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decessors have been. The second officer in the Turkish government is the Grand Vizier. The chief council is called the Divan.
The principal cities and towns are Constantinople, Adrianople, Sophia, Belgrade, Bucharest, Jassy and Salonica. Constantinople is the metropolis, not only of European Turkey, but of the whole Turkish empire, and in point of magnitude, is the third city in Europe. It is situated on the European side of the Bosphorus, which is a small strait between the black sea and the sea of Marmora. The situation of this city is connected with the most delightful surrounding prospects, and its harbour is one of the finest in the world, being capable of containing 1200 sail. The city is about twelve miles in circuit, and including the suburbs, 55 miles. It is encompassed by a high, thick wall surmounted with battlements and towers in oriental style. The streets are narrow and filthy. The houses in general, are low and built of wood and earth, and are enveloped in dark groves of cypress, and strikingly contrasted with the numerous and magnificent public buildings, the mosques, domes and lofty minarets. There are about 500 mosques or Mahometan churches, among which the mosque of St. Sophia is esteemed one of the most splendid. The Seraglio is that part of the city which is occupied by the Sultan, his women, and his court, and embraces an assemblage of noble palaces and edifices, and is some miles in circumference. The grandeur of the sultan's palace and audience chamber, and especially the splendour of his throne, almost exceed description. The population of Constantinople is computed at more than 600,000. Fire and the plague are calamities with which this city has frequently been visited.
Adrianople on the Marizza, 130 miles north-west of the capital, is the second city in the empire and carries on considerable trade, in the wines and fruits produced in the surrounding fertile region. Pop. 100,000.
Belgrade, on the Danube, contains a noted fortress, and has been an object of frequent contention between the Turks and Austrians. Bucharest is a large town, but its streets are paved with wooden logs, and its houses generally, are mere huts of clay.
The Turks in their origin, were a tribe of Tartars, who wandered from the shores of the Caspian or the vicinity of the Caucasus, and after a series of adventures and conquests, took possession of Constantinople in 1453. Their customs are singular, and materially the same, in Europe, Asia and Africa. They wear long beards, white turbans, and dress in loose, flowing robes. They sit cross legged upon mats, eat without knives and forks, drink little or no wine, but are fond of smoking, and often chew
opium to intoxication. They generally walk or ride, but little, either for health or diversion, but are said to be dexterous in the use of the dart, and in shooting at a mark.
The Turkish language is of Tartar origin, and is a mixture of the Sclavonian, the modern Greek, and the Arabic and Persian, and is of a grave and dignified character. The education of the Turks is very limited and is confined chiefly to a knowledge of the Koran.
There are several islands in the Mediterrancan and Archipelago, belonging to the Turks, viz. Candia, the ancient Crete, Cyprus noted for corn and wine, Rhodes, Scio or Chios, Samos, and Patmos the place of St. John's banishment. The Turkish or Ottoman empire recently comprehended a considerable part of Asia and Africa, but at present (1833) it is greatly reduced in its limits, by the conquests of the viceroy of Egypt, has taken possession of nearly all the African and Asiatic provinces, so that the power of the Turkish Sultan now extends to only about nine millions of subjects, while the victorious viceroy bears sway over 15 or 20 millions.
In what part of Europe is Turkey? Between what latitudes? How bounded? Of what extent and population? What the face of the country on the north? What toward the south? What mountains? What rivers ? What of the climate? Of the soil? How cultivated? What productions? Are the Turks fond of agriculture ? What is their general character? What of their manufactures? Of their commerce? Of their learning, &c.? Of their religion? In whom do they profess to believe as their prophet? What book do they regard as their bible? What of their government? Whose will is the law of the land? What are the chief cities and towns? What is Constantinople ? Where situated? What of its harbour ? Its circuit? How is the city encompassed? What of the streets and houses? Of the public buildings? How many mosques and what are they? What of the Seraglio? The sultan's palaces? The population? Where is Adrianople and how described? Where is Belgrade? Bucharest? Sophia? Jassy and Salonica? What is the origin of the Turks? When did they take possession of Constantinople? What is observed concerning their customs? Their dress, manner of living, &c.? What of their language? Education? The principal islands belonging to Turkey?
Extent, 16,000 sq. ms.-Pop. 640,000-40 per sq. m.
The name of Greece is dear to every man of taste, and lover of learning. This country was anciently the seat of the muses and the native land of genius, literature and seiences. For ages, it groaned under the cruel yoke of Turkish tyranny, but within a few years past, after a series of severe struggles for liberty, it has become in a sense free and independent.
That part of ancient Greece which is now liberated, embraces the peninsula of the Morea and the provinces of Livadia, north of it, together with the island of Negropont, and a number of isles of inferior size. The Morea is connected with Lividia, by the narrow isthmus of Corinth. The interior of the country is rugged and mountainous, and the scenery presented among the hills and valleys, is various, striking and beautiful. The soil is fertile, especially in the vales, and on the plains which, in some instances are very elevated. The climate is temperate and agreeable. Wheat, barley, rice, maize, cotton, olives and figs, flourish abundantly, and the land in general is peculiarly adapted to pasturage.
The coast of Greece is indented with so many bays, creeks and harbors, that extraordinary facilities are afforded to navigation; and so active and enterprising is the genius of the people, that they are quite disposed to improve their commercial, as well as other advantages, and are many of them habituated to a seafaring life. They are also ambitious to cultivate learning, to rise from the ignorance and degradation of ages, and to recover, in a good measure, their former national standing in literature and the arts. Still, agriculture and manufactures are here in a low state, and scenes of poverty, vice and wretchedness are common among the people.
