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ers, not too dry or too wet, gives the These plants are frequently destroy most regular crop, and produces the ed in the germination by flies, or anis best woad.

malculæ, and by grubs, snails, &c. as If woad is sown on corn-land, much before observed ; and in order to prezi expence, generally attends hoeing and serve them, I have steeped the seeds I weeding : and here it will require with good success in lime and sootja strong manure, though on leys it is until they began to vegetate ; first seldom much necessary, yet land can-, throwing half a load or more of four not be too rich for woad. On rich, lime* on the acre, and harrowing it inus land dung should be avoided, particu: Then plant the seeds as soon as they larly on leys, to avoid weeds. Some break the pod, taking care noty to people sow it as grain, and harrow it have more than one day's seed ready in, and afterwards hoe it as turnips, for it is better to be too early, than leaving the plants at a distance in pro- to have their vegetation too strong bee portion to the strength of the land : fore it is planted, test they should res others sow it in ranks by adrill-plough; ceive injurys yet I have never observed and some dibble it in, (in quincunx any injury in mine from this, though. form, by a stick with a peg crossways, I have often seen the shoot 15

Astrong. about two or two and a half inches Either harrows or rollers will close the from the point, according to the land,) holes. If the ground be moist it will putting three or four seeds in a hole, appear in a few days; but it will be and these holes to be from twenty safe, and a benefit to the land, to throw inches to two feet apart, according to more lime on the surface, when, if the richness of the land: for good showers invite snails and grubs to eat: land, if room be given, will produce it, they will be destroyed, which I have yery luxuriant plants in good seasons ; several times found; particularly once, but if too nearly planted, so that air when the leaves were two inches long, cannot circulate, they do not thrive so and in drills very thick and strong, but well: attention to this is necessary in the ground, was dry. When a warm every way of sowing it. I have been rain fell, in less than two hours I found most successful in this last process. the ranks on one side attacked by these Woad very often fails in its crop, from vermin, and eaten entirely off by a large the land not being in condition, or for black grub, thousands of which were want of knowing how to destroy the on the leaves, and they cleared as they botts, snails, wire-worms, &c. that so went, not going on until they had de often prey upon and destroy it, as well stroyed every leaf where they fixed. as from inattention to weeding, &c. They had eaten six or seven ranks beCrops fail also from being sown on fore I was called by one of my people land that is naturally too dry, and in to observe it. Having plenty of lime, a dry season ; but as the roots take a I immediately ordered it in flour to perpendicular direction, and run deep, be strewed along those ranks which such land as I have described (with were not begun. This destroyed them proper attention to my observations) in vast numbers, and secured the rema will seldom fail of a crop: and if the mainder. Another time, having had season will admit sowing early enough two succeeding crops on four acres of to have the plants strong before the dry land, I considered it imprudent to ven and hot weather comes on, there will be ture another. However, as the land almost a certainty of a great produce after this appeared so clean and rich,

If the seeds are not sown within a day after the time, it will lose mach effectificio I agait ventured, but soon found my succeeded at last; but I kept the other error. Ons examining the roots (for three and four years, when I found it after it had begun to vegetate strong, more steady in its fermentation ; but it was observed to decay and wither) still it required a double quantity, and I found thousands of the wire-worm even then its effect was not like that at them, entwined in every root. I from good woad. ; immediately strewed lime, (four loads, At this time several dyers experiof six quarters each, on the four acres,) enced much difficulty, and one of emiand harrowed it ; when rain coming nence in the blue-trade suffered so on soon after, washed it in, and de- much by woad of his own growth, that stroyed them all, and gave me an ex- he declared his resolution to decline traondinary erop; but the first sown the trade altogether. When I pointside of the field, where they had begun, ed out to him that it was the woad never quite recovered like the rest. that occasioned his bad blues, and that And I am fully satisfied, that when I had from the same defect purchased the grub is seen in wheat, &c. the such other woad as would do, and insame treatment (if the weather suited) formed him where he could get it, would destroy them all, as well as he succeeded as usual. His own he change the nature of the land. I need disposed of to a drysalter, who sold it not enter on the wide and extensive again somewhere in the country, and field of observations on the causes of it occasioned such a cause of complaint, weeds, grubs, &c. (which so often as I believe rendered the claim of paycounteract the labours of the husband ment to be given up, or partly so : of man,) that occur so differently in dif- this I am not certain, having it only ferent seasons, and after different treat- from report. I mention this in order ment and improper crops-further to give those who wish to become growthan to observe that when


land ers of woad, such information as may has not a proper change, then it is that properly direct them. these are experienced in a more de- The leaves of woad on good land in structive degree.

