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as affected by rust, it is possible that the grave was Norse of the latest period. Iron is said to have been found under two cairns, in the excavations at "Stoneraise Camp" in Dalston. Ormstead near Penrith was possibly a Norse burial-place, whilst Thulbarrow in the same neighbourhood (still remaining) is in all probability Danish. But there is no doubt an examination of the numerous tumuli yet scattered over the country, would extend and correct our knowledge on this interesting subject.

The popular names given to the graves are in general of no historical value, the greater part having been conferred centuries after the indiyiduals lived. A number of traditions of this kind have been exploded in Denmark by the more accurate knowledge of late years. One most remarkable instance concerns the sepulchre of King Frode Fredegode (the peace-loving), who was believed to be interred in a large hill near Frederic's Sound in Seeland. The tradition that states this, is related by Saxo Grammaticus from a song old even in his time. The hill was opened three hundred years ago, but an inspection of the remains is sufficient to show that it was a Stone chamber belonging to an age many centuries prior to the time at which the Danish king flourished.


Runes are not to be found earlier than the Iron age, and in Cumbria they are still of later date. All those yet deciphered have proved to be Anglo-Saxon. On this part of our subject there very little to be said, save that in doubtful cases every professor of runes imagines a different reading from every other, and where certainty prevails, the inscription invariably runs thus: "One person erected this to another," the name being rarely of the slightest importance.

Memorial stones of various kinds still remain in considerable numbers, the most remarkable of which perhaps is Nine Standards in Westmorland. Several villages called Unthank take their name from monuments no longer in existence, the word being in English onthink, and the phrase "to think on" still current in the dialect. Bauta stones are invariably found in connexion with graves.

The traditions connected with the names of places and persons, are equally unreliable with those belonging to the graves. Amongst

the stories of this kind, of which every country possesses its share, we may seek almost in vain for anything worth relating, except as a historical record of a particular kind of invention. The city of Duderstadt in Germany was built by two brothers (so says tradition), each of whom, when the task was completed, urged upon the other to give his name to the place. "Gieb du der Stadt den Namen" (Do thou give the city its name) was repeated between the brothers for a long time in this noble contest, until finally they could come to no other accommodation of their strife than to perpetuate its remembrance in the three words Du-der-Stadt (thou the city). Pity, says the philologist from whose work the tradition is taken, that this charming story is not to be found in Greek!

Traditions based on pseudo-etymology are spread all over England. The family of Percy (Pier's ö, Peter's island) received its name from their ancestor having pierced his enemy in the eye. Rutlandshire was a gift to one Rut of as much land as he could ride round in a day. At Colchester is a large earthwork called King Cole's kitchen, from the first syllable of the name, originally Camalo (dunum). Fulham and Putney on the Thames were built by two sisters, who had but one hammer between them. Each threw it across the river to the other when required, and the form of words used on one side was "Put it nigh," on the other "Heave it full home." As a general rule, the more ancient such traditions are, the more likely to gain credence.

The Cumbrian inventions of this kind are also clearly traceable. One of the most modern belongs to the origin of no less a place than Carlisle. While the city was yet building, a traveller happening to come that way, met with an old woman, of whom he inquired, "What will they call this place?" "Indeed," was the surly reply, "I care lile" (little). The traveller complained of the want of civility, and thus the city got its name.

Wotobank near Beckermont has given rise to a somewhat more romantic story, which is thus related in Hutchinson: A lord of Beckermont, and his lady and servants, were one time hunting the wolf. During the chase this lord missed his lady: after a long and painful search, they at last, to his inexpressible sorrow, found

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her body lying on this hill or bank, slain by a wolf, and the ravenous beast in the very act of tearing it to pieces, till frightened by the dogs. In the first transports of his grief, the first words the sorrowful husband uttered, were "Woe to this bank!" since vulgarly called Wotobank.

An invention of a still higher kind is furnished by the name of Dunmaile Raise. King Edmund of England and the king of South Wales, we are informed, united their forces for the subjugation of King Dunmaile (a hill) of Cumbria. This potentate, though certainly posted on his own ground, sustained a most decisive defeat, being attacked, it appears, at once in front and rear; and as the poet has it, himself and "those of all his power," were “slain here in a disastrous hour." But he was honourably buried on the field of battle, and the hill called after his name. The age of this tradition is attested by the fact that it has found its way into Geoffrey of Monmouth's history, that is, about two centuries after the supposed event.




"WILLST du die Menscheit und ihre Vernunft kennen lernen, so studire die Menschensprachen, und diese werden dir von manchem Kunde geben, was in keiner Seelenlehre und in keinem Geschichtsbuche steht."

Dr. F. A. POTT.

Would you wish to get a knowledge of mankind and human reason, then study languages, and these will inform you of many things not written in history, and not to be found in any psychology.


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