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this word, broo (in Brougham), from the same origin. The Ger. burg only accounts for borough (in Borrowbridge, etc.) The Brovonacæ and Brovacum of Ant. It.
CALEDONIA (C. Gaill y dun, the Gauls of the hills), a Lat. derivative for the name of the country. Cf. Donegal, the fort of the Gaul or stranger.
CARLISLE, original name Luguvallum (H. C. log, the pool, balla, at the wall), was first applied to the confluence of the rivers. The aspiration of the two inner consonants reduced the name to Luil, and the Belgæ meantime prefixed cathir, from which, by the same ekthlipsis, arose the present orthography. Accent on the second syllable. Cf. Lugdunum, the ancient name of Lyons and Leyden, the pool fort.
CATTERLEN, H. C. ceathair, the quadrangle, leana, of the marsh (river-side ground), the Roman fort at Plumpton, now the name of a township. Cf. Lane End, Staffordshire, the marsh end; within a short distance is the village of Fen-ton.
CELT (H. C. ceil, to cover), clothed. Transferred to the "kilt" of the Highlands, and to the Cumbrian homespun garment, well known as the “ kelt coat."
Coombs, C. C. cwmp, a circle, a remarkable piece of unproductive, stony ground in Martindale.
CORNEY (C. C. corn, a horn), with the ending ey, has become the name of a river,originally the peninsula. Cf. Corn-wall.
CROGLIN, H. C. carraig, the rock, linne, of the water.
CROWDUNDLE (H. C. corrach, a marsh, dun, the fort), Crowdun-dale, the Crowdun being probably the fort at Milburn. Cf. the Curragh in Ireland, and in the Isle of Man; and Crewe in Cheshire, that is, the marsh.
CULGAITH (pr. coolgaath), H. C. cul, the back, guirt, of the garden, the end of the open country, eq. the French cul-de-sac. The i is most probably the sign of the genitive, retained even when the r was lost.
CULTRAM (pr. caltram), H. C. cealltrach, a church,-the abbey lands. Cf. Caltram in the south of Ireland.
CUMBERLAND (H. C. cumar, a confluence, or valley; cumarach,
abounding in hills and vallies), the hill country. The Cummeragh mountains are the highest and wildest in Ireland.
CUMREW, C. C. cymru, the people, or settlement, of the hills, a village on the “fell-sides." The Welsh are so named for the same reason; and Cimbri and Cimmerioi appear to have a similar origin.
DERWENT, C. C. dwr, water, gwent, beautiful.
DUNDRAW, H. C. dun, the hill, darach, of the oak. Cf. Dunderrow in the south of Ireland.
DUNMAILE, H. C. dun maoile, the hill of the heap, or sepulchral mound.
DUNMALLET (pr. Dunmawland), H. C. dun maolain, the hill of the beacon.
DURDAR, C. C. dwr dar, the water at the oak, the original name of the Caldew.
EDEN, anciently Ituna, a Celtiberian name; its modern form has been conjectured into everything by etymologists.
Esk, H. C. uisge, water. Cf. the Exe and the Axe.
GLENDERRATERRA, H. C. glean darach, the glen of the oak. Dunderrow. Terra appears to be a Roman addition, pure Celtic names never being formed of this kind. Some “guide-book" writer has explained this name into the “ valley of the angel of execution." Cf. the ancient Avalterræ.
GLENRIDDING, C. C. glyn, the valley, rhyd, of the ford.
HARTLOW, H. C. aird, the country, locha, of the lake, the northern Morecambe. Cf. Carlow.
HIBERNIA (H. C. ibher, the west), the west country: Cf. Iveragh, in the southwest of Ireland, and Iberia. The name was etymologised by the Romans into the “wintry land,” and then declared to be too cold to be inhabited (Strabo).
KENT, H. C. cent, the promontory, transferred to the river.
KILRIDDING (H. C. cill, the church), the church at the ford. Cf. Kilmarnock, Killarney, etc.; and the Russian celó, a church village.
KNOCK, H. C. cnoc, a hill, in Knock Pike, etc.
bably the D. east, ở to distinguish it from Cultram. Cf. Lanark in Scotland. Llan and llanerch originally signified a glade of the forrest.
