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which had been fired in he former attacks upon the garrison were again found and collected; besides which he also sent a canoe to the islands of Togoo, N. W. of Vavaoo, to collect a cargo of round black pebbles, which are found there in abundance. With all this ammunition, Finow was far superior to Toobó Toa, who had only two guns, and was withal very short both of powder and shot. All these preparations, however, were never required, for, shortly after, Tonga-mana's conoe arrived, bringing intelligence that Toobó Toa had proceeded with his army to the assistance of the garrison before spoken of in the island of Tonga.

About this time there happened a very heavy storm of thunder and lightning, which is always considered ominous by the natives, and esteemed the harbinger of some great event, such as invasion, death of a great chief, arrival of an European ship, &c. This event therefore produced, as it generally does, considerable anxiety in the minds of the people, which was much increased by the dreams of several women. One dreamed that during the time of the inachi, Tooitonga, at the head of a number of hotooas, attacked them, and broke to pieces the consecrated yams; another, that she had been at Bolotoo, and heard a decree of Higooleo (one of the principal hotooas), that Vavaoo should shortly experience some, great calamity, because the people had neglected some particular and important ceremonies. In this state of the public mind, parties were sent to the outer islands to keep a perpetual watch, and to bring immediate intelligence of any canoe that might appear. In the course of a little time, it was re

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marked that Tooitonga decreased considerably in size, losing flesh every day, although otherwise in good health. It was not long, however, before he began to complain of weakness and loss of appetite. His illness beginning thus to be confirmed, occasioned his relations and attendants to have recourse to the usual ceremonies on such melancholy occasions. Accordingly, every day one or other of his young relations had a little finger cut off, as a propitiatory offering to the gods for the sins of the sick man. * These sacrifices, however, were found of no avail; and greater were soon had recourse to. Accordingly, three or four children were strangled, at different times, in the manner which has already been related; and invocations were made to the deities at fytocas, consecrated houses, and in the persons of the priests, but still without effect, for the gods were deaf to their entreaties ; and the illness of the sacred chief grew every day more alarming. As a last resource, to excite the compassion of the deities, they carried the emaciated person of Tooitonga to the place where his

* Nothing is more common in these islands than the sacrifice of a little finger on occasion of the illness of a superior relation ; insomuch, that there is scarcely a grown-up person (unless a very great chief, who can have but few superior relations) but who has lost the little finger of both hands. Nor is there ever any dispute between two persons, with a view to get exempt from this ceremony: On the contrary, Mr Mariner has witnessed a violent contest between two children of five years of age, each claiming the favour of having the ceremony performed

on him, so little do they fear the pain of the operation. The pain, indeed, is but very trifling, from the mode, probably, in which it is performed, which will be fully described in another place.

provisions were cooked-in the same manner as Finow was carried :—but notwithstanding all this, death overtook him, after six weeks illness.

About a month or six weeks after the funeral ceremonies were finished, (which will be described under the head of Religious Ceremonies, in the sequel), Finow, who had not broken his head (as they call it) at the grave of his father, because, perhaps, on a public occasion, it would have looked in him like an ostentatious display of what might have been thought affected feeling, resolved to perform this ceremony in a more private manner, accompanied only by a few of his warriors, to whom he now signified his intention. Accordingly, one morning, he and his men began to prepare themselves for this affair, when unfortunately an accident happened, which to us Europeans, in the present times, would not have attracted the slightest attention ; but which, in the estimation of these people, was a matter pregnant with the most important and serious consequen

Mr Mariner, on entering the house, happened to sneeze!! Immediately every one present threw down his club, for who would proceed on so important an expedition after so dire an omen!* Finow's eyes flashed with the fire of rage ;-directing them full on Mr Mariner, he cursed him with the most bitter curse, strike and, rising from the ground, demanded why he came there ? To this Mr Mariner answered, 66 Your father would not have asked me the ques

* To sneeze at the moment of setting out on an expedition argues, in their opinion, the most fatal results. Even Finow, who had a superior mind, could not efface from it the depth of the impression.



your god!”

He re

tion; and I am surprised that you are so much unlike him, as to believe in such superstitious nonsense. This was too much for the king to bear, particularly before so many of his men; and snatching up a club that lay near him, he would have instantly despatched Mr Mariner, if some of the men present had not pushed him out of the house, while the rest held Finow. Upon this Mr Mariner wished him good bye*—said, that if he wanted him he might send for him, adding, that he did not before know that his presence was so disagreeable. Several men then came out of the house, and hurried Mr Mariner away, lest Finow, before his passion had time to cool, should pursue him, and effect some desperate revenge. tired, therefore, to a house near the grave. Shortly after, Finow having consulted with his men upon the subject of Mr Mariner's sneezing, resolved that, as he was a foreigner, and had different gods, his sneezing was not to be considered of any consequence. They then proceeded to the grave to perform the ceremony, when Finow and all his men, inspired with enthusiasm, cut and bruised their heads in a shocking manner. Finow, in particular, not contented with the usual instruments, made use of a saw, the teeth of which he struck against his skull with such vehemence and good-will, that he staggered as he went home with loss of blood. These scenes need not be further described; we have already had enough of them.

Mr Mariner, immediately after this, proceeded * The expression answering to this in the Tonga language is bea ger nefo, (and you remain), and is a phrase always used in taking leave of any one.

to his plantation, resolving to remain there, and see how long Finow would be contented without his company. This conduct, according to the manners and customs of Europeans, appears extremely haughty, arrogant, and presumptuous ; for although Finow, in this instance, was undoubtedly much to blame in putting himself in such violent rage, Mr Mariner, being so much the inferior, we might suppose it to be his duty first to ask pardon for the offence so unintentionally committed. But this plan would be far from producing a good effect in the Tonga Islands; on the contrary, he would have been thought a mean-spirited fellow, ever willing to sink himself below the dignity of a man, to purchase the pardon and friendship of a superior. And had he acted in this way, the king would most undoubtedly have thought meanly of him, and never again have made him a confidential friend, which always implies something of an equality

In the evening, (a few hours after his arrival at his plantation), a girl came with a message from his adopted mother, assuring him that he was perfectly safe, Finow having expressed his extreme sorrow for his own conduct. She advised him, however, not to return to the king till after several invitations, nor even till he came in person to request a renewal of his friendship ; for although it was dangerous in Tonga to be too haughty,-on the other hand, upon the principle above alluded to, too much submission would be as bad. Besides, as she was shortly going to live at the Hapai Islands along with her father, she wished beforehand to see Mr Mariner safe against all future

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