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arrival there were presented to my view many horses, (Kahn, was basely betrayed by his Omrahs.”—Pencows, and oxen, in one apartment; in another, dogs, nant. sheep, goats, and monkeys, with clean straw for them
Page 56, line 79. to repose on. Above stairs were depositories for
His story of the Fire-worshippers. seeds of many sorts, and flat, broad dishes for water, Voltaire tells us, that in his Tragedy “ Les Guefor the use of birds and insects.”—Parsons.
bres,” he was generally supposed to have alluded to It is said that all animals know the Banyans, that the Jansenists; and I should not be surprised if this the most timid approach them, and that birds will fly story of the Fire-worshippers were found capable of nearer to them than to other people.—See Grandpre. a similar doubleness of application. Page 54, line 97.
Page 57, line 77. Whose sweetness was not to be drawn forth, like that of
Who, lull'd in cool kiosk or bower. the fragrant grass near the Ganges, by crushing and
“In the midst of the garden is the chiosk, that is, trampling upon them. “A very fragrant grass from the banks of the Gan- tain in the midst of it. It is raised nine or ten steps,
a large room, commonly beautified with a fine founges, near Heridwar, which in some places covers and enclosed with gilded lattices, round which vines, whole acres, and diffuses, when crushed, a strong jessamines, and honeysuckles make a sort of green odour." —Sir W. Jones on the Spikenard of the An- wall; large trees are planted round this place, which cients.
is the scene of their greatest pleasures.”—Lady M. Page 55, line 62.
Page 57, line 78.
Before their mirrors count the time.
The women of the east are never without their Waved plates of gold and silver flowers over their heads. looking-glasses. “In Barbary,” says Shaw, “ they
"Or, rather,” says Scott, upon the passage of are so fond of their looking glasses, which they hang Ferishta, from which this is taken, “small coin, upon their breasts, that they will not lay them aside, stamped with the figure of a flower. They are still even when, after the drudgery of the day, they are used in India to distribute in charity, and on occasion, obliged to go two or three miles with a pitcher or a thrown by the purse-bearers of the great among the goat's skin to fetch water."— Travels. populace.”
In other parts of Asia they wear little looking
glasses on their thumbs. “Hence (and from the loPage 55, line 83.
tus being considered the emblem of beauty) is the His delectable alley of trees.
meaning of the following mute intercourse of two This road is 250 leagues in length. It has “ little lovers before their parents. pyramids or turrets,” says Bernier, “erected every
"He, with salute of deference due, half league, to mark the ways, and frequent wells to A lotus to his forehead prest ; afford drink to passengers, and to water the young
She rais'd her mirror to his view,
Then turn'd it inward to her breast.”
Asiatic Miscellany, vol. ii.
Page 58, line 17. beautiful red lotus.
Th' antrodden solitude “ Here is a large pagoda by a tank, on the water
Of Ararat's tremendous peak. of which float multitudes of the beautiful red lotus : the flower is larger than that of the white water-lily,
Struy says, “I can well assure the reader that their and is the most lovely of the nymphæas I have seen.'
not true, who suppose this mount to be -Mrs. Graham's Journal of a residence in India.
inaccessible.” He adds, that “the lower part of the
mountain is cloudy, misty, and dark, the middlemost Page 56, line 38.
part very cold and like clouds of snow, but the upper Who many hundred
years since had fled hither from their regions perfectly calm.”—It was on this mountain Arab conquerors.
that the Ark was supposed to have rested after the On les voit, pérsecutés par les Khalifes, se reti- Deluge, and part of it, they say, exists there still, rer dans les montagnes du Kerman : plusieurs choisi- which Struy thus gravely accounts for :-“Whereas rent pour retraite la Tartarie et la Chine ; d'autres none can remember that the air on the top of the hill s'arreterent sur les bords du Gange, a l'est de Delhi." did ever change or was subject either to wind or rain, -M. Anquetil, Memoires de l'Academie, tom. xxxi. p. which is presumed to be the reason that the Ark has 346.
endured so long without being rotten.”—See Carre..
r's Travels, where the Doctor laughs at this whole acPage 56, line 48. As a native of Cashmere, which had in the same manner
count of Mount Ararat. become the prey of strangers.