LEVEN, C. C. llefn, smooth. Cf. Lochleven. The Eng. level. LINE, LUNE, C. C. llyn, water.
Man, Iberian men, maen, a hill (of which the perfect form is mendia), transferred, in most instances, to the stone erection on the summit. Old Man could only arise when the word was supposed to be Eng. Cf. Mendip hills.
MORECAMBE, H. C. mor, great, cam, bend, the great bay. Mor is one of a few adjectives prefixed in compounds. Cam is the Eng. cove, dim camog, Eng. cammock, etc.
NAN, C. C. nant, a glen, in Nan Biéld (building), and Nent Head. PENRITH, C. C. pen, a hill, rhudd, red, the town on the red hill. PENRUDDOCK (H. C. ending og), little Penrith.
PETTERILL, C. C. pedrogyl, the quadrangle, the Roman fort at Plumpton, now the name of a river.
POOLEY, C. C. pwl, water, a name for the lower part of Ullswater, the A. ey converting it into the name of a township.
SILURES (H.C. siollaridhe, the youths, the clans), the confederates. SKIDDAW, C. C. sgyddau, the Scots' mountain.
TORPENHOW, H. C. tor, hill, C. C. pen, hill, with a D. ending of the same meaning. Pr. torpenna, accenting on the second ; this renders impossible any such derivation as Torpen's how. Cf. Penhow, Monmouth.
TUNNOCELLUM, C. C. tun uchel, the high fort, placed at Bowness in Cumberland.
ULLSWATER (H. C. uille, the elbow), the name given to the upper part of the lake, as Pool to the lower, and found in Ullock, Ulldale, etc. Water is quite a late addition, and it is not more singular to have Ull survive as the name of a lake, than Penrith as the name of a town.
VERODA (H. C. uidhe, a road, ruadh, red), the great Roman road that passed north through the forest, probably paved with red stones. Farther north it was called Wadling (H. C. uidhe leana), the road of the marsh (or river side), preserved in Tarn Wadling.
This shows clearly the origin of Watling Street, the Roman road from London to Chester, which was transferred in English times to the Milky Way. Grimm wonders who were the Watlings, the proprietors of two such famous streets! The reader will see that they were a Celtic family. Cf. Weedon, the road fort, Weeford, the road ford, Watford, the same, all on the line of Watling Street.
WINSTER (wincaster, Cf. Winchester), the name of the fort at Crook. Venta, the perfect form of the first part of this compound, as in Venta Silurum, appears to be eq. our market-town (Lat. vendo, sell), and perhaps was more common than is supposed. Cf. Wimpole, Cambridgeshire (venta pwl) the market-town on the water. Windermere I am disposed to refer to the same origin.
WREAY, H. C. reidh, an opening or clear space in a wood, a glade, also found in Dockray (Penrith and Kendal), etc. The ancient word, as well as the modern one, is practically two syllables, and the aspirated d takes the sound of y. Cf. Raleigh, one part of which translates the other.
THE MIXED COLONISATIONS OF CUMBERLAND AND
The Gothic tribes, who formed the mixed colonists of Britain, found their way hither as auxiliaries already under the Romans. There can be no doubt that immediately on the decline of Imperial power in the north, this island would form one of the most inviting places of resort for those sea-side people whose trade was plunder. It is the opinion of Worsaae,* that, during the Roman dominion, a brisk trade was carried on between Denmark and the east coast of Britain ; but the commerce of those remote times can hardly be said to be materially connected with the series of invasions that commenced early in the fifth century, and continued unceasingly down to the close of the eleventh.
The early history of these invasions is quite lost, the supposed chronicles constructed in later times being utterly fabulous in their details. The circumstances of the time, and the endless contests between opposing interests, prevented the preservation of traditions by either race; moreover, the Goths were not a people of tradition, nor of history, until they learned the art from others. In short, the Welsh, who were the authors of much of this early “ Saxon history," were the worst informed of the events, and the least scrupulous of traditionists. Hengist and Horsa, the supposed leaders on whom the whole of the first invasion is laid, are myths, the words being in English horse and mare, names that could not possibly be borne by any two brothers that ever lived. The.capti
• Danes and Norwegians in the British Isles.