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cluding, however, from consideration considerable obstacles to improvement, - mere mountain bogs, and also all bogs the overcoming of which would in it. of less extent than 500 acres, of each self demonstrate the practicability of of which description the amount is the improvement of the bogs of Irevery considerable ; of the extent of the land in most other cases." latter some idea may be formed from The commissioners then proceed to a fact which we have learned from Mr state the particulars of their parcelling Larkin; that in the single county of out the bogs to be surveyed, to differ Cavan, which he has surveyed, there ent engineers, with the pay allotted to are above 90 bogs, no one of which them and the persons employed un. exceeds 500 Irish acres, but which ta- der them; and they then give some obken collectively contain about 11,000 servations derived from the first report Irish, which is equivalent to above delivered in, that of Mr Griffith, to 17,600 English acres, besides many whom was consigned a dißtrict formsmaller bogs varying in size from five ing the eastern end of the Bog of Allen, to twenty acres.

and containing 36,430 English acres et Most of the bogs, which lie to the of bog: Of these we shall transcribe castward of the Shannon, and which some of the most instructive. occupy a considerable portion of the “ There are many, we believe, who King's county and county of Kildare, consider the bogs of Ireland to be low are generally known by the name of and marshy tracts of country, not very the Bog of Allen: it must not how. dissimilar in their composition from ever, be supposed that this name is ap- the fens of Lincolnshire; others, aware plied to any one great morass : on the that the substance of which they are, contrary, the bogs to which it is ap- formed greatly differs from that of the plied are perfectly distinct from each fen districts, attribute nevertheless the other, often separated by high ridges origin of both to pretty nearly the same of dry country, and inclining towards causes; while an opinion, more preva. different rivers, as their natural direc- lent, and perhaps not less erroneous, tions for drainage, so intersected by than either of the foregoing, attributes dry and cultivated land, that it may their formation to fallen forests, which be affirmed generally, there is no spot are supposed at some former period of these bogs, to the eastward of the to have covered these districts, and to Shannon, so much as two Irish miles have been destroyed either by the efa distank from the upland and cultivated feets of time, or by, hostile armies in districts.

the early wars of Ireland. "With this first and general view of “ The facts stated in Mr Griffith's the subject, we had no hesitation in se, report are obviously inconsistent with lecting at once the whole of the east- any of these suppositions ; ern portion of the great district above which he has surveyed being every referred to, as the object of our first where in elevated situations ; and the enquiries, forming in itself one whole, trees which have hitherto been so conwbose parts had more or less connec., stantly found buried in the edges of tion with each other, lying in the cen- . these bogs, where alone it iş probable ite of Ireland, in the immediate vicini. they have generally been sought for, ty of some of the richest and best cul are very rarely to be found in the mtetivated counties z intersected also by rior parts, at least of this district, the two great lines of navigation, the “Without entering in this report inGrand and the Royal canals, and pre. to any enquiry as to the origiu of these senting in common apprehension very peat bogs, we are however anxious, so

the bogs

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give such persons as have not had an ness from one to six feet; sonae opportunity of examining them, some places the peat rests on a thinner straidea of the general appearances which tum of yellowish white marl, containthey actually present.

ing upon an average about 60 per cent. It appears from Mr Griffith, that of calcarious matter. This stratum each of the four bogs included in the of clay in this district universally rests subject of his report, is a mass of the on a solid mass of clay and limestone peculiar substance called peat, of the gravel mixed together, and extending average

thickness of 25 feet, no where to an unknown depth. less than 12, nor found to exceed 42; “Weshould furtherconsider the peat this substance varying materially in its moss as partaking in its general nature appearance and properties, in propor- of the property of sponge, completely tion to the depth at which it lies; on saturated with water, and giving rise the e upper surface, covered with moss to different streams and rivers for the of various species, and to the depth of discharge of the surplus waters which about ten feet composed of a mass of it receives from rain or snow. These the fibres of different vegetables in dif- streams in this district almost universally ferent stages of decomposition propor- have worn their channels through the tioned to their depth from the surface, substance of the bog down to the clay generally, however, too open in their or limestone gravel underneath, divijexture to be applied to the purposes ding the bog into distinct masses, and of fuel : below this, generally lies a presenting in themselves the most prolight blackish-brown turf, containing per situations for the main drains, and the fibres of moss still visible, though which, with the assistance of art, may not perfect, and extending to a further be rendered effectual for that purpose. depth of perhaps ten feet under this. 6 Such is the internal structure of In the instance exhibited in the sec- the bogs in this district. tion at the close of Mr Griffith's re- “ Viewing them externally they preport, are found small branches and sent surfaces by no means level, but twigs of alder and birch ; but we do with planes of inclinations amply sufnot understand him as being of opi. ficient for their drainage. The highnion that such is by any means ge- est summit of any part of the bogs in nerally the case. At a greater depth this district is 298 feet above the level the fibres of vegetable matter cease to of the sea, taken at an ordinary springbe visible, the colour of the turf be- tide in the bay of Dublin ; while the comes blacker, and the substance much lowest point any where on their sur more compact, its properties as fuel 'face is 84 feet lower than the highest, more valuable, and gradually increa and therefore 214 feet above the level sing in the degree of blackness and com- of the sea. It requires a mere inspecpactness proportionate to its depth. tion of the map and sections to be Near the bottom of the bog it forms convinced that there is no part of these a black mass, which, when dry, has a bogs from which the water may not strong resemblance to pitch, or bitu- be discharged into rivers in their im