Page 59, line 85. “Cashmere (says its historians) had its own Princes
The Gheber belt that round him clung. 4000 years before its conquest by Akbar in 1585. “Pour se distinguer des Idolatres de l'Inde, les Akbar would have found some difficulty to reduce Guebres se ceignent tous d'un cordon de laine, ou de this Paradise of the Indies, situated as it is, within poil de chameau.”—Encyclopedie Francaise. such a fortress of mountains ; but its monarch, Yusef D'Herbelot says this belt was generally of leather
Page 59, line 89.
groves in the day-time, and from the loftiest trees at Who, morn and even
Page 61, line 88. “As to fire, the Ghebers place the spring head of it Before whose sabre's dazzling light, etc. m that globe of fire, the Sun, by them called Mithras, “When the bright cimeters make the eyes of our or Mihir, to which they pay the highest reverence, in heroes wink.”—The Moallakat, Poem of Amru. gratitude for the manifold benefits flowing from its ministerial omniscience. But they are so far from
Page 62, line 18. confounding the subordination of the Servant with
As Lebanon's small mountain flood the majesty of its Creator, that they not only attribute
Is rendered holy by the ranks no sort of sense or reasoning to the sun or fire, in any
Of sainted cedars on its banks. of its operations, but consider it as a purely passive In the Lettres Edifiantes, there is a different cause blind instrument, directed and governed by the im- assigned for its name of Holy. “In these are deep mediate impression on it of the will of God; but they caverns, which formerly served as so many cells for do not even give that luminary, all glorious as it is, a great number of recluses, who had chosen these remore than the second rank amongst his works, re-treats as the only witnesses upon earth of the severity serving the first for that stupendous production of of their penance. The tears of these pious penitents divine power, the mind of man.”—Grose. The false gave the river of which we have just treated the name charges brought against the religion of these people of the Holy River.”—See Chateaubriand's Beauties by their Mussulman tyrants is but one proof among of Christianity. many of the truth of this writer's remark, “that calumny is often added to oppression, if but for the
Page 62, line 57. sake of justifying it."
A rocky mountain o'er the sea
of Oman beetling awfully. Page 60, line 72.
This mountain is my own creation, as the " stuThat enchanted tree which grows over the tomb of the mu
pendous chain" of which I suppose it a link does not sician Tan-Sein. “ Within the enclosure which surrounds this mo
extend quite so far as the shores of the Persian Gulf. nument (at Gualior) is a small tomb to the memory divided Media from Assyria, and now forms the boun
“This long and lofty range of mountains formerly of Tan-Sein, a musician of incomparable skill
, who dary of the Persian and Turkish empires. It runs flourished at the court of Akbar. The tomb is overshadowed by a tree, concerning which a superstitious almost disappearing in the vicinity of Gombaroon
parallel with the river Tigris, and Persian Gulf, and notion prevails that the chewing of its leaves will (Harmozia) seems once more to rise in the southern give an extraordinary melody to the voice."--Narra- districts of Kerman, and, following an easterly course tive of a journey from Agra to Ouzein, by W. Hun
through the centre of Meckraun and Balouchistan, ter, Esq.
is entirely lost in the deserts of Sinde."-Kinnier's Page 60, line 77.
Persian Empire. The awful signal of the bamboo-staff. “ It is usual to place a small white triangular flag,
Page 62, line 80.
That bold were Moslem, who would dare fixed to a bamboo staff of ten or twelve feet long, at
At twilight hour to steer his skiff the place where a tiger has destroyed a man. It is
Beneath the Gheber's lonely cliff. common for the passengers also to throw each a stone
“There is an extraordinary hill in this neighbour. or brick near the spot, so that in the course of a little hood, called Kohé Gubr, or the Guebre's mountain. time a pile equal to a good waggon-load is collected. It rises in the form of a lofty cupola, and on the sumThe sight of these flags and piles of stones imparts a mit of it, they say, are the remains of an Atush Kudu, certain melancholy, not perhaps altogether void of or Fire Temple. It is superstitiously held to be the apprehension.”-Oriental Field Sports, vol. ii.
residence of Deeves or Sprites, and many marvellous Page 60, line 84.
