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inhabitants of this region are greatly annoyed by wild elephants and other ferocious animals, which endanger human life and threaten the destruction of erops, and it is often necessary to build large and extensive fires as a defence against their ravages.

Mozambique, the Portuguese capital, is situated on a neighboring island 30 miles round, and formerly very populous. The commerce of this city has declined, and the number of slaves exported has been greatly reduced. Pop. 3000.

Sofala extends 150 miles along the coast, from the river Zambeze to Cape Corientes or the Tropic of Capricorn. It is watered chiefly by the river Sofala, at whose mouth is the capital of the same name, 400 miles southwest of Mozambique. This is, now, a town of small huts, yet containing a Fortuguese fortress. This country has few inhabit. ants, but multitudes of fierce elephants, and an abundance of ivory and gold dust. And some men of learning have had the opinion, that Sofala was the country whence Solomon the king of Israel procured the celebrated gold of Ophir.

Mocaranga is the name of a powerful kingdom in the interior, which is represented as embracing mines of gold, and mountain tops wrapt in perpetual snow; a rich soil, producing maize, rice, and delicious fruits, and many splended mines, indicative of its former populousness and civilization.

QUESTIONS.

By what European nation were the countries on the southeast coast formerly frequented? Is the geography of these countries very accurately known? Where is the kingdom of Adel, and what of its soil and products? What description is given of the people? Where is Ajan, and what is said of the north part of the east coast? What of the religion and commerce? How is Zanguebar bounded? How far does it extend on the coast? What states does it embrace? What of Magadoxa? Of the kingdom of Melinda ? How is the city of Melinda described? What of its commerce and exports? What of the kingdoms Mombaca and Quiloa? What does the kingdom of Mozambique, with Sofala, comprehend? How far did the Portuguese possessions formerly extend on this coast? Between what capes are they now comprised? What kind of a country is Mozambique? What mountains in it? In what do the waters abound? What is said of the inhabitants and the wild animals ? What is the capital city, and what is said of it? What is the extent of Sofala? What two rivers water it? What is the capital, and how described? What of the inhabitants of this country? What is the opinion of some learned men respecting it? Where is Mocaranga? What is it represented as embracing?

SOUTH AFRICA.

South Africa is that section of the continent, which is south of the tropic of Capricorn, embracing the colony of the Cape, Caffraria, and the country of the Hottentots.

COLONY OF THE CAPE.

Extent 120,000 sq. ms.-Pop. 120,000.-1 per sq. mile.

This colony was originally planted by the Dutch. In 1806 it came into the possession of the British, under whose power it still remains. This country is about equal in extent to the island of Great Britain.

It is traversed from east to west by three successive and parallel ranges of mountains; the second range being higher than the first, and the third still more elevated and forming the northern boundary of the colony. By these mountains the country is divided into three distinct plains or terraces, gradually rising one above another from south to north. The plain bordering on the sea, is favored with an agreeable climate and luxuriant soil, watered by numerous rivulets and frequent rains, and exhibiting a beautiful verdure and a rich variety of trees and shrubs. The next plain or terrace, lying along between the first and second ranges of mountains, is to a great extent a parched desert, here called a Karroo, though it also embraces much fertile land. The more northern terrace, or elevated plain, is denominated the Great Karroo; it being a perfect desert, with scarcely any signs of vegetable or ani. mal life.

The southern part of the colony is rich in the cultivation of the vine, which was introduced by some French emigrants. Farther north, grain and grass are abundant, and large herds of cattle are raised. The soil, generally, is cultivated under the direction of Dutch planters or boors, whose agriculture is rude and wretched, and whose character, here, is the perfection of indolence. The little labour which is necessary is performed entirely by the numerous Hottentot slaves, while the boor is eating and drinking and smoking his perpetual pipe, and the ladies of the house all equally averse to exercise and fearful of fatigue, sit motionless, with hands folded, not unlike the furniture of their habitation.

The Europeans in the colony for the most part, are ignorant and uncultivated, especially the graziers, many of whom live in straw huts, and are nearly on a level with the Hottentots. The principal exports are wine and brandy.

