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later settlement, as it is unquestionably a later name, and at Torpenhow, as appears from the second syllable; and again in the centre at Derwent and Lowdore.

The arriral of the Cambro-Celts in the North, can hardly be estimated at a less interval than two centuries subsequent to the coming of the Hiberno-Celts. This conclusion is arrived at from the fact that the whole of northern Europe was, at one time, in possession of the latter people, who must have given way in various places, and whose emigrations must, to some extent, have ceased, before those of the latter began. The intercourse carried on between both peoples in Cumbria, was of an imperfect kind, unless aided by interpreters.

It is highly probable that the earlier colonists exclusively brought with them the people of the Stone age, and that to a considerable extent the Celtiberians were a mixture of the later or CambroCeltic people. But there have already been mentioned two mixed tribes, or confederacies, the Brigantes and Silures, and another important tribe remains,—who did not belong to the second division of the Celts. Of the presence of the Stone people, our imperfect linguistic remains afford no traces; but we have yet to ascertain, in the proper place, what evidence of their colonisation of Cumbria may be found in the monuments and burial places of the district. Concerning the Celtiberian mixture, however, various words present themselves that cannot be reconciled to any pure Celtic dialect, or to any language of the Indo-European stock.

Among the invading tribes of ancient Irish history, none is more easily recognised by continental names, than the Fir Bolg, the men of Belgium. Some time before the complete conquest of Britain, a part of this tribe left the continent, and sailing down the channel, threw out colonies right and left as they proceeded. We can trace them by a peculiar use of the word caer (car), that is cathair, the city, which they prefixed to the older names of places conquered by them,-names that they frequently did not understand. The first of this class is found in Caer Odor (the ancient Bristol), then follow Caerleon and Caerwent in Monmouthshire, Caermarthen and Cardigan in Wales, Carlow in Ireland, Carnarvon

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in Wales, Carlingford in Ireland, Cardurnock and Carlisle in Cumberland, and Caervorran on the Wall in Northumberland. That this tribe reached Cumbria is almost certain from the Blatum Bulgium of Antoninus's Itinerary, which is correctly placed in this part of Britain, and signifies the Belgian conquest.

Carlisle, the name in which we are principally interested, is evidently the composition of a later people, whose arrival was subsequent to that of the Romans, but, as appears from Blatum Bulgium, during the Roman occupation. The word caer was quite intelligible to all the Celtic tribes, every city in Ireland might have had it placed before its name; but the simple fact is, the Irish people did not use it as a prefix to the names of places. The visits of those Belgæ were not favourably regarded by their neighbours, for Belgian in the Welsh language became a synonyme for a ravager, as Gaul in Irish for a stranger, until put out of the field by Saxon. It can hardly be said with certainty, to which division of the Celts these colonists belonged; but more probably they were Hiberno-Celtic, and, being few in number, would have little influence on the language of either country.

The Roman occupation of Britain furnishes us with important information on the population of Cumbria. The conquest of the Brigantes, A.D. 121, gave the signal for the fall of the whole northern district, and Cumbria was not long saved from invasion by its mountains. We may assume that this district was overrun by the Roman legions at some time in the second century. The population that they found here was even then considerable, but it no doubt increased vastly during two and a half centuries of steady government.

The forts and camps erected by the Romans afford, by their position, the most important evidence. As the centre of a colony could rarely have been a proper site, wherever we find a principal station, we may look for a native population in the neighbourhood. Many of the camps were, however, intended merely to facilitate the removal of troops; and the seven forts on the wall, being designed for external defence, afford only indirect evidence on the internal state of the country.


Principal stations have been discovered at Bewcastle, “Old Carlisle," Ellenborough near Maryport, Moresby near Whitehaven, “Old Perith,” Caermot near Ireby, and Stocklewath near Rose Castle, in Cumberland; and at Brough, and Ambleside in Westmorland. Traces of smaller forts are discoverable near Milburn, Kirkby Thore, and Yanwath (at the present day known as Green Castle, Whelp Castle, and Castle Steads); and at Orton, and Watercrook in Westmorland. The names of places furnish us with three: Hincaster, Muncaster, and Casterton. These forts and camps were all connected by roads, though but few traces thereof now remain, that called the Maiden Way excepted, which passed through the east of Cumberland. From Brough a main road led west through Kirkby Thore, and north through “Old Perith,” opening up the great forest to Luguvallum and the Wall. In the south we recognise it in Veroda, the red way, which was apparently transferred to a fort, and farther north in Wadlyng, from which came the name of the well-known “tarn,” now no

Traces of a main road have likewise been discovered, leading from Ambleside in the direction of Penrith, which in later times was called the High Street, whence the name of one of the highest hills in Westmorland.

