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11 But I certify to you, brethren, that the Gospel, which was preached of me, is not after man.

12 For I neither received it of man, neither was I taught it, but by the revelation of Jesus Christ.

13 For ye have heard of my conversation in time past in the Jews' religion,

how that beyond measure I persecuted the church of God, and wasted it: 14 And profited in the Jews' religion above many my equals in mine own nation, being more exceedingly zealous of the traditions of my fathers.




men, or seek the favour of God? If I had hitherto made it my business to please men, I should not have been the servant 11 of Christ, nor taken up the profession of the Gospel. But I certify you, brethren, that the Gospel, which has been every where preached by me, is not such as is pliant to human in12 terest, or can be accommodated to the pleasing of men (For I neither received it from man, nor was I taught it by any one, as his scholar); but it is the pure and unmixed, immediate 13 revelation of Jesus Christ to me. To satisfy you of this, my behaviour, whilst I was of the Jewish religion, is so well known, that I need not tell you how excessive violent I was in persecuting the church of God, and destroying it all I could; 14 And that being carried on by an extraordinary zeal for the traditions of my forefathers, I out-stripped many students of 15 my own age and nation, in Judaism. But when it pleased


Christ. So that it would be senseless folly in him, and no less than the forsaking his Master, Jesus Christ, if he should now, as was reported of him, mix any thing of men's with the pure doctrine of the Gospel, which he had received immediately by revelation from Jesus Christ, to please the Jews, after he had so long preached only that; and had, to avoid all appearance or pretence to the contrary, so carefully shunned all communication with the churches of Judea; and had not, until a good while after, and that very sparingly, conversed with any, and those but a few, of the apostles themselves, some of whom he openly reproved for their Judaizing. Thus the narrative, subjoined to this verse, explains the "now," and "yet," in it, and all tends to the same purpose.

Пed, translated "persuade," is sometimes used for making application to any one to obtain his good will, or friendship; and hence, Acts xii. 20,


avles Basov is translated having made Blastus their friend:" the sense is here the same which, I Thess. ii. 4, he expresses in these words, xx w's ανθρωποις αρεσκονίες, αλλα τω Θεω, “ not as pleasing men, but God.”

11 b Το ευαγγελισθεν ὑπ' εμε, "which has been preached by me : this, being spo

ken indefinitely, must be understood in general, every where, and so is the import of the foregoing verse.


15 But when it pleased God, who separated me from my mother's womb, and called me by his grace,

16 To reveal his Son in me, that I might preach him among the heathen, immediately I conferred not with flesh and blood:

17 Neither went I up to Jerusalem, to them which were apostles before me;

but I went into Arabia, and returned again unto Damascus.

18 Then after three years, I went up to Jerusalem to see Peter, and abode with him fifteen days.

19 But other of the apostles saw I none, save James the Lord's brother. 20 Now the things which I write unto you, behold, before God, I lie not. 21 Afterwards I came into the regions of Syria and Cilicia:



God (who separated me from my mother's womb, and by his especial favour called me to be a Christian, and a preacher of 16 the Gospel). To reveal his Son to me, that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I thereupon applied not myself to any 17 inan, for advice what to do. Neither went I up to Jeru

salem to those who were apostles before me, to see whether they approved my doctrine, or to have farther instructions from them but I went immediately unto Arabia, and from 18 thence returned again to Damascus. Then after three years,


I went up to Jerusalem, to see Peter, and abode with him 19 fifteen days. But other of the apostles saw I none, but James, 20 the brother of our Lord. These things, that I write to you,

I call God to witness, are all true; there is no falsehood in 21 them. Afterwards I came into the regions of Syria and Ci


15 Separated." This may be understood by Jer. i. 5.

b"Called." The history of this call, see Acts ix. 1, &c.

16 "Flesh and blood," is used for man, see Eph. vi. 12.

d"For advice:" this, and what he says in the following verse, is to evidence to the Galatians the full assurance he had of the truth and perfection of the Gospel, which he had received from Christ, by immediate revelation; and how little he was disposed to have any regard to the pleasing of men in preaching it, that he did not so much as communicate, or advise, with any of the apostles about it, to see whether they approved of it.

