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Gothic cathedral, for its manufactures, and especially for the royal tobacco manufactory, which employs 1,500 persons. Pop. 90,000.

Cadiz is an ancient town of extensive commerce, situated on one of the finest bays in the world, is the grand rendezvous of the navy, and the centre of trade with America. Population 70,000. At Valencia, there are some of the largest silk manufactures in Europe. Carthagena and Malaga are respectable cities and flourishing sea ports. Salamanca is the seat of learning and has a celebrated university. Here a great battle was fought between the British and French in 1812. Ferrol is a naval station, and has a harbour of extraordinary excellence. Bilboa is favoured with a fine harbour, and is the channel of trade in wool, to England, France, &c. The fortress of Gibraltar on the straits of that name, is deemed impregnable, and belongs to the English. The strait in the narrowest part is 15 miles wide.

There are three islands in the Mediterranean belonging to Spain, viz. Majorca, Ivica and Minorca, which are favoured with a fruitful soil. Port Mahon, on the island of Minorca, is distinguished for its fine harbour.

QUESTIONS.

What is the latitude of Spain, and with what part of the United States does it correspond? How is it bounded? What bays and capes on its coasts? How many are its square miles, provinces and inhabitants? What kind of a region is Spain? What mountains in it? What rivers? Which way do they severally flow and where empty? What is said of the central parts of Spain? What is the climate on the N.? On the S.? What of the soil? How is it cultivated? To what exposed? What of the valleys between the mountains? Has nature been bountiful to Spain? How have her favors been improved? What special causes prevent the prosperity of Spain? What is it that has relaxed the energies of the nation? To what kind of productions is the country congenial? What does it abound in ? What fruits does it produce? What is said of the sheep in Spain? Of manufactures? Of tillage? Of commerce? Of enterprize and improvements ? Of the marks of poverty and decay? Of education? Of the government? Of the religion? Of the clergy and monks? Of monasteries, &c.? What is the professed design of those who retire to monasteries, nunneries, &c. ? What mountain is remarkable for establishments of this kind? Where is it and what description is given of it? What of the amusements of the Spaniards? Their complexion? Manner of living and deportment? What the ground work and nature of the Spanish language? What cities are mentioned? What the situation, description and population of Madrid? Barcelona? Of Seville? Of Cadiz ? Where is Valencia situated and what manufactures distinguish it? Where are Carthagena and Malaga, and what is said of them? Where and what is Salamanca Ferrol? Bilboa? What of the fortress of Gibraltar? How wide is the strait in the narrowest part? What islands in the Mediterranean belong to Spain? What distinguished port on the island of Minorca? What small country is W. of Spain?

PORTUGAL.

Extent 35,000 sq. ms. Pop. 3,200,000. 92 per sq. m.

Portugal embraces a comparatively small territory, divided into six provinces. It is about one fifth as large as Spain, and contains nearly one fourth of the number of people. Ridges of rocky mountains traverse this country from E. to W., terminating in capes or promontories at the ocean. The surface, of course, is quite diversified, and the soil and climate vary, according to the situation or the degree of elevation. In general, the climate is more m and desirable than that of Spain, but the soil less fertile, especially in grain. Wheat, barley and oats, are raised on the high lands, and vines, olives &c. are cultivated, to a certain extent, in the valleys and on the plains. Agriculture and manufactures are in a languishing state. Commerce has some remaining life. The chief exports are wines, wool and salt.

Three or four hundred years ago, the Portuguese were highly renowned, for a spirit of useful enterprise and commercial adventure; but little of this is now discernible. As a nation, they are degenerated and depressed. Their national characteristics are idleness, superstition, treachery, a revengeful spirit, and a ridiculous affectation of pomp and parade, even among the lower classes. At the same time, they are represented as often friendly and hospitable. The peasantry are usually ignorant, degraded and poor.

The chief cities and towns are Lisbon, Oporto, St. Ubes, and Coimbra. Lisbon the capital, is on the Tagus, nine miles from its mouth. It is a large city, and at a distance makes a grand and picturesque appearance. The harbour is wide and commodious, the commerce very extensive, embracing the principal trade of the kingdom. Population 240,000. This city, in 1755, was visited by one of the most dreadful earthquakes; involving the destruction of all the public buildings, 6,000 dwelling houses and 30,000 human lives. Oporto, on the Duero, is the second city in wealth and commercial importance, and is famous for its trade in port wines, of which, it has annually sold for exportation 80,000 pipes. Population 80,000. At Coimbra there is a celebrated university.

The Portuguese, in religion, are superstitious and bigoted catholics. Their government is monarchical, arbitrary and despotic."

QUESTIONS.

What are the boundaries of Portugal ? Its square miles? Its number of provinces? Its population? By what is it traversed? What is said in general, of the surface, soil and climate? How do the soil and climate compare with those of Spain? What are the products of the highlands? What of the valleys and plains?

What is the state of agriculture and manufactures? What of the commerce? Of the chief exports? For what were the Portuguese formerly renowned ? What are some of their characteristics? What is said of the peasantry? What cities are mentioned? What the situation and description of Lisbon ? By what signal calamity was it once visited? Where and what is Oporto? For what is it famous ? Where is Coimbra and what is said of it? Where is St. Ubes ? What are the Portuguese in religion? What of their government ?

ITALY.

PART FIRST.