The information of the Itineraries of Antoninus, and the Notitia Imperii unfortunately affords little certainty as to the positions of the forts, and establishes but one point, the exclusive use of native names. The possibility of now discovering the dialects in these words, shows a scrupulous care in writing that differs much from the general treatment of barbarous names by the Latin writers at home. It likewise testifies to the good understanding that had long subsisted between the conquered Cumbrians and their rulers. Whatever frivolous origin the name may have had, it was adopted by the Romans; thus we find that one of the forts was called Olenacum, that is, “ having elbows or corners.” As for the rest, the conjectures of antiquaries concerning the sites are hardly worth repeating Tunnocellum may have been at Bowness, Axelodunum at Brough; Aballaba and Amboglanga are probably still to be traced in Appleby and Ambleside; but that is all that

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can be said. Whilst such imaginary namings as Old Penrith and Old Carlisle, are of no value whatever.

It cannot be supposed that the conquest of these counties was effected entirely without opposition. Two “ cities,” such as those described by Cæsar, are traceable in the names of Blencogo and Blencowe, taken in conjunction with the nature of the ground; and if any stand were made, it was especially in these places. These cities were not intended for permanent residences, the habits of the Celts being opposed to such localities. Resistance, however, was in vain ; the Cumbrians were compelled to make the roads and build the forts that completed their subjugation. Like all the other conquered tribes, they became either the lever or the fulcrum for overthrowing the liberty of some people as unfortunate as themselves.

But the Romans found the Caledonians, including the Picts and Scots, an enemy differing very widely from the other tribes of Britain, of which we have substantial evidence in the wall built for no other purpose than to keep them out. We cannot judge of the nature of the opposition encountered by the Romans in this island from the native writers. Cæsar, who could not acknowledge his defeat at Gergovia, or the streights to which he was driven in Britain, Domitian, who purchased slaves to make a triumpb, were not the men to publish reverses that could be concealed. The difficulties of Britain, it is evident, either prevented the invasion of Ireland, or, if a celebrated Irish tradition* be founded on fact, the attempt was made, and was foiled. Dangers were indeed sometimes exaggerated for obvious purposes, but defeats were as patriotically hushed up in the city of the Cæsars, as to day in the city of the Czars.

The Roman occupation of Britain lasted either too long or too short for the welfare of the country-long enough to enervate by tutelage the unfortunate natives, to show the country to the

• The Battle of Ventry Harbour, the invasion of Ireland in the fourth century by the king of the world, on which an Iliad of wonders was raised by the romance writers of the middle ages. The story still exists independently in local tradition.

Gothic tribes, literally to pave the way for the invading hordes that followed, -too short to protect them when the dangers became imminent. Whatever we may think of the romance of the pious Gildas, it is certain that the northern neighbours were not less troublesome for the withdrawal of the foreign garrisons. The Cumbrians could hardly repel the assaults of an enemy that was not to be vanquished by Roman arms. About this time, some permanent settlements appear to have been made in this district by the Scots,-the well-known Scots of school histories, who, having united their forces with the Picts, “began to look upon Britain as their own." Three names at least can be referred with certainty to this tribe, Skiddaw, the Scots' mountain, Bailey, and Ballydoyle. On the other hand, the Picts appear to have confined their ravages altogether to the other side of the Pennine, as we have no evidence that they ever entered Cumberland.

The origin of the Scots is involved in some obscurity, but various traditions confirm a belief that they came into Ireland from Spain. They landed in the south and south-east, and, some time during the Roman occupation of Britain, passed over from the north into Caledonia. Thus they traversed the entire island, Connaught apparently excepted, and made so deep an impression on their new country, as to give to it the name that it bore for some centuries, namely, Scotia. In short they were to Ireland what the Angles, at a later period, were to England. Their invasion of Caledonia finally transferred the name to that country. It is very probable they were Celtiberians, as their migration from Spain would lead us to suppose; and it is certain that the Scottish Highlanders and the Basques strikingly correspond in many important characteristics.

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