The capital is Capetown, about 30 miles north of the cape, pleasantly situated at the head of Table bay. The streets are regularly laid out at right angles, and the population now is above 20,000. At Gnadenthal and Bethelsdorp are missionary stations, which have had a powerful and happy influence upon many of the native Hottentots, in elevating their character and leading them to enjoy the blessings of civilization and christianity.

QUESTIONS.

How far north does South Africa extend? What countries does it embrace ? How is the Colony of the Cape bounded? By what Europeans was the cape of Good Hope first discovered? Ans. By the Portuguese, a little before the discovery of America. By whom was a colony first planted here? When did it fall into the hands of the British ? What its extent and population? By what is it traversed from east to west? Into how many terraces or plains is the country divided by mountains? Do these plains and mountains increase in height toward the north? What is the description of the plain bordering on the sea? What of the next or second terrace? What of the third or northern and what is it called? What is the chief article of cultivation in the south part? What abounds farther north? Who are the principal farmers? What of their agriculture? Their character? Who are the slaves ? Are many of the colonists ignorant and degraded ? What are the

exports? What is the capital and what its situation and description? What are the names of the two chief missionary stations, and what influence have they had?

CAFFRARIA.

Caffraria extends along the coast north-east from the Cape Colony from which it is separated by the Great Fish river. It is the proper country of the native Caffres, who are represented as a noble and interesting race, both in person and character, and widely different from the Hottentots and from the African negroes. Their complexion is nearly black, their persons tall, well proportioned and manly; their features regular and handsome, and their movements dignified and graceful. They are peaceably disposed and peculiarly pastoral in their habits and employments. They dress in sheep skins, reside in low, round cabins, drink water, and are nourished by the milk of their cows of which they take the most tender care. Yet they are active and brave; fond of hunting the elephant and the lion, and when provoked they are terrible in war with their enemies, especially with the savage Bosjesmans.

The Boshuanas are tribes in some respects different from the Caffres, but evidently of the same stock. They inhabit the interior of south Africa. They are in a higher state of civilization than the Caf. fres, and better acquainted with the arts of civilized life but inferior to them in personal appearance.

The Matchappes are among the most civilized of the Boshuana tribes, and best known to Europeans. They cultivate the soil, and are very attentive to their numerous flocks and herds. They clothe and house themselves with neatness and skill, and have some manufactures

in iron and copper. Their capital is Latakoo, whose population may

be estimated at 10,000. The Mashows and the Marootzees inhabit north of the Matchappes and are still more skillful in agriculture and the arts. Kunechanee the capital of the Marootzees, has a population of 15,000.

QUESTIONS.

Where is Caffraria situated? What river divides it from Cape Colony? What kind of a race are the Caffres? What is said of their complexion, persons, &c.? Of their disposition, habits, dress, &c.? What are they fond of hunting? Where do the Boshuanas inhabit? What stock or race do they belong to? What of their civilization? Which is one of the most civilized of these tribes? What is the descriptions of the Matchappes? What is their capital? What other tribes are mentioned ?

COUNTRY OF THE HOTTENTOTS.

The proper country of the Hottentots is immediately north of the Colony of the Cape, and extends northerly to Orange river which di vides it from the country of the Boshuanas and easterly to Caffraria. There are three principal races of the Hottentots, viz., the natives in Cape Colony, the Bosjesmans, or Bushmen, and the Namaquas.

The Hottentots generally, are represented in their personal form and appearance, and in their manners and customs, as being among the meanest and most degraded of the human race. Their native colour is a yellowish brown, and their bodies are often crooked and deformed. And this natural deformity is heightened by the smoke and filth of their little round hovels, and especially by the profusion of butter or grease, with which they besmear themselves as a defence against the scorching influence of a tropical sun. The Hottentots of the colony, in number about 15.000, have the character of mildness, honesty and harmlessness, but are described as indolent and lazy in the extreme.