17 Eve, immediately, though placed just before & and @paved, "I conferred not; yet it is plain, by the sense and design of St. Paul here, that it principally relates to, "I went into Arabia;" his departure into Arabia, presently upon his conversion, before he had consulted with any body, being made use of, to show that the Gospel he had received by immediate revelation from Jesus Christ was complete, and sufficiently instructed and enabled him to be a preacher and an apostle to the Gentiles, without borrowing any thing from any man, in order thereunto; no not with any of the apostles, no one of whom he saw, until three years after.

18 "Three years,'' i. e. from his conversion.


22 And was unknown by face unto the churches of Judea, which were in Christ.

23 But they had heard only, that he, which persecuted us in times past, now preacheth the faith which once he destroyed.

24 And they glorified God in me.


22 licia. But with the churches of Christ in Judea, I had had no communication: they had not so much as seen my face h; 23 Only they had heard, that I, who formerly persecuted the churches of Christ, did now preach the Gospel, which I once 24 endeavoured to suppress and extirpate. And they glorified

God upon my account.


22 "In Christ," i. e. believing in Christ, see Rom. xvi. 7.

h This, which he so particularly takes notice of, does nothing to the proving that he was a true apostle; but serves very well to show, that, in what he preached, he had no cominunication with those of his own nation, nor took any care to please the Jews.



1 Then fourteen years after, I went up again to Jerusalem, with Barnabas, and took Titus with me also.

2 And I went up by revelation, and communicated unto them that Gospel, which I preach among the Gentiles, but privately to them which were of reputation, lest by any means I should run or had run in vain.


1 Then fourteen years after, I went up again to Jerusalem, 2 with Barnabas, and took Titus also with me. And I went

up by revelation, and there laid before them the Gospel which I preached to the Gentiles, but privately, to those who were


1 "I communicated." The conference he had in private with the chief of the church of Jerusalem, concerning the Gospel which he preached among the Gentiles, seems not to have been barely concerning the doctrine of their being free from the law of Moses, that had been openly and hotly disputed at Antioch, and was known to be the business they came about to Jerusalem; but it is probable, it was to explain to them the whole doctrine he had received by


3 But neither Titus, who was with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised:


of note and reputation amongst them; lest the pains that I have already taken, or should take in the Gospel, should be 3 in vain. But though I communicated the Gospel, which I preached to the Gentiles, to the eminent men of the church at Jerusalem, yet neither Titus, who was with me, being a Greek,


revelation, by the fulness and perfection whereof, (for it is said, ver. 6, that, in that conference, they added nothing to it) and by the miracles he had done in confirmation of it, (see ver. 8) they might see and own what he preached to be the truth, and him to be one of themselves, both by commission and doctrine, as indeed they did; avros, "them," signifies those at Jerusalem; xar' idiav de Tois doxous, are exegetical, and show the particular manner and persons, import "nempe privatim, eminentioribus." It was enough to his purpose to be owned by those of greatest authority, and so we see he was, by James, Peter, and John, ver. 9, and therefore it was safest and best to give an account of the Gospel he preached in private to them, and not publicly to the whole church.

"Running," St. Paul uses for taking pains in the Gospel. See Phil. ii. 16. A metaphor, I suppose, taken from the Olympic games, to express his utmost endeavors to prevail in the propagating the Gospel.

b" In vain :" He seems here to give two reasons why, at last, after fourteen years, he communicated to the chief of the apostles at Jerusalem, the Gospel that he preached to the Gentiles, when, as he shows to the Galatians, he had formerly declined all communication with the convert Jews. 1. He seems to intimate, that he did it by revelation. 2. He gives another reason, viz. That, if he had not communicated, as he did, with the leading men there, and satisfied them of his doctrine and mission, his opposers might unsettle the churches he had, or should plant, by urging, that the apostles knew not what it was that he preached, nor had ever owned it for the Gospel, or him for an apostle. Of the readiness of the Judaizing seducers, to take any such advantage against him, he had lately an example in the church of Corinth.

