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“grottoes and covered alleys” of the work referred topare Stone sepulchres; Wayland Smith's cave at Ashbury, Berks, and Kit's Coty House in Kent, belong to the same class.

Are we now to conclude that the people of the Stone age of Denmark found their way hither, and explored the seas and channels of which the Romans showed so much fear, in canoes made by the process of hollowing single logs with fire and flint? Much more probable is it that they only reached these islands in company with the Celts, after having obtained metal weapons, and having learned the construction of some better kind of boat. Moreover, no trace of any language older than Celtic has been found. in Britain, the peculiar sepulchres do not appear in one district only, but are thinly scattered through the islands, and modern Irish,--therefore Hiberno-Celtic,-shows a strong phonetic tinge, not belonging to the original stock, which exists to some extent in all the modern Tatár languages. These evidences strongly support the conjecture, that the unknown people were a Tatár tribe, and were mixed with the earlier division of the Celtic immigrants.

It has always been supposed that the earliest inhabitants of Britain 'were Cambro-Celtic, in other words, that British and Welsh are identical. This erroneous opinion leads deeper into

The oldest remains of the Celtic languages show clear traces of the distinction now represented by Welsh and Hish. Whatever the Gallic tribe, it was either Cambro-Celtic or Hiberno. Celtic. Why should the former tribes alone find their way into Britain? They were in fact in a minority in Gaul, and still more so in these islands.

The descendants of the first colonists of Ireland, who certainly proceeded direct from the continent, are the people of Connaught. The manners of this district differ widely from those of the rest of the country, and the language preserves the normal state from which the other dialects have developed themselves. This separation soon deprived them of their share is the collective nationality of the island. The river that bounded their district, the Shannon (Senus), was therefore named by their successors on the east, and


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furnishes us with the name of the people on the west-the Senones. Thus we have in Connaught a portion of the tribe that lived about the Sequana in Gaul, and at a later period invaded Italy under Brennus (a mountain torrent), and attacked Rome at the time when the capitol was only saved from surprise by the cackling of

the sacred geese.

Comparing the language of the west of Ireland with the oldest names belonging to the ancient history of the east of Britain, we find that the first inhabitants of both islands were the same people. And in fact all the seafaring tribes of the west and north of Europe, for a considerable period, were Hiberno-Celts.

The five great headlands of Britain, on which are situated the modern counties of Kent, Lincolnshire, Haddingtonshire, Aberdeenshire, and Caithness, were originally called Kent, the head (modern Irish' cean), as appears from the names of the tribes, the Cantii, Iceni, and Cantæ, and from Cambridge (Cantabriga), Canty bay and Pentland hills in Haddingtonshire, and Pentland frith, the two latter of which are transformations from Kentland hills, Kentland frith. The same name was introduced into the west of Scotland by some of the latest immigrants, and is found in Cantyre (cean tir), the head of the land.

At a very early period the word kent (pr. kant) was changed into pen by the Cambro-Celts ; but was applied by them to hills, and never to promontories. Pembroke was previously Kentbroke; and in the transformation of such names, we have evidence of the later arrival of the Cambro-Celts. The tradition still exists in Wales, especially in the north, that the original inhabitants were Gwythelians (Irish); and many of the unacountable antiquities (chambers, etc.) are popularly ascribed to them as Cytian y Gwyzelod, Irish cots. The foxes and polecats, it is said, were their domestic dogs and cats.* These traditions seem to have migrated northwards from South Wales. On the other hand, the CambroCeltic term for capes was corn, a horn, as in Cornwall.

Amongst the latest of the Hiberno-Celtic colonists, prior to the

# Owen's Welsh Dictionary.


Roman conquest, were the Brigantes and Silures. The historical names connected with all the tribes of this division are reducible to modern Irish, and show themselves to be titles. The heroic and ill-used queen of the Iceni, whose name has occasioned so many orthographical conjectures--the nearest the mark being Bounducea-thus becomes bean duci, the woman leader. Our unfortunate acquaintance, Vortigern, turns into fear tigherna (vir tyrannus), the ruling man; and his son, Vortimer, no doubt was fear timthire, his minister or lieutenant.

The Cambro-Celts lånded on the south and west of Britain, and wherever else they are found, they probably penetrated from thence. All North Wales was colonised by this division, as well as a part of Scotland, where they were known as the Picts. The latter tribe may have given the name to the Isle of Wight (Vectis), the original form being perhaps Quict; but at least the word is not the Latin pictus, as the Romans invariably adopted the foreign name, and never gave one of their own.

