extracts made by one of the disciples of Hermeas from a complete commentary which he wrote on the Phædrus; just as the Scholia on the Cratylus of Plato, are extracts from the commentary of Proclus on that Dialogue, as will be evident from a perusal of them in the excellent edition of Professor Boissonade, Lipsia, 1890. 12mo.

In the first place, in commenting on the words of Plato at the beginning of the Phedrus, πορευομαι δε προς περιπατον εξω τειχους, Hermeas observes, p. 65. δηλοι οτι, προς κρειττονα τινα και υπερτεραν ζωην μελλω ιεναι, και οιον παρα τους πολλους. In which

passage, for και οιον it is obviously necessary to read και ουχ οιον. Hermeas then immediately adds, το γαρ αυτο προς διαφορα πραγματα και κατα διαφορους επιβολας δυναται και ως κρειττον λαμβανεσθαι και ως χειρον' οιον το λευκον, εαν σημαινη ημιν το σαφες το τη αισθησει ληπτον και αγευστον πανυ, το μελαν σημαινοι δια το ασαφες, το κρειττον της αισθητικης γνωσεως, το ευθυ και νοησει μονη και ληπτον. But for αγευστον in tlis extract, which is obviously erroneous, I read ayatov; and then what Hermeas says will be in English as follows: It is possible for the same thing to be assumed with reference to different things and different conceptions, as more and as less excellent. Thus, for instance, whiteness, if it should signify to us the clearness which may be apprehended by sense, and which is very admirable, then blackness will signify through its obscurity, that which is better than the knowledge obtained by sense, and which is directly, and by intellectual perception alone, to be apprehended. In p. 68. 1. 42. Hermeas, speaking of the five gnostic powers of the soul, viz. νους, διανοια, δοξα, φαντασια και αισθησις, says, η δε διανοια και αυτη περι τα ωσαύτως εχοντα, πλην μετα τινος λογου και αποδειξεως, εδει και τα εν γενεσει, α δη και γιγνομενα και αλλως ποτε εχοντα εισιν εχειν τινα λεξιν την γνωριζουσαν αυτα; in which passage for λεξιν it is necessary to read evv, as will be immediately evident to every tyro in Platonism. In p. 75, 1. 5. from the bottom, in the words η γαρ αληθης προς των ψυχων ο νοητος εστι κοσμος, for προς

I read natpis, and then the passage in English will be : for the true country of the soul is the intelligible world; an assertion very common with Platonic writers, from Plotinus to Olympiodorus.

Again, p. 82. 1. 12. Σημαινει δε απασαν την ουσιαν της ψυχης δια του σφυρηλατου ανδριαντος, ως διολου οντος χρυσου αναθησω και αναπεμψω εις τον Δια, τον υπαρχοντα του νοητου κοσμου και της αφανους

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δημιουργιας. In this passage, for νοητου it is necessary to read voepou; for Jupiter, both according to the Platonic and Orphie theology, reigns over the intellectual and not the intelligible world, as is copiously demonstrated by Proclus in his 5th book On the Theology of Plato. P. 84. 1. 3. from the bottom, det OUV προτερον ορισασθαι το πραγμα, περι ου τις μελλει διαλεγεσθαι, ειθ' ουτως απο του διορισμου λαμβανειν τας αποδειξεις, ωσπερ δε και προ του διορισμου τηνδε αιρετικην μεθοδον δει θεωρειν, εξ ης ανιχνευεται ο ορισμος. Here, for τηνδε αιρετικην, it is requisite to read την διαιβετικη.

For the celebrated dialectic of Plato, which is a very different thing from the topics of Aristotle, and which Plato speaks of in his Republic, Parmenides, Sophista and Philebus, consists of division, definition, demonstration, and analysis, as is abundantly shown by Proclus in Parmenidem, et in Theol. Plat. and by Olympiodorus in his Ms. Scholia on the Philebus. Ρ. 87. 1. 9. from the bottom, Διθυραμβους δε ειπε φθεγγεσθαι, επειδη σκολιως και δια μακρου και υπερβατων τα περι των ορισμων απηγγελται, και οι διθυραμβοι δε σκολιως απηγγελλοντο, και δια συνθετων και πεπλεγμενων ονοματων. In this passage, for συνθετων it is obviously necessary to read ασυνθετων. For those poets who write διθυραμβοι employ unusual and complicated words. P. 91. 1. 26. Δια τι δε ο Σωκρατης παρατειται ενθουσιασαι και κατοχος γενεσθαι ταις Νυμφαις; ή οπερ ειπομεν, επειδη της γενεσεως προστατιδες εισιν αι Νυμφαι (αι μεν την αναλογιαν κινουσαι, αι δε την φυσιν, αι δε τα σωματα επιτροπευουσαι, κ. τ. λ.

