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a scarcity of bread. Considerable grain is imported from other countries. The raising of cattle and sheep is the principal means of support. The glaciers take up about a fifteenth part of the surface of Switzerland, and considerable portions beside, are entirely incapable of being cultivated or inhabited. Yet, amidst all these natural disadvantages, the Swiss are remarkably fond and proud of their country, and generally contented with their lot. They are hardy, brave and independent, at the same time exhibiting an open frankness and cheerfulness of disposition and an honest simplicity of manners. Crimes are rare among them. Beggars and thieves are seldom found. Locks, bolts and bars are less necessary here than in most other countries. The people extensively enjoy the privileges of common school education and of religious instruction. The higher branches of literature and science are cultivated in the university of Basle, and in the colleges of Geneva, Berne, Zurich, Schaffhausen and Lucerne. These are some of the principal towns, but they are not large. Berne is usually named as the capital, but Zurich and Lucerne are also in their turn, the seats of government. Geneva has a delightful situation on the lake of Geneva. The city is divided by the river Rhone; and its environs present the most grand and interesting prospects. Here is a view of the Alps, and of mount Blanc in particular, which is inconceivably sublime. Geneva has long been celebrated as a seat of learning, and is also noted for its extensive manufactures, especially the manufacture of watches, which is said to employ 7,000 persons. The whole population is estimated at 25,000.

Zurich and Basle are places of considerable commerce. The latter has a noted missionary seminary. Pop. 17,000. Lausanne, situated on the north side of the lake of Geneva, is much resorted to by strangers, on account of the pleasantness of location and prospects, and for its polished and agreeable society. The languages used in Switzerland are German, French and Italian. With respect to religion, about three fifths of the people are Protestants, and the rest Catholics. Their government is republican. The several independent cantons are united in a confederacy for common defence, and are represented in a general congress called a Diet. Neufchatel is under the government of Prussia.

QUESTIONS.

What is said of the natural features and scenery of Switzerland? How many square miles, cantons and inhabitants contained in it? What are its boundaries? Its mountains? How high is mount Blanc and how described ? What are the glaciers? How are their surface and appearance described? What are the avalanches? The principal rivers, and where do they rise and empty? What lakes? What of the climate? The winters and summers? What is the soil of the valleys? What

is said of the tops and sides of the mountains? The crops of grain? What is the principal means of support? How great a part of Switzerland is occupied by the glaciers? Of what are the Swiss remarkably fond? What further is said of their character? Of their education? Of their university, colleges and towns? What three towns are alternately the seats of government? Where is Geneva and how described? For what celebrated? What of Zurich and Basle ? Lausanne ? What languages are most common in Switzerland? How are the people with respect to religion? What of their government ? What canton belongs to Prussia ?

DESCRIPTION OF GERMANY.

PART FIRST.

Extent, 98,000 sq. ms.-Pop. 14,000,000-143 per sq. m.

Germany, as it is now usually defined, embraces only a part of what was formerly called the German empire, and a part only of what is now styled the German Confederation. In the year 1815, the empire was dissolved, and the German Confederation was formed, which extends far beyond the limits of Germany as described on the map, and comprehends the west division of Austria and the greatest part of Prussia, embracing in all 35 states and four free cities. The map of Germany includes all these several states or principalities, except Austria and Prussia proper.

Hanover is in the more northern part of Germany, Saxony on the north-east, Bavaria, Wirtemberg and Baden, on the south. The Prussian possessions in Germany are on the west, bordering on the Netherlands, and lie on both sides of the Rhine, containing the cities Cologne, Munster and Aix la Chapelle. Besides these larger states now enumerated, there are in Germany 27 states of inferior size, and importance, generally about equal in extent to a county in New England; and there are likewise the four free cities, Frankfort on the Maine, Hamburg, Lubec and Bremen.

This country is divided naturally, into Northern and Southern Germany, by a range of mountains extending fiom W. to E., towards the Carpathian. Northern Germany is a low and level country; and the rivers which water it, flow into the North Sea and the Baltic. On the N. West, there are large tracts of barren heaths or sandy plains; and on the N. East, swamps and marshes of considerable extent. Southern Germany is diversified with extensive plains, and long ridges of mountains.

The climate of Germany at large, is temperate and salubrious; and a great proportion of the soil is good, especially on the south. The more northern parts are best suited for grain, producing wheat and rye in great quantities for exportation. In the Middle and Southern districts, the vine also, to a certain extent, is culti

vated, and wine is exported. In most of the States, agriculture is improving and flourishing, but in some parts, it still remains in a very backward state. Manufactures and the arts, together with learning and science generally, are cultivated with assiduity and are brought to a high degree of perfection.

The universities of Gottingen, Leipsic, Jena and Heidleberg, are of the first rank, among many others of respectability. There are also a number of high schools or gymnasia, designed to afford a regular course of instruction in science and classical literature, not unlike the colleges of the United States. The genius of the Germans is well suited to a close and persevering application to study or business. They are remarkably patient in the investigation of truth, and indefatigable in laying up the stores of knowledge. They are also wonderfully prolific as authors, and have distinguished themselves in the art of printing and book making. The virtues of frankness, sincerity, honesty and faithfulness, are usually ascribed to them."

The German language is of Gothic or Teutonic origin, and has several dialects. There is a harshness in it unpleasant to foreigners, but it is spoken in Europe by as many people as any other language. There is a custom in the principal cities of Germany, of holding annual or semi-annual fairs, in which a vast assortment of books, and other articles of merchandize, are offered for sale, and which, being attended by immense multitudes of people, are made the occasions of unbounded festivity.

QUESTIONS.