a good season grow very large and Further, it is in vain to expect a long, and when theyare ripe show near good crop of woad, of a good quality, their end a brownish spot inclining to from poor and shallow land. The a purple towards its centre, while difference of produce and its value is Other parts of the leaves appear green, so great, that no one of any experience but just beginning to turn of a more will waste his labour and attention on yellowish shade; and then they must such lands upon iso uncertain a pro- be gathered, or they will be injured. duce. "Warm and moist seasons in- Woad is to be gathered from twice crease the quantity every where, but to four and even five times in the seathey can never give the principle which son, as I once experienced (it was an only good land affords.

early and a late season), and for the In very wet seasons, woad from next spring I saved an acre for seed, poor land is of very little value. I of which I had a fair crop. I picked once had occasion to purchase at such the young seedling sprouts off the rest, a time, and found that there was no and mixed with my first gathering of possibility of regulating my vats in what was newly sown ; this was very their fermentation, and I was under good. During one season I let these the necessity of making every possi- shoots grow too long; the consequence ble effort to obtain some that was the was, that the fibrous parts became produce of a more genial season. I like so many sticks, and afforded no sponaceous juices. When you design seen in open sheds in several part of to plant woad on the same land the England, only that I conceive some second seasong it should be as soon as improvement might be made in their your last gathering (before winter is construction, so as not so much topress finished) he ploughed ; that is, as soon out and waste the sap, which contains as the weather will permit, and in deep the very essence of the dyeing princi

furrows or ridges, to expose and ame- ple. These mills grind or cut the fiorate it by the vegetative salts that leaves small, and then they are cast exist in the atmosphere, and by frost into heaps, where they ferments and and snow. This, in some seasons, has gain an adhesive consistence ;* they

partly the effect'ofachange of produce; are then formed into balls, as compact but if intended for wheat, the last as possible, and placed on hurdles lying gathering should not be later than horizontally in a shed one over the September.

other, with room for air betweeny to The land, afterwoad, is always clean, receive from the atmospheric air a and the nature of the soil appears to principle which is said to improve them be greatly changed in favour of the as a dye, as well as to dry them to a

wheat crop; for I have always experi- degree proper for being fermented; "enced abundant increase of produce but in summer these balls are apt i to after woad, and observed that it held crack in drying, and become fly-blown, on for some time, if proper changes when thousands of a peculiar maggot were attended to, and good husbandry. generate, and eat or destroy all that Keeping land clean from weeds, cer- is useful to the dyer. Therefore they tainly produces an increase of corn; require attention as soon as they are but in the hoeing and gathering woad observed to crack, to look them all (for hoeing and earthing up the plants over well, close them again, so as to often renders them abundantly more render them as compact and solid as prolific, even if there are no weeds), possible ; and if the maggot or worm many nests of animalculæ are destroyed, has already generated, some fine flour. as well as grubs and insects, which are lime strewed over it will destroy them, destructive to vegetation. All this is and be of much service in the fermenfavourable to corn; but I am disposed tation. These balls, if properly preto believe that woad in itself furnishes served, will be very heavy s but if such a principle of change in favour of worméeaten, they will be very light, corn (and wheat in particular), as in and of little value. They are then to a high degree to merit the attention of be replaced on the hurdles, and turned, that society who are so honourably not being suffered to touch each other, united to promote and encourage the until a month or more after the whole first interests of the British empire. that is intended for one fermenting

· Having said all I conceive necessary couch is gathered in, ground, and ball. on the cultivation of woad, I now pro- ed, and often until the hot weather of ceed to say something on its prepara. summer is past, to render the offensive * ' tion for the use of the dyer.

operation of turning it lessdisagreeable, 1.CO Woad, when gathered, is carried to and not so apt to overheat; and though the mill, and ground. I need not de temperature herein is necessary, get a scribe this mill, because they are to be certain degree of heat must be attained, ?


NIP 9106 * In a dry place, if these leaves remain a fortnight, being occasionally turned, they will become more adhesive, and have less juices squeeze out in balling. The balls Rust be compact.

* & tieto bude

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before it is in proper condition for the for preparing woad which I have foldyer's use. This is easily distinguish- lowed, and which I consider beyond

ed by a change of smell from that all comparison best, is as follows: ewhich is most putrid and offensive, to Gather the leaves, put them to dry, one which is more agreeable and sweet, and turn them, so as not to let them

(if I may be allowed the term,) for heat, and so be reduced to a paste ; stew people at first either can approve which, in fine weather, children can do.

of the smell of woad, or of a woad In wet weather, my method was to vat ; though, when in condition, they carry them to my stove, and when I become quite agreeable to those whose had got a quantity sufficiently dry, I business it is to attend them. Woad proceeded to the couch, and there put is in this state of fermentation more or them in a large-heap; where, if not less time, according to the season and too dry, they would soon begin to ferthe degree of heat it is suffered to at- ment and heat. If too wet, they would atain, whether at an early period, or rot, but not properly ferment, nor according to the opinion of those who readily become in condition for the

attend the process; but the best woad dyer. These leaves not having been is produced from a heat temperately ground, nor placed in balls on the hurobrought forward in the couch until at dles, their fermenting quality was more maturity, andturned (on every occasion active, and required, more attention ; i necessary), which a proper degree of and also the application of lime occajattention will soon discover.

