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View of St. Peter's Church, Rome.

lated. The district of Maremma, Campagna Di Roma, which contains the Pontine marshes, is an extensive waste; its atmosphere being so infected and pestilential, that the land is, as it were, uncultivated and uninhabited. The pope is sole absolute sovereign in his small dominions; and the authority he here exercises, is about all that remains of that papal power, which formerly controlled kings and kingdoms, and whose nod could make Europe tremble.

The cities deserving of notice in this division of Italy, are Rome, Bologna, Ravenna, Ancona and Ferrara. Rome is situated on the Tiber, about 15 milesfrom its mouth, and is of great antiquity and celebrity. Here anciently stood the throne of the Casars, the masters of the world. Probably no city whatever has made a more illustrious figure on the page of history, civil or ecclesiastical, than Rome. This city is distinguished in modern times, not so much for the energy, useful enterprise or wealth of the citizens, as for the number and splendor of its churches, the magnificence of its monuments and ruins, and for that vast collection which it exhibits of paintings, statues and other curious works of art, in which the Italians excel, and for which Rome is much resorted to by strangers from various quarters of the globe. St. Peter's church is an elegant and amazing structure, one of the wonders of the world; being 600 feet long, 500 feet wide and 400 in height. It has cost more than 60 millions of dollars. One of the pope's palaces, called the Vatican, is a collection of edifices,

of vast extent, and is estimated to contain ten thousand rooms. Pop. of Rome 150,000, embracing 35 bishops, 1,400 priests 3,400 monks and nuns.

The second city in the pope's dominions is Bologna, at the foot of the Appenines, where there is a celebrated university.

The small republic of San Marino, is surrounded on all sides by the territories of the church. It consists of a lofty mountain, together with a tract of a few square miles at the foot of it. The inoffensive inhabitants, though under the protection of the pope, are governed by their own magistrates and laws, and are entitled to the credit of having retained their independence more than a thousand years.

QUESTIONS.

Into how many sovereignties or states is Italy divided and what are they called? In what part of Italy is the kingdom of Naples? What islands are included in it? What strait divides Naples from the island of Sicily? What is said of the country and climate in this kingdom? What of the people? Of the government? Of agriculture, commerce and manufactures ? What is the portion of multitudes? What is the capital and how described? Which way from Naples is Bari? Taranto? Salerno? What gulf and strait between Naples and Greece? Where and what is Vesuvius? What is said of its eruptions and of the calamities they have produced? What kind of an island is Sicily? What are its chief towns? What remarkable volcano on it, and how high? What is said of Stromboli ? What are the situation and boundaries of the Papal states? Of what extent and population? What is the present state of this part of Italy? Of the district of Maremma? Is the pope absolute in his sovereignty ? Was his temporal power formerly far greater than at present? What are his principal cities? What is the situatiom of Rome ? For what distinguished? On what account particularly is Rome much resorted to by strangers? What church and palace are mentioned and how described? How is the republic of San Marino situated? Of what does it consist? What of the inhabitants ?

ITALY.
PART THIRD.

The kingdom of Sardinia comprises the north-west portion of Italy, viz. Piedmont and Savoy, bordering on the Alps, together with the island of Sardinia. Its population is rising of four millions. It is a very rich, fine country, especially Piedmont, which is one of the most fertile and best cultivated provinces of Italy; abounding in grain, pasture, vines and olives, and inhabited by a people who are in a good degree, industrious and enterprising, and improving in knowledge and condition. Savoy, like Switzerland, is rugged and mountainous, but its inhabitants are diligent, sober, economical, and in comfortable circumstances. The capital of the Sardinian kingdom is Turin. The other chief towns are Genoa, Nice, Cagliari.

Turin is situated about 7 miles from the foot of the Alps, on the road from France to Italy. It is magnificent and beautiful in its appearance, and is distinguished for its manufactures and trade in silk. Pop. 122,000. Genoa has long been celebrated for its commerce, and deals largely in silk, damasks and velvets. Pop. 80,000.

The island of Sardinia is a large and generally fertile island, but miserably cultivated and improved. The people in the maritime parts, resemble the Italians; but those in the interior, who are chiefly shepherds, are a lawless and half barbarous race, going dressed in sheep skins and goat skins, and bearing arms as a defence against the robbers of the mountains. Cagliari is the capital of this island, and has a population of 28,000.