coal, and having a conchoidal mediate vicinity, and with 2m. cture in every direction, with a quate to their drainage ;

and we black shining lustre, and susceptible serve, in the instance of the bog of of receiving a considerable polish. Im- Timahoe, that a part of its water is mediately below this lower stratum discharged into the sea at Drogheda, there is generally found a thin stratum and another part below Waterford." of yellow or blue clay, varying in thick, ,

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mon ink.



REPORT MADE TO THE INSTITUTE, more certain and more prompt effects. &c. ON WRITING INK. The oxygenized muriatic acid, if it be

newly made, seems to be preferable to From Annales de Chimie.

the above two acids, because at the

same time that it takes out the writing, The object proposed by Mr Tarry it bleaches the paper without altering his memoir is to explain,

1. The processes employed for dis- It is not the same case with the ni. charging writing from paper. tric acid, which always takes out the

2. The processes for reviving wri. ink, but soon penetrates the paper, tings which have been apparently ob. and forms above it undulated lines of Literated.

a yellow colour. 3. The best way to improve com- We may succeed, however, in sof.

tening both these effects, by taking 4. Finally, the discovery of an ink the precaution to dilute the nitric acid which should resist all chemical agents. with a' sufficient quantity of water, or

We shall now give, an abridgment to wash the paper immediately after of these four articles.

the writing has been taken out.

A mixture of the muriatic and ni.

tric acids has but a slow action upon Processes for discharging Writing, writing. It bleaches the



does not oppose its desiccation, as The art of discharging writing is when we employ the nitric acid alone. very ancient, and the means employed In general, whatever be the kind of are very simple. In fact, we know acid employed to discharge writing, it that it is sufficient to moisten a writ. is always proper, when the operation ten paper with any acid, when the is performed, to dip the paper in water, writing will gradually disappear. But in order to dissolve the new combina all the acids cannot be employed with " tions which the acids have formed with equal success.

Some leave a stain on the particles of ink which have been the paper, which is not easily removed; discharged. others corrode, and render the paper Mr Tarry, at the conclusion of this unserviceable. The way to avoid these article, does not fail to observe, that 14 inconveniences is to make choice of an China ink does not act like common acid which shall act on the writing ink with the acids, as its composition only, without injuring the paper, or is quite different from that which we giving it a colour different from that

use for writing of all kinds. So far which it had before it was written from the acids attacking China ink,

they make it, on the contrary, of a In order to discover such of the deep black : it cannot be discharged acids as are best suited for the ope. therefore without erasing it. ration in question, the author determi. ned to submit common writing ink to the action of different acids, and to observe carefully the phænomena which Processes for ascertaining what Wrilo these bodies present at the time of their ting has been substituted for somemixture. According to him, the sul. thing taken out, and Methods of re

acid easily takes out writing, viving the Writing which has disapbut at the same time it gives an oily peared tint to


paper. The acid oxalate of potash produces all the methods which have been




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n for discharging' writing consist, destroyed; others imperceptibly losë as abovementioned, in decomposing their black colour, and assume a yel. the ink, and in forcing its constituent low one; several, after a length of parts

to form other combinations. time, enter into the paper and spoil it ; These combinations, being decompo- lastly, there are some which are first sed in their turn by different agents, pale, and them become very black. may regain a tint, which, if it be not All these differences arise from the that of ink, at least exhibits a shade nature of the substances which have which becomes perceptible enough for been employed in the making of the ascertaining the letters and words ink.

140 which had been traced on the paper Convinced of the advantage of habefore it was touched by the acids. ving a good article of this kind, the

The gallic acid is, according to the author commenced a series of experiauthor, one of those agents, which in ments, but is forced to admit that he this case succeeds very well.

has not discovered any recipe superior The liquid prussiate of lime also pro- to that which has been published by duces a good effect.