sionally, to regulate the process with * These balls, when dry, are very hard the same kind of judgmept as used in and compact, and require to be broken the blue dying woad vat. When the Ito pieces with a mallet, and put into a heat increases too rapidly, turning is cheap, and watered to a due degree, indispensably necessary, and the applionly sufficient to promote fermentation, cation of very fine flour-lime regularly but not by too much moisture, which strewed over every laying of them ; or, • would retard it; and here is a crisis if the couch is getting too dry, lime( necessary to be attended to. When water instead of commonwater; applied - the couch has attained its due point, by a gardener's watering-pot, may it is opened, spread and turned, until have an equal effect,* without loading 1 regularly cooled, and then it is con- the woad with the gross matter of the e sidered in condition for sale : but the lime ; though I conceive that the

gross oimmediate use of woad new from the dry flour-lime, and the oxygen in the

couch is not advised by dyers who are air, will furnish more carbonic acid gas experienced; for new woad is not 80 to the woad, and retain such principles siregular in its fermentation in the blue as are essential, to a better effect. For

vatan This is the common process. I have experienced, that woad which Woad oftentimes is spoiled herein, by requires the most lime to preserve a people who know nothing of the prin temperate degree of fermentation, and ciples of its dye, following only their takes most time, is best, so that at

accustomed process of preparing it ; length it comes to that heat which is si and hence the difference in its quality indispensable tothe production of good

is as often seen, as it is in the real woad. 1951 bo...'... hrichness or poverty of the leaves, from In this couch it is always particular

the quality of the land. The process ly necessary to secure the surface as rasit 39191

BAB 18 sa iba aile. There is in lime-water so little of its salt, that its effect is proportionably sanall, and water will take up but a certain quantity,


soon as the teavet begin to be reduced and when small lumps are pulled-asunt to a paste, by rendering it as smooth der, the fracture and fibres are brown as possible, and free from cracks: this and these fibres will draw apart like prevents the escape

of much carbonic small threads, and the more stringy acid gas, (which is furnished by the they are, and the darker the external lime and the fermentation,) and also appearance and on the green hue, the preserves it from the fly, maggots, and better the woad; but poor land proworms, which often are seen in those duces it of a light-brownish green. parts where the heat is not so great, The fibres only serve to show that it or the lime in sufficient quantity to has not suffered by putrefaction. destroy them ; it is surprising to ob. Considerable fortunes have been acserve what a degree of heat they will quired by the culture of woad in the bear. This attention to rendering the North of England, and those who surface of the couch even and compact have not in possession land sufficient of is equally necessary in either process, proper staple, will give an extra rent and to turning the woad exactly as a for leave to break pasturage, and dung-heap, digging perpendicularly such as is old, and its sod worn out to the bottom. The couching house and full of ant-hills from long feeding, should have an even floor of stone or is equally good, when lime is applied brick, and the walls the same; and to destroy these and other insects; every part of

the couch of woad should which here exist more than in such as be beaten with the shovel, and trodden, is in full proof to bear grass; for here to render it as compact as possible. they generate and become destructive,

* The grower of woad should erect a so as often to render it very necessary long shed in the centre of his land, to plough such land, com it, and facing the south, the ground lying on form a new turf; and though this is a descent, so as to admit the sun to so often prohibited, yet it is often con. the back part ; and here the woad sistent with the best principles of hus, should be put down as gathered, and bandry. Here woad is every thing, spread thin at one end, keeping child and corn after it to a certain degree, ren to turn it towards the other end. which experience will determine, ac In the course of a week, every day's cording to the kind of land. Those gathering will dry for the couch, which who grow woad in large quantities, should be at the other end; therefore have moveable huts for their work it will be necessary to calculate how people ; and also all their apparatus long the shed should be; but this so easily put together, as to be of little can be erected as you gather, and then expence except in carriage. T» it will soon be known.

A friend of mine in London took a I never used the thermometer to large quantity of land whereon had discover or determine the heat which been wood just grubbed up. He plant, is necessary to produce that change of ed woad on it, and engaged a person smell which finishes a couch of woad from the north to manage it, and the properly for the dyer,* but I am convin- produce was so abundant as to afford ced it cannot be regularly obtained immense profit. I believe he only but by temperance and time.

woaded two years, and then let it. Good woad, such as the richest "His tenant's produce did not by any land produces, if properly prepared, means equal his, because the land bewill be of a blackish green, and mouldy; gan to want change. I know not

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* I

suppose from 100 to 120 degrees.

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