stories are recounted of the injury and witchcraft sufBeneath the shade, some pious hands had erected, etc.
fered by those who essayed in former days to ascend “ The Ficus Indica is called the Pagod Tree and
or explore it.”—Pottinger's Beloochistan. Tree of Councils; the first, from the idols placed under its shade; the second, because meetings were held
Page 62, line 103. under its cool branches. In some places it is believed
Still did the mighty flame burn on. to be the haunt of spectres, as the ancient spreading
“At the city of Yezd in Persia, which is distinoaks of Wales have been of fairies : in others are guished by the appellation of the Darub Abadut, or erected, beneath the shade, pillars of stone, or posts, Seat of Religion, the Guebres are permitted to have elegantly carved and ornamented with the most beau- an Atush Kudu or Fire temple (which, they assert, tiful porcelain to supply the use of mirrors.”—Pen- has had the sacred fire in it since the days of Zoronant,
aster) in their own compartment of the city; but for
this indulgence they are indebted to the avarice, not Page 60, line 108.
the tolerance of the Persian government, which taxes The nightingale now bends her flight. them at 25 rupees each man.”—Pottinger's Beloo“The nightingale sings from the pomegranate chistan,
Page 63, line 60.
eastern ocean, shifting to leeward from island to While on that altar's fires
island, with the variations of the monsoon. In some They swore.
of their customs this singular race resemble the na“Nul d'entre eux n'oserait se parjurer, quand il a tives of the Maldivia islands. The Maldivians anpris a témoin cet élément terrible et vengeur.”—En- nually launch a small bark, loaded with perfumes, cyclopedie Francais.
gums, flowers, and odoriferous wood, and turn it
adrift at the mercy of winds and waves, as an offering Page 63, line 78.
to the Spirit of the Winds; and sometimes similar The Persian lily shines and towers.
offerings are made to the spirit whom they term the “A vivid verdure succeeds the autumnal rains, and King of the Sea. In like manner the Biajus perthe ploughed fields are covered with the Persian lily, form their offering to the god of evil, launching a of a resplendent yellow colour." —Russel's "Aleppo. small bark, loaded with all the sins and misfortunes
of the nation, which are imagined to fall on the unPage 65, line 3
happy crew that may be so unlucky as first to meet Like Dead-Sea fruits, that tempt the eye,
with it. Dr. Leyden on the Languages and LiteraBut turn to ashes on the lips.
ture of the Indo-Chinese Nations. • They say that there are apple-trees upon the sides of this sea, which bear very lovely fruit, but
Page 65, line 37. within are all full of ashes.”—Thevenot. The same
The violet sherbets. is asserted of the oranges there.-See Witman's Tra
“The sweet-scented violet is one of the plants most vels in Asiatic Turkey.
esteemed, particularly for its great use in sorbet, “The Asphalt Lake, known by the name of the which they make of violet sugar.”—Hasselquist. Dead Sea, is very remarkable on account of the con
“The sherbet they most esteem, and which is siderable proportion of salt which it contains. In drank by the Grand Signor himself, is made of vio
surpasses every other known water on lets and sugar.”—Tavernier. the surface of the earth. This great proportion of bitter-tasted salts is the reason why neither animal
Page 65, line 39. nor plant can live in this water."-Klaproth's Chemi
The pathetic measure of Nava. cal Analysis of the Water of the Dead Sea, Annals “ Last of all she took a guitar, and sung a pathetic of Philosophy, January, 1813. Hasselquist, however, air in the measure called Nava, which is always used doubts the truth of this last assertion, as there are to express the lamentations of absent lovers.”—Pershell-fish to be found in the lake.
sian Tales. Lord Byron has a similar allusion to the fruits of
Page 65, line 107. the Dead Sea, in that wonderful display of genius,
Her ruby rosary. his Third Canto of Childe Harold,-magnificent be " Le Tespih, qui est un chapelet, composé de 99 yond any thing, perhaps, that even he has ever written. petites boules d'agathe, de jaspe, d'ambre, de corail,
ou d'autre matiere précieuse. J'en ai vu un superbe Page 65, line 9.
au Seigneur Jerpos; il était de belles et grosses perWhile lakes that shone in mockery nigh.