What are the boundaries of Germany? Extent and population? When was the former German empire dissolved, and what has been formed in its stead? How many states and free cities are comprehended in the whole confederation? What does the map of Germany include? In what part of Germany is Hanover? Saxony? Bavaria, Wirtemberg and Baden? Where are the Prussian possessions in Germany situated? What three cities do they include? How many smaller states are contained in Germany, and to what are they equal in extent? Which are the four free cities? How and by what is Germany naturally divided? What is said of N. Germany? What are its rivers and where do they empty? What kind of land is on the N. W.? What on the N. E.? What of S. Germany? What are the climate and soil in Germany at large? What products are most natural to the N. part? What in the middle and south? What is said of agriculture? Of the manufactures, arts &c.? What universities? What other schools are mentioned and how described? What is the genius of the Germans' suited to ? In what are they patient and indefatigable? What of the German language? What particular custom is mentioned ?

GERMANY.

PART SECOND.

The kingdom of Hanover belongs to the king of Great Britain, by inheritance, and its government is administered by a viceroy

of his appointment. Its territory in general, is a vast plain, or exhibits a surface moderately undulating. The climate is cold and unpleasant. On the N. there are barren heaths; but considerable of the land is adapted to pasturage. On the S. are the Hartz mountains, abounding in minerals, with very fertile valleys. The chief cities are Hanover, the capital, population 25,000. Gottingen and Emden.

The kingdom of Saxony is on the N. E., between Austria or Bohemia, and Prussia. It is the smallest kingdom in Europe, but is rich in mines of iron, copper, lead and silver, which are found in the Erzgeberg mountains, and extensively wrought. Peculiar attention is here paid to sheep and wool. Since the introduction of merino stock, improvements have been going on for more than 50 years, so that the Saxony wool is some of the best in Europe. The population is about 1,500,000, thickly settled and well educated, and generally of the Lutheran religion. Learning and the elegant arts are cultivated. Books are printed and sold here in unparalleled numbers. Dresden, on the Elbe, is the capital, and is highly celebrated for its proficiency in the fine arts. Population, 56,000. Leipsic is of great literary note. It has a famous university, and holds three fairs annually, which excite great interest in Germany and the neighbouring countries, especially among printers and book sellers. Population, 40,000.

The kingdom of Bavaria, is in the S. E. part of Germany, and is the largest and most influential State in the Confederation, except Austria and Prussia. It is watered by the Danube, and is generally a fertile region. The Catholic religion prevails here, but education of late has been in a state of rapid improvement. Munich, on the Iser, is the capital, and a city of distinction in Germany, for the regularity of its plan and the elegance of its buildings. It is rapidly growing in population, manufactures and literature. Population, 80,000. Augsburg and Ratisbon are celebrated cities; the former is conspicuous in the history of the Reformation.

The kingdom of Wurtemberg, next west of Bavaria, is distinguished for mildness of climate, fertility of soil, and for its progressive improvement, in agriculture, manufactures and education. Every parish is provided with a school, and the attendance of the children of suitable age, is required by law. Stuttgard is the capital. Population, 31,000. Ulm and Tubingen are venerable towns, the former, for its cathedral and lofty Gothic tower, the latter, for its antiquity.

The grand Duchy of Baden is in the S. West corner of Germany, bordering on France and Switzerland. The climate and soil are favourable to vegetation. Agriculture is improving. Cattle are raised in considerable numbers. Valuable minerals are pro

duced and exported. The manufactures are not very flourishing. The mass of the people are Lutherans, and there is a general diffusion of knowledge among them. Carlsruhe, near the Rhine, is the seat of government, and the residence of the Duke and his Court. It is a handsome town, and on a regular plan, the streets uniformly diverging from the centre, like an open fan. Population, 15,000. Blenheim is particularly distinguished among the cities of Germany, for its regularity and beauty. Population, 18,000. Heidelberg on the Neckar, at the foot of a mountain, is famous as a seat of learning. Here is a large tun containing 600 hogsheads, and the top of it is so broad, that 25 persons at once, may conveniently dance upon it.

The Prussian possessions in Germany, consist of three provinces on both sides of the Rhine, in the west part of the country. The soil is fertile, and the inhabitants have signalized themselves in their zeal for the Catholic religion. The city of Cologne, on the left bank of the Rhine, is favourably situated for commerce, and has a celebrated Catholic university. Aix la Chapelle, is famous, as having formerly been the favourite residence of Charlemagne, and for a time, the metropolis of his empire.

Of the 27 smaller States in Germany, Luxemburg belongs to Holland, and Holstein and Lauenburg on the north, belong to Denmark. Of the four free cities, Frankfort on the Maine, a branch of the Rhine, is one of the most distinguished. It is the seat of the Germanic Diet or general Congress. It is also noted for its extensive printing establishments, for commercial enterprise, and for its semi-annual fairs, which attract the attention of the merchants of Europe. Population, 50,000.

Hamburg, on the Elbe, 78 miles from its mouth, is the most commercial city in Germany, and one of the most populous. Population, 125,000. Bremen is on the Weser, in the midst of the kingdom of Hanover, and is a place of considerable importance in manufactures and trade. Population, 40,000. Lubec is the lowest in rank of the free towns. It is situated on the Drave, 36 miles N. E. of Hamburg, but is much inferior to it in commerce, wealth and population. These four free cities were formerly styled the Hanse towns. They are now considered as belonging to the number of the 39 states or principalities which are united for mutual defence, in the German Confederation, and which are annually represented, by their agents or plenipotentiaries, in the Diet at Frankfort, to consult the common interests of the confederacy. In this Diet, Austria and Prussia have the greatest power and influence.

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