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racter as well as the effect of war on ern portion of our own hemisphere our lawful commerce.

and extend into our neighbourhood. With this evidence of hostile inflexi. An enlarged philanthropy, and an bility, in trampling on rights which enlightened forecast, concur in impono independent nation can relinquish, sing on the national councils an obligacongress will feel the duty of putting tion to take a deep interest in their the United States into an armour and destinies ; to cherish reciprocal senti an attitude demanded by the crisis, and ments of good-will; to regard the procorresponding with the national spirit gress of events ; and not to be unpreand expectations.

pared for whatever order of things may I recommend, accordingly, that ade- be ultimately established. quate provision be made for filling the Under another aspect of our situranks and prolonging the enlistments ation, the early attention of congress of the regular troops ; for an auxiliary will be due to the expediency of further force, to be engaged for a more limited guards against 'evasions and infractions time ; for the acceptance of volunteer of our commercial laws. The practice corps, whose patriotic ardour may of smuggling, which is odious every court a participation in urgent servic where, and particularly criminal in free ces; for detachments, as they may be governments, where, the laws being wanted, of other portions of the mili- made by all for the good of all, a fraud tia ; and for such a preparation of the is committed on every individual'as well great body, as will proportion its use- as on the state, attains its utmost guilt, falness to its intrinsic capacities. Nor when it blends, with a pursuit of igno can the occasion fail to remind you of minious gain, a treacherous subsera the importance of those military semi- viency, in the transgressors, to a foreign paries, which, in every event, will form policy adverse to that of their own & valuable and frugal part of our mili. country. It is then that the virtuous tary establishment.

*** indignation of the public should be The manufacture of cannon and enabled to manifest itself, through the small'arms has proceeded with due regular animadversions of the most success, and the stock and resources of compétent laws. all the necessary munitions are adequate To secure greater respect to our to emergencies. It will not be inex." mercantile flag, and to the honest inpedient, however, for congress to au

terests which it covers, it is expedient, thorize an enlargement of them. alšo, that it be made punishable in our

Your attention will of course be citizens to accept licences from foreign drawn to such provisions, on the sub-' governments, for a trade unlawfully ject of our naval force, as may be re- interdicted by them to other American quired for the services to which it may citizens ; or to trade under false cobe best adapted. I submit to congress lours or papers of any sort. the seasonableness, also, of an authori. A prohibition is equally called for ty to augment the stock of such mate- against the acceptance, by our citizens, rials as are imperishable in their nature, of special licences, to be used in a trade or may not at once be attainable. with the United States ; and against

In contemplating the scenes which the admission into particular ports of distinguish this momentous epoch, and the United States, of vessels from fo-, estimating their claims to our attention, reign countries, authorised to trade it is impossible to overlook those de. with particular ports only. veloping themselves among the great Although other subjects will press communities which occupy the south- more immediately on your delibera.

tions, a portion of them cannot but enabled us to defray the current ex. tionss bestowed on the just and pences, including the interest on the sound policy of securing to our manu. public debt, and to reimburse morethan factures the success they have attained, five millions of dollars of the principal, and are still attaining, in some degree, without recurring to the loan authounder the impulse of causes not pere rised by the act of the last session., manent; and to our navigation, the The temporary, loan obtained in the fair extent of which is at present latter end of the year 1810 has also abridged, by the unequal regulations been reimbursed, and is not included of foreign governments.

in that amount. Besides the reasonableness of saving The decrease of revenue, arising our manufacturers from sacrifices which from the situation of our commerce a change of circumstances might bring and the extraordinary expences which on them, the national interest requires have and may become necessary, must that, with respect to such articles, at be taken into view, in making commen, least, as belong to our defence and our surate provisions for the ensuing year. primary wants, we should not be left. And I recommend to your considerin unnecessary dependence on exter- ation the propriety of ensuring a suffinal supplies. And whilst foreign go- ciency of annual revenue, at least, to vernments adhere to the existing dis- defray the ordinary expences of go- . criminations in their ports against our vernment, and to pay the interest on navigation, and an equality or lesser the public debt, including that on discrimination is enjoyed by their navi. new loans which may be anthorised. gation in our ports, the effect cannot I cannot close this communication be mistaken, because it has been seri- without expressing my deep sense of ously felt by our shipping interests; the crisis in which you are assembled, and in proportion as this takes place, my confidence in a wise and honourable the advantages of an independent con- result to your deliberations, and assu. veyance of our products to foreign rances of the faithful zeal with which markets, and of a growing body of my cooperating duties will be dischar. mariners, trained by their occupations ged; invoking, at the same time, the for the service of their country in times blessing of heaven on our beloved of danger, must be diminished.