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View of the Rialto at Venice.

Austrian Italy, or the Lombards Venetian Kingdom, lies north of the Po. It is the most fruitful portion of Italy and highly cultivated, and has thence been called the garden of Europe. Pop. above four millions. The principal towns are Venice, Mantua, Verona and Milan.

Venice the capital, is a large city built upon a multitude of small islands in the gulf of Venice. Its manufactures and commerce are in a declining state. Pop. 113,000. Milan is a manufacturing city, flourishing in manufactures and trade. Pop. 140,000. Mantua is a very ancient town, celebrated as the native city of Virgil.

The Grand Duchy of Tuscany is bounded north and east by the Papal states, and south and west by the Mediterranean. It embraces a region rich and productive, thickly settled by an active and thriving people, under a government of considerable mildness. It is dependent on Austria, and has the Arch duke Ferdinand as its sovereign.

Florence and Leghorn are the principal towns. Florence, the capital, is situated on the Arno, in a delightful valley, and is one of the handsomest cities in Italy or Europe. It contains a magnificent cathedral, a university, and a noble collection of the works of art. Pop. 80,000.

The island of Elba, famous for the temporary banishment of Napoleon, is under this government. The states of Parma, Modena and Lucca, are small duchies dependent on Austria. The Arch duke Francis is governor of Modena. Parma is under the judicature of Maria Louisa, the widow of Bonaparte.

The principal universities in Italy, are at Rome, Bologna, Padua, Parma, Pisa, Pavia, Naples and Palermo.

QUESTIONS.

What does the kingdom of Sardinia comprise? What is said of Piedmont ? Of Savoy? What is the capital of this kingdom? Where are Turin and Genoa, and how described? What is said of the island of Sardinia and its inhabitants? Its capital? Where does Austrian Italy lie? What kind of a country is it? What are its towns? What description is given of Venice? Milan? Mantua ? How is the grand Duchy of Tuscany bounded? What is the description of the country, people and government? On whom dependent and who is now their sovereign What towns? How is Florence described and which way from it is Leghorn ? What small island is under this government, and for what famous? What is said of the states of Parma, Modena and Lucca? Where are the chief universities in Italy located?

EUROPEAN TURKEY.

Extent, 190,000 sq. ms.-Pop. 9,000,000-47 per sq. m.

The surface of the country on the north, is generally level, on the south mountainous, or agreeably diversified with hills and valveys. The most distinguished mountains are the Hamus or Balkan. The chief rivers are the Danube and its branches.

The climate is almost unrivalled for pleasantness and salubrity, and the soil for natural richness. But through the indolence of the people, the ground in many parts is poorly improved, or entirely uncultivated. Grain, wine and oil and fruits, are the chief productions, which in many instances are abundant and almost of spontaneous growth. The Turks as a nation, bestow but little labor on their lands. They are prone to regard agriculture as a

EUROPEAN TURKEY.

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View of Constantinople.

mean employment; are slothful and indolent in their general habits and uninclined to great exertions. They are grave and sedate, and often friendly and hospitable; but usually characterised by dissimulation, jealousy and revenge. In matters of religion, they are morose and superstitious. And when their passions are aroused, they are remarkably furious and ungovernable.

Their manufactures are not very extensive or flourishing. Turkey carpets, printed muslins, cannon, muskets, sword blades and morocco leather, are the principal articles of manufacture. Their commerce is considerable, but of the passive kind, being carried on chiefly by foreign vessels. Learning and the arts and sciences are greatly neglected; but are beginning to receive more attention than formerly. The religion of the Turks is Mahometan. They profess to believe in Mahomet, or Mohammed, as a true prophet of God, born in Arabia, about 600 years after Christ, and they regard the Koran as their bible or rule of faith and practice.

Their government is the most despotic in Europe. The will of their emperor, Sultan or Grand Seignior, is the law of the land; and it is often executed in an arbitrary and cruel manner, in the disposal of the lives and property of his subjects. There is no tribunal or power in the nation, which can restrain him from crime, or call him to account for any of the acts of his government. The koran is the only check upon his power. The present sultan Mahmoud is less tenacious of ancient customs, and more favorable to European innovations and improvements than his pre

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