Celtic modes of burial are divided, by the author of the Archæological Index, into Cremation, Interment at full length, and Deposit in a cist bent. Barrows of the first kind contain no. vestiges of pottery, in the second are found urns and implements of flint and stone, and in the third metal weapons and ornaments. There is no reliance to be placed on this classification. The second mode of interment seems to belong to the Stone age, the urn being intended to contain the food for the deceased; and the third is perhaps that of a later time and of a mixed people. Cremation is the

proper Celtic mode of burial, and so continued down to the conversion to Christianity.

Several cairns or “barrows” are mentioned in Camden as existing in Wales, from one of which were taken five urns containing bones and ashes. Scott thus describes the cairns which, he says, crown the summits of most of the Scottish hills : “Six flat stones are commonly found in the centre, forming a cavity in which an urn is often placed. The author is possessed of one, discovered beneath an immense cairn at Roughlee, in Liddesdale. It is of the most barbarous construction; the middle of the substance alone having

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been subjected to the fire, over which, when hardened, the artist had lạid an inner and outer coat of unbaked clay, etched with some very rude ornaments. The contents were bones and ashes, and a quantity of beads made of coal."*

In the construction of the Dorsetshire cairns, the cist has been excavated in the chalk, covered with broken flints, then with unbroken flints, with successive layers of brown and black mould, and lastly with a layer of large flints two feet and a half thick. The antiquities found in the Celtic tumuli are urns, stone and bronze celts, daggers, swords and spear-heads, ornaments and coins. These details sufficiently identify the Celts of Britain with the people of the Bronze age of Denmark.

Three distinct peoples have hitherto been traced in Britain; but even prior to the Roman conquest, for linguistic reasons, a fourth must be assumed. It is not a modern opinion that Iberians were amongst the colonists of the British Isles. Tacitus believed that the Silures were of that race, concluding from their dark colour, crisped hair, and the appearance of the country. The evidence here offered, only proposes to show that Celtiberians arrived in these islands, but especially in Britain.

The name of the Iceni is not to be explained from Celtic, the original word being Cent; but in Iberian (Basque) the i is a frequent prefix, and in foreign names causes no change of meaning. The Bibroci (whence Berkshire) is most probably the Spanish Bebryces containing the Iberian bi, two-and in Britain seems to have meant " the people of the countries,"--a district divided by the Thames. Many names and corruptions might be adduced, corresponding in etymology and phonetic structure with Iberian; as the Mendip hills, the Grampian hills, which are probably derivations from the Basque mendia, a hill, gara, a height. Hibernia, the west country, is identical with Iberia; and it is impossible to say which language has been the borrower. The Silures and the Brigantes were probably mixed people, or Celtiberians.

* Lay of the Last Minstrel, Notes.

† Archæological Index.

Such were the early colonists of Britain; it remains to enquire where did the first tribes migrate from? when and why did they come?

In ancient Irish history, some mention is made of a people called the Tuadha de Danan, the Tuads of the Dan country (Denmark) a celebrated tribe of enchanters. Their existence has been doubted, yet some of the same people colonised a part of Scotland, and left their name to the river Tweed. The position on the coast of Britain, and the name in Irish history, identify them as emigrants from Denmark, in fact, as the Teutones who were said to inhabit the southern part of Jutland. They may have been slightly mixed with the Scandinavians, who were then probably entering the peninsula; but there is nothing in the Roman accounts of the Teutones to show that they were not Celtic. Nevertheless, as it was from this tribe that the Germans derived the name Teutonic, its identification with the Tuads will be disputed; whilst it is hardly credible that a numerous German people could have reached Ireland at so early a period.*

The Tuadha de Danan could only arrive at the Tweed from the south of Denmark, wafted by a southwest wind. On the same course, the people who inhabited the north of the peninsula, about Liim Fiord, would reach the headland containing the modern Aberdeenshire; and this would account for the original name of Britain, and the present name of Scotland in the Irish language, Albion and Alba, the hill country. Undoubtedly, the name Albion proceeded from the north of the island, and the people who conferred it, belonged to the original settlers.

It is difficult to fix anything near the time at which the first immigration took place. For geognostic reasons, says Worsaae, we may conclude that the Bronze age commenced in Denmark five or six hundred years before the Christian era. About the former of these periods seems to have been the time of the first migration

• Tued and Teut are phonetically identical. The latter represents the pronunciation toyt, and in Dutch is spelled tuit. The Welsh Llwyd has the same diphthongal combination as Tued, and its anglicised form Lloyd furnishes the the modern pronunciation of Teut.

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