les parfaites et égales, estime trenté mille piastres." “The Shuhrab or Water of the Desert is said to be -Toderini. caused by the rarefaction of the atmosphere from ex
Page 69, line 16. treme heat; and, which augments the delusion, it is a silk dyed with the blossoms of the sorrowful tree Nilica. most frequent in hollows, where water might be ex
“Blossoms of the sorrowful Nyctanthes give a pected to lodge. I have seen bushes and trees re- durable colour to silk.”—Remarks on the Husbandry flected in it, with as much accuracy as though it had of Bengal, p. 200. Nilica is one of the Indian names been the face of a clear and still lake.”—Pottinger. of this flower.—Sir W. Jones. The Persians call it
“ As to the unbelievers, their works are like a va- Gul.-Carreri. pour in a plain, which the thirsty traveller thinketh to be water, until when he cometh thereto he findeth
Page 71, line 54. it to be nothing."-Koran, chap. 24.
When pitying heaven to roses turn'd
The death-flames that beneath him burn'd.
Of their other Prophet, Zoroaster, there is a story A flower that the Bidmusk has just passed over.
told in Dion Prusæus, Orat. 36, that the love of wis“A wind which prevails in February, called Bid-dom and virtue leading him to a solitary life upon a musk, from a small and odoriferous Aower of that mountain, he found it one day all in a flame, shining name.”—“The wind which blows these flowers com- with celestial fire, out of which he came without any monly lasts till the end of the month.”—Le Bruyn. harm, and instituted certain sacrifices to God, who,
he declared, then appeared to him.-See Patrick on Page 65, line 22.
Exodus, iii. 2. Where the sea-gipseys, who live for ever on the water.
Page 76, line 54. “ The Biajus are of two races; the one is settled on They were now not far from that Forbidden River. Borneo, and are a rude but warlike and industrious “ Akbar, on his way, ordered a fort to be built upon nation, who reckon themselves the original possessors the Nilab, which he called Attock, which means, in of the island of Borneo. The other is a species of the Indian language, Forbidden; for, by the superstisea-gipsies or itinerant fishermen, who live in small tion of the Hindoos, it was held unlawful to cross covered boats, and enjoy a perpetual summer on the that river."-Dow's Hindostan.
Page 76, line 77.
| promoting a circulation of air, extremely refreshing Resembling, she often thought, that people of Zinge. in those sultry climates."-Richardson.
“ The inhabitants of this country (Zinge) are never “ The swings are adorned with festoons. This pasafflicted with sadness or melancholy: on this subject time is accompanied with music of voices and of inthe Sheikh Abu-al-Kheir-Azhari has the following struments, hired by the masters of the swings.”— distich :
Thevenot. “ Who is the man without care or sorrow (tell) that
Page 78, line 16. I may rub my hand to him.
as it all the shores, “ (Behold) the Zingians, without care or sorrow,
Like those of Kathay, utter'd music and gave frolicksome, with tipsiness and mirth.”
An answer in song to the kiss of each wave. “The philosophers have discovered that the cause This miraculous quality has been attributed also to of this cheerfulness proceeds from the influence of the shore of Attica. “Hujus littus ait Capella conthe star Soheil or Canopus, which rises over them centum musicum illisis terræ undis reddere, quod every night.”—Extract from a geographical Persian propter tantam eruditionis vim puto dictum.” Manuscript, called Heft Aklin, or the Seven Climates, Ludov. Vives in Augustine, de Civitat. Dei, lib translated by W. Ouseley, Esq.
xviii. c. 8.
Page 80, line 40.
The basıl iuft that waves
Its fragrant blossoms over graves. * The lizard Stello. The Arabs call it Hardun.
“The women in Egypt go, at least two days in The Turks kill it, for they imagine that by declining the week, to pray and weep at the sepulchres of the the head, it mimics them when they say their prayers." dead; and the custom then is to throw upon the
tombs a sort of herb, which the Arabs call rihan, Hasselquist. Page 76, line 98.
and which is our sweet basil.”—Maillet, Lett. 10. About two miles from Hussun Abdaul were those Royal
Page 80, line 89.