Extent 117,000 sq. ms. Pop. 20,000. 174 per sq. m.

Italy, for ages, has been considered one of the most interesting portions of Europe, not only on account of its general fertility of soil, and salubrity of climate, and the unrivalled richness and beauty of its scenery, but also, for its various works of art, its wonderful antiquities, and the great events, of which, in the course of providence, it has been made the theatre. Almost every spot in this region, is eminently classic ground, being famous in history and renowned in song.

This country, including the island of Sicily and Sardinia, comprises an extent of about 117,000 square miles. The boundaries of Italy are formed and fixed by nature. It is a narrow peninsula, surrounded chiefly by the Mediterranean and the gulf of Venice. The Alps bordering on the N. and N. W., and the Appenines extend lengthwise through the interior. In the vicinity of the mountains, especially near the Alps, the atmosphere is temperate and cool; and all around on the coasts, the refreshing sea breezes serve to render the air mild and grateful.

The two principal rivers are the Po and the Tiber. The former passes through an extensive and very fruitful valley, the most fertile country in Italy or Europe, and empties into the north part of the gulf of Venice. The latter running southerly by the city of Rome, is discharged into the Mediterranean. The principal productions are grain, vines and olives, silk and cotton, with a variety of delicious fruits. Grain is chiefly confined to the north section, and there agriculture is in a thriving state; but this is true scarcely in any other part of Italy. The manufactures are few. The principal article manufactured is silk.

The prevailing religion is Roman Catholic; but toleration is exercised towards other sects. The number of Catholic priests is immense. Education and knowledge are not common among the people. Ignorance, poverty and vice are very prevalent. The country at large, shows the marks of declension, and the people of degeneracy; and every thing around, proves the want of benign and salutary government, and of evangelical virtue. The Ital

ians, male and female, are very reserved in their outward deportment, but have the character of being effeminate, licentious and superstitious. They are singularly pompous in religious exhibitions, and pay great homage to images.

Their language is of Latin origin, and is remarkable for its melody and its adaptedness to musical tones. They are celebra→ ted for their skill in music and painting, and the fine arts generally, but at present, make but little figure in the sciences.

QUESTIONS.

Why has Italy been considered a most interesting portion of Europe? In what is it famous? How is it bounded? What are its extent and population including the islands Sicily and Sardinia? What mountains on the N. and N. W.? What mountains pass through it? What is said of the atmosphere near the mountains and on the coasts? What rivers? What is said of the Po? Of the Tiber? Of the principal productions and fruits? What part of Italy is most flourishing in grain? What of agriculture? Of manufactures? What of the religion? Of education and knowledge? What things are mentioned as being prevalent? Of what do the country and people show the marks? How are the persons of the Italians described? What their deportment and character? What is said of their language? For what are they celebrated ?

ITALY.

PART SECOND.

Italy is divided into nine distinct Sovereignties or States, viz. 1st. The kingdom of Naples or of the two Sicilies. 2d. The Papal States. 3d. The kingdom of Sardinia. 4th. Lombardy or Austrian Italy. 5th. The grand Duchy of Tuscany. 6th. The States of Parma._7th. The States of Modena. 8th. The Duchy of Lucca. 9th. The Republic of San Marino.

The kingdom of Naples comprises the southern half of Italy, together with the island of Sicily, and the small Lipari Isles. It is an uneven and mountainous, but naturally luxuriant country, favoured with a warm and delightful climate. Such, however, is the indolence, inactivity and licentiousness of the people, and the oppressive nature of the government, that neither agriculture, manufactures, commerce or any other important branch of industry, is much attended to. Consequently, want and wretchedness are the portion of multitudes, and the country and towns are thronged with beggars. Naples is the capital of this kingdom, and in point of population, the 5th city in Europe. It is of a large circumference, and its situation along the sea shore on the one side, and the declivity of a hill on the other, is singularly grand and beautiful. Its streets, the churches, and other edifices are numerous and elegant, but the city does not excel in manufactures or trade. Population 360,000.

The other towns are Bari, Taranto, and Salerno. Seven miles north-east of Naples, is the celebrated Volcanic mountain Vesuvius, nearly a mile in height, whose eruptions in different ages have been dreadful and destructive.

[graphic]

View of Mount Vesuvius.

In the year of our Lord 79, they overwhelmed in ruin two neighboring villages, Herculaneum and Pompeii, in the latter of which 30 masts of vessels have recently been discovered. In 1794, 5,000 acres of vineyards and fruitful field, were destroyed by these torrents of lava.

The large and fertile island of Sicily, has Palermo and Syracuse for its chief towns. In the east part of this island, stands mount Etna, wlth an elevation of 11,000 feet, or more than two miles, which as a volcano, is still more remarkable and terrific than Vesuvius. On one of the Lipari Isles, is a volcano by the name of Stromboli, whose brilliant flames constantly emitted, are seen at a vast distance on the water, and serve as a kind of lighthouse.

The Papal states, or the dominions of the Pope, are in the middle part of Italy, extending north and south from the gulf of Venice to the Mediterranean, having Tuscany on the north-west, and the kingdom of Naples on the south-east. Its extent is estimated at about 17,000 square miles, and its population at 2 1-2 millions. It was, originally, a pleasant, healthy, and fertile country; but now a large portion of it is nearly desolate and depopu

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