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Na mow aloo gimowtóloo.
Na tow aloo gitowtóloo.
Na mo aloo gimótóloo.
Na now aloo ginówtóloo.

Teoo aloo.
Te ger aloo.

E aloo ia, (or tenne aloo).

Te mow aloo gimówooa.
Te tow aloo gitówooa.
Te mo aloo gimóooa.
Te now aloo ginówooa.




This is denoted by the sign te, except in the third person singular, where it is changed to e; in this tense, as in the past, oo is used for the first personal pronoun, instead of te, because te being also the sign of the tense, the repetition would create confusion in the signification, tété meaning almost. In this tense it must also be noticed, that the third personal sign instead of being e, is sometimes changed to ténne, and the pronoun is omitted; but this is for the most part optional. (See rule 4th of the pronouns.)

Te mow aloo gimówtóloo.
Te tow aloo gitówtóloo.
Te mo aloo gimótóloo.
Te now aloo ginówtóloo.

Aloo coy.

We (several) went (not you).
We (several) went (I, you, &c.).
Ye (several) went.
They (several) went.


I shall go.
Thou shall go.
He shall go.


We (two) shall go, (not you.)
We (two) shall go, (I and you.)
Ye (two) shall go.
They (two) shall go.


We (several) shall go, (not you,)
We (several) shall go, (I, you, &c.
Ye (several) shall go.
They (several) shall go.


The imperative or precative mood is chiefly denoted by the deficiency both of a modal and temporal sign; it has the second personal singular, and the first and second persons dual and plural. In the second personal singular, the pronoun coy or subject of the verb comes after it; but in the first and second persons, dual and plural, the pronouns tow and mo come before the verb, and the pronouns that distinguish the numbers follow the verb.



Go thou.


Tow aloo gitówooa.
Mo aloo gimóooa.

Tow aloo gitówtóloo.
Mo aloo gimótóloo.

Ger te aloo.

Let us go, (you and I.)
Go ye, (ye two.)


The first person, dual and plural, of this mood cannot be used unless the person or persons spoken to are requested to include themselves also; as in the phrase tow aloo, let us go, the person spoken to is requested or ordered to go likewise; for in no other sense can the first person, dual and plural, be rationally used in this mood. With this exception, therefore, the imperative or precative mood consists, as it ought to do, of the second person only in each number; but even the first person, dual and plural, when the pronoun tow is used, cannot altogether be considered irrational. All other forms that may be conceived to belong to this mood, must be expressed by the help of the subjunctive mood, discovering the object or purpose for which the command is made; according to these forms, as, make no noise that we may sleep, (i. e. let us sleep, using mow for the pronoun); let him go, (i. e. permit or grant that he may go), &c.

Ger mow aloo gimówooa.
Ger tow aloo gitówooa.


There is but one form in this mood, and that is denoted by the sign ger, and is applicable to any tense; as,


Ger ger aloo.


Let us go, (you, I, &c.)
Go ye, (ye three or more.)

Ger mow aloo gimówtóloo.
Ger tow aloo gitówtóloo.


Ger aloo is

Ger mo aloo gimóooa.
Ger now aloo ginówooa.

Ger mo aloo gimótóloo.
Ger now aloo ginówtóloa.

It is not always necessary, however, in the Tonga verbs, to distinguish between the dual and plural numbers; for the indefinite plural (i. e. without the pronouns ending in ooa and toloo) is often used. This is done when the former part of the sentence sufficiently indicates whether it be dual or plural; or where an uncertain number (two or more) is spoken of; or where precise accuracy is not required. An example of the verb, without these dual and plural pronouns, will be useful to bring into one

view the simplicity of its construction. We shall take the verb moke, to sleep.

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The third person of the past tense may be changed from na mohe ia, into nai mohe. The third person of the future may be changed from e mohe ia, into tenne mohe. If the dual number be required to be expressed, it must be done by the addition of the pronouns ending in ooa; if the plural, by those ending in toloo.