The mountain herb that dyes
The tooth of the fawn like gold. daul to the very interesting Introduction of Mr. El
Niebuhr thinks this may be the herb which the phinstone's work upon Caubul.
Eastern alchymists look to as a means of making Page 76, line 107.
gold. “ Most of those alchymical enthusiasts think As the Prophet said of Damascus,
themselves sure of success, if they could but find
“It was too delicious.” “ As you enter at the Bazar without the gate of colour to the flesh of the sheep that eat it. Even the
out the herb, which gilds the teeth and gives a yellow Damascus, you see the Green Mosque, so called be- oil of this plant must be of a golden colour. It is cause it hath a steeple faced with green glazed bricks, called Hascabschat ed aab.” which render it very resplendent; it is covered at
Father Jerom Dandini, however, asserts that the top with a pavilion of the same stuff. The Turks teeth of the goats at Mount Libanus are of a silver say this mosque was made in that place, because Ma- colour; and adds, “ this confirms me in that which I homet being come so far, would not enter the town, observed in Candia; to wit, that the animals that saying it was too delicious.”—Thevenot. This re- live on mount Ida eat a certain herb, which renders minds one of the following pretty passage in Isaac their teeth of a golden colour; which, according to Walton: “When I sat last on this primrose bank, and looked down these meadows, I thought of them the mines which are under ground.”—Dandini,
my judgment, cannot otherwise proceed than from as Charles the Emperor did of the city of Florence, Voyage to Mount Libanus.
that they were too pleasant to be looked on, but only on holidays.
Page 81, line 49.
'Tis I that mingle in one sweet measure, Would remind the Princess of that difference, etc.
The past, the present, and future of pleasure. “ Haroun Al Raschid, Cinquieme Khalife des Abas
“Whenever our pleasure arises from a succession sidese, s'étant un jour brouillé avec une de ses mai- of sounds, it is a perception of complicated nature, tresses nommée Maridah, qu'il aimait cependant jus- made up of a sensation of the present sound or note, qu'a l'exces, et cette meséntelligence ayant déja duré and an idea or remembrance of the foregoing, while quelque temps, commenca a s'ennuyer. Giafar Bar- their mixture and concurrence produce such a mystemaki, son favori, qui s'en appercut, commanda a Ab- rious delight, as neither could have produced alone. bas ben Ahnaf, excellent poete de ce temps-la, de And it is often heightened by an anticipation of the composer quelques vers sur le sujet de cette brouil-succeeding notes. Thus Sense, Memory, and Imagilerie, Ce poete exécuta l'ordre de Giafar, qui fit chan- nation are conjunctively employed.”—Gerrard on ter ces vers par Moussali, en présence du Khalife, et
Taste. ce Prince fut tellement touché de la tendresse des This is exactly the Epicurean theory of Pleasure, vers du poete et de la douceur de la voix du Musicien as explained by Cicero :—“Quocirca corpus gaudere qu'il alla aussitot trouver Maridah, et fit sa paix avec tamdiu, dum præsentem sentiret voluptatem ; anielle.”—D'Herbelot.
mum et præsentem percipere pariter cum corpore e
prospicere venientem, nec præteritam præterfluere Page 78, line 6.
sinere.” Where the silken swing.
Madame de Stael accounts upon the same principle “ The swing is a favourite pastime in the East, as for the gratification we derive from rhyme :--"Elle
est l'image de l'espérance et du souvenir. Un son that is, azure is put in press, on account of the mannous fait désirer celui qui doit lui repondre, et quand ner in which the azure is laid on.”—“They are every le second retentit, nous rapelle celui qui vient de now and then trying to recover the art of this magical nous échapper."
painting, but to no purpose.”—Dunn. Page 81, line 69.