The capital of Greece Nauplion, or Napoli Di Romania in the eastern part of the Morea, possessing an excellent harbour and carrying on considerable trade. Tripolizza on the west, was laid waste by the Turks in the late war. Athens is situated on the east side of the gulf of Corinth. It makes at present but an insignificant appearance; the streets being narrow and crooked, and the houses mean. But the ruins of its ancient works of art and the monuments of its former grandeur and greatness, are still very visible. They are in a better state of preservation, and retain more of their original splendour, than the ruins of any other Grecian city. A Lancasterian school is established here, under the care of the Rev. Jonas King, containing about 200 scholars of both sexes, and measures are in progress for the founding of a college in this venerable seat of ancient learning. Pop. about 10,000.
Corinth is on the west side of the isthmus, about 50 miles west of Athens. Misitra, the ancient Sparta, is in the Morea, on the declivity of a mountain in a delightful situation, but is falling into ruins. Some of the small isles belonging to Greece are Andros, Paros, Antiparos, Hydra and Santorini.
The Greeks, in their religion, profess to belong to what is called the Greek church, which in many of its doctrines and rites, is similar to the Catholic, and which, while it retains the Christian name,
is lamentably fraught with ignorance, superstition and impiety. Strenuous exertions are making in Great Britain and America, by benevolent societies and individuals, to disseminate knowledge and pure religion in Greece. There are about 120 schools in this country, with 7,000 scholars. French influence, however, is great and extensive here, and there is danger that Greece will be overrun with Catholic and infidel principles from France.
What was Greece anciently? Under what yoke has it been for ages? What part of Greece is now liberated? What isthmus connects the Morea with Lividia ? What are the extent and population of liberated Greece? What is said of the interior? Of the soil? Of the plains? Of the climate? Of the coast? Does Greece possess great commercial advantages? The genius and character of the modern Greeks? For what are they ambitious? What of their agriculture and manufactures? What is the capital of Greece and where situated? Where is Tripolizza? Where is Athens and how described ? Corinth? Misitra ? What are some of the isles belonging to Greece? What are the Greeks in religion? Are exertions now made to enlighten and evangelize Greece? What is about the number of schools and schol
UNITED STATES OF THE IONIAN ISLES.
Extent, 1,000 sq. ms.-Pop. 230,000-230 per sq. m.
The Ionian republic consists of the islands on the western coast of Greece, of which the principal are seven in number, viz. Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante, St. Maura, Ithica, Cerigo and Paxo. They are dependent on Great Britain and under its protection. The inhabitants are composed chiefly of Greeks and Italians, and are an ingenious and enterprising people. The land generally is rich and productive, abounding in vines and olives, which constitute the principal source of revenue to the inhabitants. Corfu is the seat of government, and the residence of the British High Commissioner. Cephalonia is the principal island. The state of education in the seven islands, is flourishing. There are about 125 schools and 5,000 scholars.
Of what islands does the Ionian republic consist? On what government are they dependent? What is the extent and population? What is said of the people? Of the land? Of the productions? Which is the largest island ? Which the seat of government? What of education in the islands, and the number of schools?
Extent, 17,000 sq. ms.-Pop. 2,037,000-120 per sq. m.
The natural features of Switzerland unite in an eminent degree the beautiful with the sublime. It abounds in pleasant, and also in wild and stupendous scenery. No country of its size in Europe can show loftier mountains, deeper valleys, more rapid sweeping torrents, lakes more beautiful, or people more industrious, patriotic and interesting.
Switzerland is divided into 22 cantons, each of which is an independent republic. The mountains are the Alps, with mount Blanc at their summit, whose elevation is three miles above the level of the sea, and whose top and sides are clad with perpetual snow. The glaziers of Switzerland are very celebrated natural curiosities. They consist of immense masses or fields of ice, which from time immemorial have been accumulating upon the lofty sides of the mountains. Their surface, in some instances, is smooth like a mirror; in others it is very irregular, and broken up into elevated ridges and pyramids, with deep and awful chasms. Their appearance has been compared to what the surface of the ocean would be, were it suddenly congealed to ice, in the midst of a violent storm; or to an imaginary city of crystal, with transparent edifices, steeples and towers.
The avalanches are vast bodies of snow and ice, loosened in the spring from their mountain heights, and suddenly precipitated into the vales, bringing ruin at times, upon travellers, buildings and whole villages,. The principal rivers are the Rhine and Rhone, which rise in the Alps. The largest lakes are those of Constance and Zurich, on the north-east, and Geneva and Neufchatel, on the
The climate of Switzerland is various, on account of the great diversity of situation, and the different degrees of elevation. In general, the winters are cold, blustering and snowy, like those of New England; but the summers are delightful in a high degree. The climate however is peculiarly subject to sudden changes of weather and to violent rains and tempests, which not unfrequently lay waste the crops and disappoint the hopes of the husband
The soil of the valleys is rich, and cultivated with care. And, in many instances, the tops and steep declivities of the mountains, are covered with vineyards and pasture-grounds; and spots naturally rugged and rocky, are compelled by the unwearied industry of the people, to smile with verdure and to contribute to their sustenance. Crops of grain are uncertain. There is, in some parts,