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This Article contains Two Propositions.
is such, that he cannot turn and prepare him-
Works to Faith and Calling upon God. 2. We have no Power to do good Works pleasant
and acceptable to God, without the Grace of God by Christ preventing us, that we may have a good Will, and working with us, when we have that good Will.
The First Proposition. The Phrase good works does in this Proposition manifestly denote Works that are only Specioufy or comparatively good. This being premised, see the Fourth Question of the Locus Decimus of Turretin's System.
In the Second Proposition, tho' the good Works are said to be pleasant and acceptable to God, yet the Church does not mean that they are strictly good, and consequently pleasant and acceptable to him in their own Nature : but she manifestly means Works imputatively good, towards the Performance of which God's preventing and allisting Grace is undoubtedly necessary. This being premised, the SecondProposition(whichisthe necessary Consequence of the First, and is therefore connected by the illative Particle wherefore) is created of by Limborch in the Eleventh and Twelfth Chapters of his Fourth Book, and Dr. Whitby in his Appendix to the Sixth Chapter of the Second Epistle to the Corinthians, down to Secondly, to explain as far, &c.
The ELEVENTH ARTICLE,
Of the Justification of Man.
E are accounted righteous before God, only for the
merit of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ by faith, and not for our own Works or deservings. Wherefore that we are justified by Faith only, is a most wholfom Doctrine, and very full of comfort, as more largely is expressed in the Homily of Fuftification,
This Article contains Four Propositions,
for our own Works or Deservings.
for the Merit of our Lord and Savior Jesus
Cbrift. 3. We are accounted righteous before God, only
for the Merit of our Lord and Savior Jesus
Christ by Faith. 4. That we are justified by Faith only, is a most
wholsom Doctrin, and very full of Comfort, as more largely is expressed in the Homily of
Justification. Our Church expresly refers to the Homily of Justification for a more full Explication of the Doctrin of this Article. And what the Church cals the Homily of Justification, is the Third Homily in the First Book, entituled, of the Salvation of all Mankind. For in the said Homily the Do&trin of Justification is declared and established ; nor is there any other Homily which bears the Title of Justification. Thac Homily of Salvation therefore ought in any wise to be carefully perus’d, before a Man passes a Judgment upon the Doctrin of this Article.
Now whosoever has read the aforesaid Homily, must have observ’d, 1. That (in how different Senses soever the Word may be used in either Scri. pture or other Writers) yet our Church does in this Homily, and consequently in this Article also, by Justification most certainly mean being in a State of Favor with God, being accounted righteous before him, having our Sins forgiven, so that they shall not be imputed to us. 2. That when our Church condemns the Do&rin of Justification by Works, she does not deny the Neceflity of our living in Obedience to God's Laws, as that without which we cannot possibly be saved; but she denies, that any Works of ours are ftri&tly good, or have a real Worth of their own, so as to merit or deserve Remiffion of our Sins upon their own account. 3. That by Faith our Church means not the bare Act of Believing, as separate from other Instances of Obedience; but a lively Faith, a Faith that works by Love, and is accompanied with every Branch of Gospel Holiness.
That when she asserts and maintains Justification by Faith, she does not mean, that Faith is of it seif meritorious, or can deserve Remission of Sins at God's hand; but that we do by Faith lay hold upon the Merits of Christ, by whom alone our Peace with God is made, and for whose Sake alone we are justified. Faith therefore is the Instrument by which a Man applies to himself the Virtue of Christ's Sacrifice. And consequently, s. When the Church teacheth Juftification by Faith only, she does in reality mean the very fame, as if she had faid, We are justified by Christ only, that is,
co use (a) her own Expressions, We put our Faith in Christ, that we be justified by him only, that we be justified by God's free Mercy,and the Merits of our Savior Christ only, and by no Virtue and good Works of our own, that is in us, or that we can be able to have, or to do, for to deserve the Same : Christ himself only being the Cause meritorious thereof.
From whence it follows, that when Justification by Faith, is by our Church oppos’d to Justification by Works, the Word By is used in different Senses, and consequently the Opposition is not exact. For Works are by our Adversaries consider'd as the meritorious Cause of Juftification, and the Word By expresses their meritorious Causality : whereas Faith is not by us consider'd as the meritorious Çause of Justification (and consequently the Word By does not express their meritorious Causality) but as the Instrument by which Christ's Satisfaction is applied to particular Persons; and consequently the Word By, when applied to Faith, expresses (what I may call) the instrumental Causality, or the applicatory Cause of our Justification. Wherefore, when our Church saies, we are justified by Christ's Merits only, in Opposition to our Adversaries, who say, we are justified by our own Works (in what Measure or Degree, is another Question) there is a direct Opposition; and then the Word By in both contradictory Oppositions is used in the same Sense : but not otherwise,
From what has been said, our Church's Intention and Doctrin about Juftification by Faith are abundantly manifeft, tho' they are unhappily worded. And the Truth is, St. Paul having spoken so mạch of Justification by Faith, in a Sense which the Compilers of our Articles and Homílies do not
(A) Homily of Salvation, Third Part, near the beginning.
seem throughly to have understood, occafion'd them, in Opposition to a most notorious Fallhood and most pernicious Doctrin of the Papists, to express the real Truth in the Apostle's own Phrase ; but in a Sense, tho' in no wise contrary to, yet somewhat different from, what he (as later Writers have evidently shewn) did most certainly intend thereby.
These things being premis’d, I proceed to the Propositions contain'd in this Article.
The First Proposition. The Reason of it is plain, because (according to what I observ'd upon the foregoing Article) our own works are not strictly good. But see the Second Question of Turretin's Locus Decimus fextus.
The Second Proposition. See the same Author in the Third Question of the same Locus. For since our own Works are excluded in the foregoing Queftion, and there is no Pretence of any other Mediator; therefore we are justified by Christ only.
The Third Proposition. See the same Person in the Seventh Question of the same Locus.
The Fourth Proposition is the necessary Consequence of the other Three. For if the Doctrin of Justification, as taught in the Homily referr'd to, iš proved in the forecited Places of Turretin ; 'tis consequently wholsom, because true, and founded on the Holy Scriptures. And it cannot but be full of Comfort also, because it assures us of Happiness upon such infallible Grounds, as the Malice of Men and Devils can't affect or undermine.
The Reader should also compare the Fourth Chapter of the Sixth Book of Limborcb's System, with those Parts of Turretin which I have juit now referr'd to