Page 84, line 100. 'Tis dawn, at least that earlier dawn,
More perfect than the divinest images in the House of Azor. Whose glimpses are again withdrawn. “ The Persians have two mornings, the Soobhi
An eminent carver of idols, said in the Koran to be
father to Abraham. “I have such a lovely idol as is Kazim and Soobhi Sadig, the false and the real daybreak. They account for this phenomenon in a most
not to be met with in the house of Azor.”-Hafiz. whimsical manner. They say that as the sun rises
Page 84, line 112. from behind the Kohi Qaf (Mount Caucasus,) it
The grottos, hermitages, and miraculous fountains. passes a hole perforated through that mountain, and that darting its rays through it, is the cause of the inhabitants has multiplied the places of worship of
“The pardonable superstition of the sequestered Soobhi Kazim, or this temporary appearance of day. Mahadeo, of Beschan, and of Brama. All Cashmere break. As it ascends, the earth is again veiled in
is holy land, and miraculous fountains abound.”darkness, until the sun rises above the mountain and brings with it the Soobhi Sadig, or real morning.”
Major Rennell's Memoirs of a Map of Hindostan. Scott Waring. He thinks Milton may allude to this, called Tirnagh, which signifies a snake; probably
Jehanguire mentions "a fountain in Cashmere when he says,
because some large snake had formerly been seen Ere the blabbing Eastern scout
there.”—“ During the lifetime of my father, I went The nice morn on the Indian steep - From her cabin'd loop-hole peep.
twice to this fountain, which is about twenty coss
from the city of Cashmere. The vestiges of places Page 81, line 98.
of worship and sanctity are to be traced without held a feast
number amongst the ruins and the caves, which are In his magnificent Shalimar.
interspersed in its neighbourhood."-Toozek Jehan“ In the centre of the plain, as it approaches the geery.-See Asiat. Misc. vol. ii. Lake, one of the Delhi Emperors, I believe Shah There is another account of Cashmere by Abul Jehan, constructed a spacious garden called the Sha- Fazil, the author of the Ayin-Acbaree, “who,” says limar, which is abundantly stored with fruit trees and Major Rennell,“ appears to have caught some of the flowering shrubs. Some of the rivulets which inter- enthusiasm of the Valley, by his descriptions of the sect the plain are led into a canal at the back of the holy places in it.” garden, and, flowing through its centre, or occasionally thrown into a variety of water-works, compose
Page 84, line 117
Whose houses, roof'd with flowers. the chief beauty of the Shalimar. To decorate this
“On a standing roof of wood is laid a covering spot the Mogul Princes of India have displayed an of fine earth, which shelters the building from the equal magnificence and taste; especially Jehan Gheer, who, with the enchanting Noor Mahl, made Kash great quantity of snow that falls in the winter season.
This fence communicates an equal warmth in winter, mire his usual residence during the summer months. On arches thrown over the canal are erected, at the tops of the houses, which are planted with a
as a refreshing coolness in the summer season, when equal distances, four or five suits of apartments, each variety of flowers, exhibit at a distance the spacious consisting of a saloon, with four rooms at the angles, view of a beautifully chequered parterre."— Forster. where the followers of the court attend, and the servants prepare sherbets, coffee, and the hookah. The
Page 85, line 12. frame of the doors of the principal saloon is com
Lanterns of the triple-coloured tortoise shell of Pegu. posed of pieces of a stone of a black colour, streaked
"Two hundred slaves there are, who have no other with yellow lines, and of a closer grain and higher office than to hunt the woods and marshes for triple polish than porphyry. They were taken, it is said, coloured tortoises for the King's Viviary. Of the from a Hindoo temple, by one of the Mogul Princes, shells of these also lanterns are made.”—Vincent le and are esteemed of great value.”—Forster.
Page 85, line 22.
The meteors of the north, as they are seen by those hunters. “Around the exterior of the Dewan Khass (a build For a description of the Aurora Borealis, as it ing of Shah Allum's) in the cornice are the following appears to these hunters, see Encyclopædia. lines in letters of gold upon a ground of white marble—'If there be a Paradise upon earth, it is this, it is
Page 85, line 36. this.' ”-Franklin.
The cold, odoriferous wind.
This wind, which is to blow from Syria DamasPage 84, line 67.
cena, is, according to the Mahometans, one of the Like that painted porcelain.
signs of the Last Day's approach. “The Chinese had formerly the art of painting on Another of the signs is, “Great distress in the the sides of porcelain vessels, fish and other animals, world, so that a man when he passess by another's which were only perceptible when the vessel was grave, shall say, Would to God I were in his place !" full of some liquor. They call this species Kai-tsin, Sale's Preliminary Discourse.