country, and on all the means that may The receipts into the treasury, du. be employed in vindicating its rights ring the year ending on the 30th of and advancing its welfare September last, have exceeded thirteen (Signed) JAMES MADDISONI millions and a half of dollars ; and have Washington, Nov. 5, 1812 E****

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10 p!1,178 study Disc LIST OF PATENTS IN 1811. Sridebuc A1532

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sant atgada Mr William Clerk, Edinburgh, for sundry apparatus or machinery for a newly constructed grate for prevent the manufacture of felt or stuff hats ing smoke, and regulating heat. Mr Bundy, Camden-Town, fór &

Mr David Meade Randolph, Gol new method of heading pins. a stol den-square, London, for a method of James Frost and Son, Sutton street manufacturing all kinds of boots, shoes, Clerkenwell, for an improvement on &c. by means of a substitute for cocks, or an improved lock cockstud thread made of hemp, flax, or other Mr Richard Woodman, Hammeryarns.

smith, for a method of manufacturidg Mr John Kent, Southampton, for a all kinds of boots, shoes, and other new method of moving all kinds of articles.

༣ - ༢༡་ཀུr:༔ ༩༥༣ goods or materials to high buildings, Mr Henry Stubbs, Piccadilly, for at or from deep places.

new-invented grand imperial Aulanmy Mr Winsor, Pall Mall

, London, for from three to twenty feet widě, withimprovement upon his former oven out seam, and to any length or colour stove for carbonizing all kinds of raw: for decorating rooms, &c. non bis fuel, and for extracting the oil, acid, Mr John Isaac Hawkins, Great tar, gas, &c.

Titchfield-street, for a certain instrug Mr Thomas Meade, Yorkshire, for ment applicable in meebanics as a basi methods of making circular or rotative lance or equipoise -102 9927 04 steam-engines upon an entire new prin Mr Thomas Pott, Hackney, for ciple.

+ new process of freeing tarred rope ftomt Mr Edward Shorter, Wapping, for tar, and of rendering it of use to the an apparatus for working pumps. manufacturer.

poidzi 199 Mr Bryan Donkin, Bermondsey,for Mr Johann George Deyerlein, Long. pen of new construction,

acre, for a machine, new principle, Tori Mr David Matthew, Rotherhithe, method, of making bricks and tiles for an improved method of building and other kinds of pottery. locks, and for opening and shutting Mr Peter Stuart, Fleet-street, for the same.

a new method of engraving and print=! Mr John White, Westminster, for ing maps &c.) po navidez the discovery of a certain substance Mr John Lindsay, Grove house my which is capable of being converted Middlesex, for a boat and various aped into statues, artificial stone, melting- paratus, whereby heavy burdens camio pots, bricks, tiles, and every descrip be conveyed in shallow water.aswyniad lion of pottery,

Mr Winsor, Pall-mall, for a fixed Mr Richard Wilson, Lambeth, for "telegraphic light-house, &c. for signats

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and intelligence, to serve by night and for certain improvements in apparatus by day.

for the combination and condensation Mr John Deakin, St John's-street, of gasses and vapours applicable to Middlesex, for improvements in the processes of distillation.

Mr Richard Jackson, Southwark, Mr John Bradley, Old Swinford, for an improved method of making Staffordshire, for a new method of the shanks of anchors and other large

bodies of wrought iron. Sir Isaac Coffin, for a new inven- Mr Samuel Hill, Serle-street, for a tion of a perpetual oven for baking more effectual method of joining stone bread.

pipes. Mr Ralph Wedgewood, Oxford- Mr David Loeschman, Newman. street, for a new character for lan- street, for improvements in the musical guage, numbers and music, and the scales of keyed iustruments with fixed method of applying the same, a Mr William Doughty, Birmingham, Mr Joseph Dyer, Gray's.inn, for for a method of combining wheels for improvements in the construction and gaining mechanical powers.

method of using plates and presses for Mr George Lowe, Cheapside, for copper-plate printing. 2, 3 British shirting cloth.