The Namaqua Hottentots are on the coast north-west of the colony, and along the banks of Orange river. This tribe especially, have been improved in character and condition, by the labors of christian missionaries, who have roused up many of them to industry, in tilling the ground, taking care of cattle or working at trades. The Bushmen or Bosjesmans are a tribe of Hottentots inhabiting the inaccessible mountains on the northern border of the colony. They are dwarfish in stature and debased in mind, and have the name of being the ugliest people in Africa or in the world. They are greatly devoid of social affections, and wild in their character and habits. They subsist partly by hunting, and are capable of feeding upon roots, insects, lizards and serpents They are ever restless and wretched among themselves, quarrelling with the colonists, and at war with the neighboring tribes; so that the brave Caffres think themselves warranted to hunt them like wild beasts, and shoot them down wherever they can find them.

QUESTIONS.

Where is the proper country of the Hottentots? What river bounds it on the north and what region on the east? What are the principal races of the Hottentots? What is their general description? How is their natural deformity heightened ? What is the character of the Hottentots in the colony? Where are the Namaquas and what is said of them? Where are the Bushmen? What description is given of them? How do they subsist?

WESTERN AFRICA.

SENEGAMBIA.

Sencgambia derives its name from the two principal rivers, Senega and Gambia, by which it is watered. It extends from the Sahara on the north to the tenth degree of north latitude on the south. The climate is intensely hot and rather pestilential and dangerous to Europeans, particularly on account of the prevalence of the north-easterly winds which come heated and polluted across the desert. But the soil being well watered, possesses in general, a high degree of fertility, and is suited to the production of sugar, rice, maize, cotton and other vegetables common in the equatorial regions. Much of the scenery in this country is highly picturesque. The forests are of luxuriant growth, and there are some trees grand and majestic, without a rival.

The Baobab, which grows on the banks of the Senegal, has in some cases, a circumference of 75 feet, and from its enormous trunk, large branches extend horizontally, so that this one tree forms a kind of forest of itself.

The extensive forests of Acacia on the borders of the desert are remarkable for exuding in great abundance the gum Senegal, which is here an important article of commerce, and of which 500,000 pounds have been collected annually. Gold, ivory and slaves, also abound in this region. The gold is chiefly found in the mountainous districts of Bambouk. Elephants are very numerous, but not tamed and rendered serviceable as in Asia. The rivers and their banks are infested with monstrous crocodiles and the hippopotami, a kind of river horses. While serpents in every hideous form and size, crawl over the surface of the country, and bring death to many an unwary traveller.

The inhabitants of Senegambia are divided into various tribes, generally of the negro race, and of peaceable dispositions, but more or less ignorant, superstitious and degraded; professing Mahometanism intermingled with idolatry. The prevailing tribes are the Foulahs, Jaloffs and Mandingoes. The Foulahs hold several kingdoms, are widely spread, and have a predominating influence in this quarter, especially in Foota Jallo, south of the Gambia. They are of an olive complexion and of more agreeable features than the Africans generally. They are industrious, active, and considerably polished and civ ilized. Their employments are pastoral, their manners mild and inoffensive, and their religion Mahometan,though not marked with bigotry.

Teemboo, the capital of Foota Jallo, has a population of 70,000, and is one of the largest cities in W. Africa.

The Jaloffs reside along the coast. They are very black, but have regular features, and have the name of being the handsomest and bravest negroes in this part of Africa.

The Mandingoes are exceedingly numerous, and are spread far and wide on the banks of the Niger, the Senegal and especially the Gambia. They are distinguished as merchants, and are quite addicted to theft. Yet they are gentle, gay, cheerful and inquisitive, and speak a copious and refined language, the language of commerce in all this region. St. Lois, on an island near the mouth of the Senegal, is the capital of the French possessions in W. Africa. Pop. 5,000.

QUESTIONS.

What are the boundaries of Senegambia ? Between what parallels of latitude? From what is its name derived? What three rivers has it and where do they rise and empty? What cluster of islands in the ocean on the west ? What capes? What is the climate of this country? What of the soil and products? What of the scenery? Of the forests? Of the great tree Baobab ? For what are the forests of Acacia remarkable? What else does this region abound in? What is said of the elephants? Of the crocodiles, &c. ? Of serpents? How are the inhabitants divided? What is the general description of the tribes? What are the names of the principal? How are the Foulahs described? Where are they chiefly settled ?

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