Lewis. This ink, according to our It is the same case with the alkaline author, combines every advantage'; hydrogenated sulphurets. But it is but we must observe, that it is no more very certain that we never obtain any exempt than the rest from being dissuccess from the employment of these solved in the acids, and in this respect agents, when we have left any acid it has an inconvenience which those long in contact with the writing, and who wish to discharge writing from particularly if we have washed the pa- paper know very well how to profit

by. This circumstance, no doubt, inIn short, we may easily conceive, duced M. Tarry to make some new that in this case the constituent parts experiments, in order to obtain an ink of the ink which were combined with which should be unalterable by chemi. the acid, and had formed with it com- cal agents ; and he appears to us to pounds soluble in water, having been have succeeded in his object. taken up by this fluid, ought not to leave any trace of theirexistence longer; and consequently it is impossible that the agents employed for discovering them can render them visible.

Discovery of an Ink which resists the It is also for this reason that the Action of Chemical Agents. gallic acid, the liquid prussiate of lime, the alkaline hydrogenated sulphurets, The author describes his in vention and so many other re-agents which in the following words : have been so much praised, can no

My ink is founded upon princilonger be regarded as infallible me. ples different from those of all others. thods for reviving writing.

It contains neither gallnuts, Brazil wood, Campeachy gum, nor any preparation of iron, it is purely vegetable,

resists the action of the most powerful 131 9919,*9

vegetables, the most highly concentra* Improvement of Common Ink. ted alkaline solutions, and, finally, all

the solvents.' Most of the ink's now in use are of « The nitric acid açts very feebly a bad quality. Some are spontaneously upon the writing performed with this

per afterwards.


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ink. The oxymuriatic acid makes it that in rendering its cultivation and assume, the colour of pigeons' dung. preparation better known and underAfter the action of this last acid, the stood, it may be greatly beneficial to caustic alkaline soluțions reduce it to the nation. the colour of carburet of iron :: the I have the honour to be a member characters of the writing nevertheless of the Bath and West of England remain without alteration, and it can- Agricultural Society, where many Đột pass through these different states, noble and exalted characters unite their except, after long macerations. The talents to promote the public benefit. principles of which it is composed ren- And to one of its earliest and most der sit incorruptable, and it can retain respectable members I presume to adits properties many years."

dress this information. The results which we obtained coin- I have been many years a consideraeided entirely with those of the author, ble consumer of woad, and liave also and we have so hesitation in saying, cultivated it with much success : and that his is the best we have ever seen though I am well experienced in the of the kind which is called indelible usual method of its preparation, I was

ink. It is liable, however, to deposit induced to depart from it in consesa sediment, a disadvautage which we quence of the great waste of its juices think might be removed by M. Tarry in the old method of grinding and after a few experiments. We have balling. But I shall endeavour to tried to discharge it with all the known give instructions for carrying on each chemical agents, but without effect; process, and leave those who shall un

and we think the inventor deserves dertake it to proceed as they think the thanks of the Institute, and of the best. community at large.

This plant is cultivated in different parts of England for the use of the

dyers, as well as in France, Germany, ON THE CULTIVATION AND Manu- &c. It is best to sow the seeds in the

FACTURE OF WOAD, AND ITS BE- month of March, or early in April, if
NEFICIAL USE COMBINED WITH IN- the season invite, and the soil be in
DIGO. By Mr John Parrish. condition to receive it ; but it requires

a deep loamy soil, and is better still From the Bath and West of England with a clay bottom,.such as is not subAgricultural Society's Papers. ject to become dry too quickly.

It must never be flooded, but situaWoad is a plant which, combined ted so as to drain its surface, that it with indigo, gives the best and most may not be poisoned by any water stagpermanent blue dye hitherto discovered. nant upon it. It is of great importance to our com- If (at any reasonable price) mea. a merce, as well as to agriculture, be- dow land to break the turf can be ablising in nature one of the best preparers tained, it will be doubly productiye. - of land for a corn crop that has hitherto This land is generally freest from weeds albeen discovered ; and, if the land is and putrid matter, though sometimes I properly chosen for it, and well mana- it abounds with botts, grubs, and snails.

ged, will be found very profitable, However, it saves much expence in Lismore particularly at this time, when its weeding; and judicious management

price is advanced to almost an unpre- will get rid of these otherwise destruc, plcedented degree: therefore I conceive, tive verrain. A season of warm show.

13. ir "splinds

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