3 oun nanaoon is rightly translated," was not compelled," a plain evidence to the Galatians, that the circumcising of the convert Gentiles was no part of the Gospel which he laid before these men of note, as what he preached to the Gentiles. For if it had, Titus must have been circumcised; for no part of his Gospel was b'amed, or altered by them, ver. 6. Of what other use his mentioning this, of Titus, here can be, but to show to the Galatians, that what he preached, contained nothing of circumcising the convert Gentiles, it is hard to find. If it were to show that the other apostles, and church at Jerusalem, dispensed with circumcision, and other ritual observances of the Mosaical law, that was needless; for that was sufficiently declared by their decree, Acts xv. which was made and communicated to the churches, before this epistle was writ, as may be seen, Acts xvi. 4; much less was this of Titus of any force, to prove that St. Paul was a true apostle, if that were what he was here laboring to justify. But considering his aim here, to be the clearing himself from a report, that he preached up circumcision, there could be nothing more to his purpose, than this instance of Titus, whom, uncircumcised as he was, he took with him to Jerusalem; uncircumcised he kept with him there, and uncircumcised


4 And that, because of false brethren, unawares brought in, who came in privily to spy out our liberty, which we have in Christ Jesus, that they might bring us into bondage.

5 To whom we gave place by subjection, no, not for an hour; that the truth of the Gospel might continue with you.

6 But of those, who seemed to be somewhat (whatsoever they were, it


4 was forced to be circumcised: Nor did 1 yield any thing, one moment, by way of subjection to the law, to those false brethren, who, by an unwary admittance, were slily crept in, to spy out our liberty from the law, which we have under the Gospel: that they might bring us into bondage to the law. 5 But I stood my ground against it, that the truth of the Gospel 6 might remain among you. But as for those, who were really




he took back with him, when he returned. This was a strong and pertinent instance to persuade the Galatians, that the report of his preaching circumcision was a mere aspersion.

4b Oude, "Neither," in the third verse, according to propriety of speech, ought to have a 66 nor," to answer it, which is the cude, " nor," here; which, so taken, answers the propriety of the Greek, and very much clears the sense; oude TITOS αναγκασθη, ουδε προς ώραν εξαμεν, “ Neither was Titus compelled, nor did we yield

to them a moment."


Tn volan, "by subjection." The point those false brethren contended for, was, That the law of Moses was to be kept, see Acts xv. 5. St. Paul, who, on other occasions, was so complaisant, that to the Jews he became as a Jew, to those under the law, as under the law (see 1 Cor ix. 19-22) yet when subjection to the law was claimed, as due in any case, he would not yield the least matter; this I take to be his meaning of oude diaμer on itolay; for, where compliance was desired of him, upon the account of expedience, and not of subjection to the law, we do not find him stiff and inflexible, as may be seen, Acts xxi. 18-26, which was after the writing of this epistle.

d" Bondage." What this bondage was, see Acts xv. 1, 5, 10.

5The truth of the Gospel." By it he means here, the doctrine of freedom from the law; and so he calls it again, ver. 14, and chap. iii. I, and iv. 16.

"Might remain among you." Here he tells the reason himself, why he yielded not to those Judaizing false brethren: it was, that the true doctrine, which he had preached to the Gentiles, of their freedom from the law, might stand firm. A convincing argument to the Galatians, that he preached not circumcision.

4, 5, " And that, to whom." There appears a manifest difficulty in these two verses, which has been observed by most interpreters, and is by several ascribed to a redundancy, which some place in de, in the beginning of ver. 4, and others to is in the beginning of ver. 5. The relation between oude, ver. 3, and oud, ver. 5, methinks puts an easy end to the doubt, by the showing St. Paul's sense to be, that he neither circumcised Titus, nor yielded in the least to the false brethren; he having told the Galatians, That, upon his laying before the men of most authority in the church at Jerusalem, the doctrine which he preached, Titus was not circumcised; he, as a further proof of his not preach

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