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ley, is laid out in squares, and is as regularly and handsomely built as any city in the world. It is the residence chiefly of the nobility and gentry, and men of opulence, whose respective seats are adorned with all that is beautiful and elegant in architecture. West of the vale, and on a lofty precipitous rock, stands the Castle, which as it were, looks down with awful majesty upon the whole city, and surveys the numerous hills, villages and fields that surround it. The University of Edinburgh is of great celebrity in the literary world, embracing 2,000 students, a fulness of professors and teachers, and a library of 50,000 volumes. The medical science is here taught to a high degree of perfection. This city also abounds in courts of justice, and the various institutions connected with the profession and practice of law. Indeed, literature and law are the grand pillars of support to Edinburgh. Manufactures, trade and commerce, are inferior objects of concern. The population is about 152,000. Leith is the port of Edinburgh, about a mile and a half distant.
Glasgow is on the Clyde, 44 miles W. of Edinburgh, a city distinguished for regularity, beauty and magnificence, and for its extensive commerce and manufactures, as well as for its University. It is the most populous and commercial city in Scotland. Population 200,000.
Aberdeen is on the Don, 100 miles N. of Edinburgh. It is diIvided into Old and New Aberdeen. Its trade and manufactures are extensive and flourishing. It contains two respective colleges. St. Andrews has a commodious harbour and a University.
Greenock on the Clyde, is the most lively and important seaport in Scotland. Ship building and various manufactures connected with navigation, are carried on here with great spirit. The town has had a very rapid growth, and is fast increasing in population. Perth on the Tay, is an elegant city, flourishing in manufactures of linen and cotton, and famous in history. Paisley, is celebrated for the fancy muslin, and other manufactures, employing 29,000 persons.
The islands on the coast of Scotland are the Hebrides on the W., 300 in number. Population 70,000. Orkneys on the N. 26 in number, and the Shetland Isles, farthest N. 86 in number. Population 25,000. The latter are ́remarkable for stupendous rocks and precipices, and for the multitude of sheep, nearly 100,000, which overspread the Isles and yield immense quantities of wool for exportation. The established church of Scotland is the Presbyterian, which has belonging to it about 900 parishes, and 938 clergymen. The British parliament receives from Scotland as representatives, 16 peers and 50 commoners.
What are the principal cities or towns in Scotland? Which the capital? On what is Edinburgh situated? Near what Frith? How far and which way from London? Of what is Edinburgh composed ? What lies between the Old and New Town? What description is given of the Old Town? What of the New ? Who reside in it? How is the castle situated? What is said of the University ? How many students? How large a library? What does Edinburgh also abound in? How are the people in it chiefly supported? What is said of its manufactures, trade and commerce? Its population? How much smaller is it in population than N. York? What is said of Leith? Where is Glasgow ? For what distinguished? What its populution? Where is Aberdeen? How divided? What are flourishing in it? How many Colleges? How many people? Where is St. Andrews, and what is said of it? Greenock, and what is said of it? Where and what is Perth? What is Paisley celebrated for? What islands on the coast of Scotland? How situated and how described? What is the established Church of Scotland? How many parishes and clergymen belong to it? How many representatives go from Scotland to the British parliament? What channel divides Scotland from Ireland ?
TABLE of the principal cities and towns in Great Britain, with the population according to the census in 1831.
POPULATION OF GREAT BRITAIN.
Extent, 31,000 sq. ms.-Pop. 7,734,000-249 per sq. m.
Ireland is divided into 4 general provinces, viz. Leinster, Ulster, Connaught and Munster, which are subdivided into 32 counties. The surface of the country is stony and rocky, with moderate hills and mountains. The lakes are numerous and surrounded with romantic prospects. The climate is more mild, moist and foggy than that of England. The prevailing winds from the west, which sweep across the Atlantic, come loaded with vapours which often hide the face of the sun and are discharged in abundance of rain. The winters are not so snowy and severe as in England. The summers are cooler and the thunder and lightning less frequent and terrific.
The soil in general is, by nature more fertile, but not so well cultivated. One tenth part of the island, however, consists of bogs or morasses, which are useless except for fuel. Ireland is very natural to grass. A beautiful verdure usually covers the surface. The dairy husbandry prevails here. Oats and potatoes are the principal crops and the chief support of the poor. Hemp and flax are abundant, and the manufacture of linen and muslin is a great business. No country in Europe is better provided with convenient bays and harbours and facilities for foreign commerce. Fine linens and beef, and butter of superior quality are the chief exports.