Mr Hall, Walthamstow, for a mer Mr Egerton Smith, Liverpool, for thod of 'manufacturing from twigs or, a binnacle and compass.

i 1- Mr James Bell, Whitechapel, for and other plants of like species, to

e of broom, mallows, rushes, improvements in refining sugar, and in serve instead of flax or hemp. forming sugar-houses of a certain de- Mr Thomas Wade, Nelson-place, scription.

Surrey, for a method of imitating lapis - Mr John Gregory, Islington, for a lazuli

, porphyry, jasper, &c. method of tanning and cleansing ales Mr John Statter, Birmingham and and beers into casks. in

Holborn, for a steam kitchen and 3.Mr Arthur Wolf, Lambeth, for im- roaster. provements in the construction and Mr. Walter Roch fort, Bishopgate.. working of steam-engines, calculated street, for an improved method of pres to lessen the consumption of fuel, paring coffee by compression. $Mr Peter Durand, Hoxton-square, Mr John Türmeau and Charles Se. for a method of preserving animal and ward, Cheapside, for a new lamp, callvegetable food, &c. a long time from ed the Liverpool Lamp. perishing.

Mr Joseph Dyer, London, for a Mr John Cragg, Liverpool, for im- machine for cutting and removing all provements in the casting of iron roofs the kinds of furs used in hat-making for houses, &c.

from skins, and for cutting the skins Mr William Muller, London, for into strips or small pieces. I wis eu improvements in the construction of Mr John Frazer, Sloane-street, for: pumpsbak dini?

a discovery of certain vegetables, and Mrs Sarah Guppy, Bristol, for a a way of preparing them to be madumia made of emot and constructing factured into hats, bonnets, chair-bota bridges, and rail-roads, without arches toms, baskets, &c. 21:16 or starlings by which the danger of Mr William Bundy, Camden-towny being washed away by floods is avoided. for an improvement on stringed ipßtrei

Mr John Stancliffe, Tooke's-court, ments. Ou byens on, IVO PART IL.

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2011 PROJECTS AND USEFUL INVENTIONS I

her's V.

60's 976 Ко; ә992x9 131194 1921

virive del Proposed Drainage of the Bogs in bogs of less extent than 500 acres; sin Ireland.

its form resembling a broad belt drawn

across the centre of Ireland, with its Commissioners having been appoint- narrowest end' nearest to the capital, edin Ireland forthe purpose ofenquiring and gradually extending in breadth all into the practicability of this scheme, it approaches to the western océan. the first report on the subject was de- This great division of the island exd livered to the House of Commons in tending from east to west, is-traversed the summer of 1810, from which the by the Shannon from north to souths following particulars concerning the and is thus divided into two parts ; of nature and extent of those morasses these, the division to the westward of are extracted.

the river contains more than double “ An object, on the due attainment the extent of the bogs which are to of which depended in a great degree be found in the division' to the east the success of our undertaking, was ward ; 'so that if we suppose the whole the proper division of the bogs of Ire- of the bogs of Ireland (exclusive of land into the districts referred to in the mere' mountain bog, and of bogs under first article of the instructions ; and 500 acres) to be divided into twenty further, to determine in what part we parts, we shall find about seventeen of should first apply those means entrust them comprized within the great divis ed to us, and which we at once per. sion we have now described, twelve to ceived were utterly inadequate to the the westward, and five to the eastwards execution of any plan that should em- of the Shannon; and of the remainings brace the entire extent of Ireland.

three parts, about twoare to the south, “ From inspection of the map execu. and one to the north of this divisionit ted by General Vallency, we were'ena. Of the positive amount of their cobal bled to consider these bogs as forming tents we have as yet no data thatçan one connected whole, and to come to enable us to speak with any precision; the general conclusion, that a portion but we are led to believe, from variope of Ireland, of little more than one-* communications with our sengineersz? fourth of its entire superficial extent, that the bogs in the eastern divisioni: and included between a line drawn of the great district above described from Wicklow-head to Galway, and an amount toabout 260,000 Englishcacreszt other drawn from Howth-head to Shi- which, on the proportion already merki go, comprises within it about six- tioned, would give rather more than one's sevenths of the bogs in the island, ex. 3 million of English acres as the tota cläsite of "mere mountain-bogs and contents of the bogs of Ireland 7 seks

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