In respect to that form of the verb usually called the infinitive mcod, it must be acknowledged, that the Tonga verb has very little claim to a distinction of this kind; but with a view to show how the infinitive mood in our own language is to be expressed in this, we shall make a few observations respecting it.

There are three points of view in which we may consider the infinitive mood of our own language, with regard to its translation into Tonga, viz. first, where object, scope, or purpose is signified. As, he came here to fight; I went there to sleep, &c. ; i. e. for the purpose of fighting, of sleeping, &c. Secondly, where wish

or desire is signified: as, I want to eat; I wish to die. Thirdly, where the infinitive mood assumes still more evidently the nature of a noun, allowing (even in English) an adjective expressive of its quality; as, to sleep is refreshing; to die is awful.

In the first case, that is to say, where object, scope or purpose is signified, the particle ger must be put before the word expressing the object: as, na how ia gi heni GER MOHE, he came here to sleep; na aloo ia gi-hena GER TOW, he went there to fight. Ger mohe and ger tow may here be considered the subjunctive mood, that he might sleep, that he might fight; for ger is actually the sign of that mood, though the pronoun ia is not repeated after mohe and tow, because it was already indicated after how and aloo.

In the second case, viz. where wish or desire is expressed, the noun is used without the article; as, gooa te fia мOHE, I wish to sleep; gooa te fia MATE, I wish to die; and this is exactly the form in which it may be expressed in English; as, I wish death, I want sleep; where it is seen that the noun is used without the article, as if it were the proper name of a being.

It often happens in the Tonga as well (probably) as in other uncivilized tongues, that ideas are expressed by the aid of nouns, which could not bear to be translated into cultivated languages, but as verbs, or at least as participles; though in the language to which they belong they shall have all the character of nouns, even with the article before them: as, in this sentence, he met the man walking; the participle walking would have in the Tonga the article before it, like a noun: as, nai feccatagi HE EVA he tangata, he met the walking (i. e. in the walk), the man. therefore the noun in this language is proportionably so much more frequent than the verb, wherever it may be doubtful whether a word be a verb or a noun, for the sake of uniformity, we call it a noun.


The third and last form of the infinitive is where it has decidedly the character of a noun, and is therefore in the Tonga expressed with the article; (that is to say, where desire or wish is not expressed); as, to sail is pleasant, gooa lillé he felów ; i.e. is pleasant the sailing; gooa lillé he mohe, i. e. is good the sleep, or, to sleep is good.

In regard to verbs irregular, we have only discovered one, to, envy; but it is probable there are a few others. There are two peculiarities in this verb; the first is, that the first person singular and plural of all the tenses is expressed by amoochia, and all the others by manoo-manoo. The second is, that in the first person singular of the present tense, neither the sign of the tense nor the personal pronoun can be used, but throughout the rest of the verb they may; thus gooa te amoochia, I envy, would be

bad grammar; amoochia alone must be used: the verb therefore will run thus ;

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The subjunctive mood will run thus; ger amoochia, ger ger manoo-manoo, ger manoo-manoo ia, ger mow amoochia, &c.

There are three words in this language which may be used either as verbs or prepositions; these are my, atoo, and angi; as verbs, they mean to give; as prepositions, they signify to, or towards they are to be used, accordingly, as the first, second, or third person may follow; thus, my signifies to give any thing to me, or us; atoo, to give to thee, or you; angi, to give to him, her, it, or them: for example,

My ia giate au: give it to me.

My ia giate gimówtóloo: give it to us.

Teoo atoo ia giate coy: I will give it to thee.

Teoo atoo ia giate gimówtóloo: I will give it to you.
Angi ia giate ia: give it to him, or her.
Angi ia giate ginówlóloo: give it to them.

They mean, therefore, not only to give, but they signify, also, the direction of the gift. As prepositions, they signify not only towards, but also the direction in which the motion is made; i. e. whether it be towards the first, second, or third person.

The present tense of the verb to give is never used by itself, the future being substituted for it: but when my, atoo, and angi are joined to other verbs, which is often the case where

* Or, as it is sometimes pronounced, hamoochia.


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