The principal rivers are Shannon, Boyne, Liffey and Waterford.. The chief cities are Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Belfast, Waterford, Londonderry, Kilkenny and Drogheda.
Dublin, the capital is on the Liffey, 330 miles north-west of London. It ranks high in population, which is 225,000, not far from that of New York. Its public edifices are magnificent, among which are the Castle, the Royal Exchange and the celebrated University. The dwellings of the rich are elegant and are very strikingly contrasted with the thousand miserable hovels of the poor, which are seen within the city and its suburbs. Dublin is the grand mart of the commerce of Ireland.
Cork is on the Lee, 130 miles south-west of Dublin. It is the second city in Ireland and highly celebrated for its capacious harbour and its extensive flourishing trade, especially in butter and salted provisions. Pop. 100,000.
Limerick on the Shannon, is a city of great elegance, population and strength, flourishing in manufactures and commerce. Pop. 65,000. Belfast, 80 miles north of Dublin, has had a rapid growth, and it is distinguished for its trade in linen and provisions. Kilkenny is noted for quarries of beautiful marble.
The eastern and northern coasts of Ireland are to a great extent inhabited by people of English or Scotch descent who, comparatively, are enlightened in character and improved and comfortable in condition.
The interior and western parts are chiefly occupied by the ancient native Irish descendants of the old Britons, who speak their original language, and whose character extensively, is ignorant and degraded, and their condition poor and wretched. Notwithstanding the natural fertility and beauty of this green Isle, there is a lamentable prevalence of poverty and misery among the Irish peasants. In the day they walk about in tatters and rags, perhaps begging a morsel of bread at the doors of their rich but oppressive landlords, or stewards. At night they are lodged in mean huts of mud or straw, scarcely superior to the wigwams of American savages.
Agriculture is in a very low state. The soil to a great extent is neglected. The church tythes and other taxes, swallow up the people's earnings. The spirit of industry is discouraged, and his armi is unnerved or broken. And many of the poor have even sunk down in despair and resigned themselves up to perish with hunger.
Christian benevolence, however, has done, and is doing much to remove the ignorance and to relieve the poverty and distress of this class of people in Ireland. The established church here is Episcopal, like that of England. But more than two thirds of
the population are zealous Roman Catholics. The most remarkable natural curiosity in Ireland is the Giant's Causeway, a promontory on the north coast. It consists of almost innumerable columns of pillars of stone standing perpendicularly over several acres near the sea shore. These columns are one or two feet in diameter and twenty or thirty feet high. They are composed of several joints, or one stone or rock lying upon another, and compactly fitted together, so that a man may walk on the tops of the pillars to the very margin of the sea.
Ireland became united in government, with England, in the year 1801, and sends 105 representatives to the British parliament, besides 28 representative peers and 4 bishops.
What sea and channel divides Ireland from England and Wales? What is the lat. of Ireland? Its extent in square miles? Its population? Its size compared with Scotland and England? How divided and subdivided? What is said of the face of the country? Of the lakes? Of the climate? Of the prevailing winds? Of the winters and summers? Of the soil in general? How great a proportion of the island is covered with bogs? To what is Ireland very natural? What kind of husbandry most prevails? What of the principal crops? The most important manufacture? What is said of the bays, harbours, &c. ? What the chief exports? What the names of the principal rivers? What course does each run and where discharged? What are the chief cities in Ireland ? On what river is Dublin ? What course and distance from London? How populous? What is said of its public edifices? Of the dwellings of the rich, and what are they contrasted with? Which way is Cork from Dublin? How is it described? What its population? In what direction from Dublin is Limerick, and on what river? What kind of a city is it and of what population? Which way is Belfast from Dublin, and what is said of it ? Where is Kilkenny, and for what noted? In what part is Londonderry? Waterford? Drogheda? By whom are the eastern and northern coasts of Ireland chiefly inhabited? What comparatively are the character and condition of those inhabitants? Who occupy the interior and western parts, and what is their general character and condition? Among whom do poverty and misery lamentably prevail? What kind of houses do they lodge in? What is said of their agriculture? What of the tythes and taxes? What has christian benevolence done for the poor Irish? What church is established here? What proportion of the people are Catholics? What natural curiosity is mentioned? Where is it and how described? When did Ireland become united with England?
Extent, 215,000 sq. ms.-Pop. 32,000,000—151 per sq. m.
France is more than four times as large as England in extent, and it embraces a population twice as large as that of the whole island of Great Britain. It is divided into 86 departments and subdivided into arrondissements, cantons and communes.