Here for αναλογιαν, which I should conceive is obviously erroneous, I read αλογιαν, and then the sense of the passage will be," that of the Nymphis who are the prefects of generation [i. e. of the sublunary region] some excile the irrational life, others nature, and others preside over bodies.” Ρ. 94. 1. 5. For ως μη παυση επιλελησθαι της του δαιμονος βουλης και επιστασιας, it is I conceive evidently necessary to read ως μη παντη επιλελησθαι, κ. τ. λ. In p. 100. Hermeas, unfolding the secret meaning of the Trojan war, says, Ιλιον μεν ουν νοεισθω ημιν ο γεννητος και ενυλος τοπος παρα την ιλυν και την υλην Ιλιον ωνομασμενον, εν ω και ο πολεμος και η στασις, οι δε Τρωες τα ενυλα ειδη, και αι περι τους σωμασι πασαι ζωαι, διο και ιθαγενεις λεγονται οι Τρωες» και γαρ οικειαν την υλην περιεπουσιν αι περι τα σωματα ζωαι πασαι και αναλογοι ψυχαι. In this passage, for αναλογοι ψυχαι, it is necessary to read αλογοι ψυχαι. For Proclus in the fragments which have been preserved to us of his Commentary on the Republic of Plato, (p. 398.) gives the same explanation as Hermeas of the Trojan war, and observes, apav γαρ οιμαι το περι την γενεσιν καλλος εκ της δημιουργιας υποσταν, δια VOL. XXVIII, Cl. . NO. LV.

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της Ελενης οι μυθοι σημαινειν εθελουσι, περι ο και των ψυχων πολεμος τον αει χρονον συγκεκροτηται, μεχρις αν αι νοερωτεραι των αλογοτερων ειδων της ζωης κρατησασαι, περιαχθωσιν εντευθεν εις εκεινον τον τοπον, αφ' ου την αρχην ωρμηθησαν. Here the more irrational forms of life mentioned by Proclus, are the αλογοι ψυχαι of Hermeas. P. 109. 1. 31. Εκ παντων ουν τουτων δηλουται, οτι ου περι το πρωτον καλον ειχεν ο προτερος λογος, αλλα περι το μεσον και εσχατον ως εν αλλοις, ο δε νυν περι το πρωτον καλον αναστρεφεται, και το οντως ον και απλουν και αβεβαιον. Here, for αβεβαιον, it must be immediately obvious to every tyro in Platonism, that we should read βεβαιον. For the first beauty, or the beautiful itself, and truly existing being, are according to Plato things of a perfectly stable nature.

P. 104. Γινεται μεν ουν και αλλοι ενθουσιασμοι περι τα αλλα μερη του σωματος, δαιμονων τινων αυτο κινουντων ή και θεων ουκ ανευ δαιμονων. και γαρ η διανοια ενθουσιαν λεγεται, όταν επιστημας και θεωρηματα ευρισκη εν ακαρει χρονο και υπερ τον αλλον ανθρωπον. In this passage, by a strange blunder of the transcribers of the manuscripts from which these Scholia were published, we have του σωματος instead of της ψυχης. For Hermeas is obviously speaking of the enthusiastic energies of the parts of the soul, and not of the parts of the body. This is evident, from what he iimmediately adds, και γαρ η διανοια ενθουσιαν λεγεται, κ. τ. λ. Hence instead of αλλα μερη του σώματος, δαιμονων τινων αυτο κινουντων, it is necessary to read, αλλα μερη της ψυχης, δαιμονων τινων, αυτα κινουντων. In p. 105. Hermeas speaking of the four species of mania enumerated by Plato, i. e. the musical, the telestic, or pertaining to the mysteries, the prophetic, and the amatory, observes as follows: συμπνεουσι δε αλληλαις και δεονται αλ. ληλων αυται αι δ' κατακωχαι" ουτω πολλη τις εστιν αυτων η κοινωνια. η μεν γαρ τελεστικη δειται της μουσικης τα πολλα γαρ των κατα την τελεστικην υπαγορεύει μαντικην, κ. τ. λ. In this passage for της μουσικης it is necessary to read της μαντικης, and for μαντικην το read μαντικη; and then the meaning of Hermeas will be perfectly clear, viz. that the telestic is in want of the prophetic art, because the latter explains many things pertaining to the former. P. 107. 1. 21. Λαβοις δ' αν των ενθουσιασμων τουτων εικονας και εκ των λογικων θεωρηματων. τη μεν γαρ μουσικη αναλογον ληψη την οριστικην, ήτις τον ανθρωπον και τον ορισμoν αυτου συναρμοζει εκ ζωου και θνητου, και αποτελει το ειδος αυτου τη δε τελεστικη την διαιρετικης και αναλυτικην, ητις δια των υπ' αλληλων γενων αναπεμπει επι το γενικωτατον. τη δε απολλωνιακη και μαντική αυτο το γενικώτατον, ο απο των πολλων εις το ενικώτατον αφικται. In this passage, after

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