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place of them, a few mats hung up as occasion may require.

TA TATTów, striking the tattow. tion has already been described in the last chapter, and nothing farther is here to be said, except that Tooitonga is never tattowed at the Tonga Islands, for it is not considered respectful to put so high & chief to so much pain ; and if, therefore, he wishes to undergo this operation, he must visit Hamoa, (the Navigator's Islands), for that purpose.

TONGI Aco'w, club carving, or engraving. Formerly the whole of the clubs used to be engraved, but now this ornamental work is confined to the handle. It is executed with a great deal of neat

A sbark's tooth used to be the instrument, but now they make a sort of graver out of a nail flattened, sharpened, and fixed in a handle. Instances of their neatness in this sort of workmanship may be seen in our museums, and in the engraved representations of other works.

FY CAVA, shaving the beard. They have two modes of performing this operation, viz. with the two valves of a certain kind of shell, which they call bibi, and with pumice-stone. The latter is used by the party himself who requires the operation; the former by those whose profession it is to shave others. The edge of one valve being pressed horizontally against the chin or lip by the left hand, that portion of the beard which appears upon it is rubbed or filed off by the rough back of the other valve. This operation is generally performed once in about eight or ten days. The heads of infants are always kept closely shaved; but this is done with a shark's tooth by the mother.

Fe oomoo, the art of cooking. If refinement


in cookery be one proof of the civilization of a people, the natives of the South Seas have something to boast of in this respect; at least the people of the Tonga Islands can invite you to partake of at least thirty or forty different kinds of dishes, consisting in or prepared from one or more of the following articles, viz. pork, turtle, fowls of different kinds, fish, yams, bread-fruit, plantains, bananas, cocoa-nuts, talo, and cabe (esculent roots), and mahoá, a preparation from a root of the same

We shall give a short account of the principal preparations of food.

Baked pork. The animal is first stunned by a blow with a stick, and then killed by repeated blows on both sides of the neck. It is then rubbed over with the juicy substance of the banana tree, after which it is thrown for a few minutes on the fire, and, when warm, scraped with muscle shells or knives, and then washed. It is next laid on its back, when the cook cuts open the throat, and, drawing forth the wind-pipe and gullet, passes a skewer behind them, and ties a string tight round the latter, afterwards to be divided. He then cuts a circular piece from the belly, from four to six inches diameter, and draws forth the entrails,

separating the attachments, either by force or by the use of bamboo. The diaphragm is then divided, and the gullet, windpipe, contents of the chest, stomach and liver, are all drawn away together along with the bowels. From these the liver is sepa


* He has already made a circular incision round the anus, and tied the rectum to secure the contents, lest the interior of the abdomen should get dirty, which they are very careful to avoid, as they do not otherwise wash the inside, which they say would spoil it.

rated to be baked with the hog; the remainder is washed and cooked over hot embers, to be shared out and eaten in the meanwhile. The whole inside of the hog is now filled up with hot stones, each wrapped up in bread-fruit leaves, and all the apertures of the body are closed up quickly, also with leaves. It is then laid with the belly downwards, in a hole in the ground, lined with hot stones, a fire having been previously made there for that purpose, but prevented, however, from touching them, by small branches of the breadfruit tree. A few other branches are now laid across the back of the pig, and plenty of banana leaves strewed, or rather heaped over the whole, upon which, again, a mound of earth is raised, so that no steam apparently escapes. The liver is put by the side of the pig, and sometimes yams. By these means, a good-sized pig may


very well cooked in half an hour. A large hog is generally about half done in this way, then taken up, cut to pieces, and each piece being wrapped up separately in leaves, is cooked again in like man

Yams, fowls, bread-fruit, and every thing that is baked, is dressed after this manner, the larger yams being cut into smaller pieces. They perform the process of boiling in earthen pots, of the manufacture of the Fiji Islands, or in iron vessels procured from ships, or in banana leaves ; they also occasionally roast food upon hot embers. As to their made dishes, the following is a list of the principal.

Vy-hoo; fish-soup, made with a liquid preparation of cocoa-nut and water.

Vy-oófi ; boiled yams, mashed up with cocoanut and water.


Vy-hópa; ripe bananas cut in slices, and boiled with cocoa-nut and water.

Vy-chi ; a sort of jelly made of ma, and the juice of the chi root.

Vy-vi; a sort of apple grated, mixed with water, and strained.

Bobói ; a preparation of ma and chi, forming a stronger jelly, but similar to vychi.

Boi; similar to the above, but not jellied.

Fy'caky lólo toótoo; bread-fruit beaten up and cut into small pieces. It is eaten with a preparation of cocoa-nut, and the juice either of the chi or sugar-cane. It very much resembles, in appearance and taste, batter pudding, with melted butter

and sugar.

Fy'caky lóló mátta ; same as the above, eaten with the expressed juice of the cocoa-nut.

Loo-lolói ; talo leaves heated or stewed with the expressed juice of the cocoa-nut.

Loo-effenioo; talo leaves heated with grated cocoa-nut fermented.

Loo álo he booáca; talo leaves heated with a fat piece of pork, kept till it is high.

Loo táhi; talo leaves heated with a small quantity of sea-water.

Ma me ; fermented bread-fruit.
Ma hópa ; fermented bananas.

Ma nátoo; fermented bananas, well kneaded and baked.

Ma lolói ; fermented bananas, stewed with expressed juice of the cocoa-nut.

Lolói fekke; dried cat-fish, stewed with the expressed juice of the cocoa-nut.

Loloi ; a baked pudding, made of mahoá root, and the expressed juice of the cocoa-nut.

There are

Tawgoótoo; a baked cake made of mahoá root, cocoa-nut, and the expressed juice of the nut.

Fucca-lili; the powder of mahoá root sprinkled in hot water till it becomes a semi-jellied mass.

Ve-hálo; a preparation of young cocoa-nuts, with their milk stewed together.

Awty'; the inside of young cocoa-nuts, and the juice of the chi root mixed with the milk.

Thus far with those arts that are strictly professional, and are practised by men. some others not professional, which are also exercised by men, viz. surgical operations, erecting fortifications, rope-making, and making bows and arrows, clubs and

spears. The first will be found in the Appendix to this volume, No. II. and for the second, see vol. I. p. 94.

ROPE-MAKING. There are two kinds of rope, one made of the husk of the cocoa-nut, which is the superior sort, and the other of the inner bark of the fow. Although these ropes are made entirely by hand, yet even those of considerable circumference are laid with the greatest regularity. They are very elastic, and the strength of them is universally known. The husk of the cocoa-nut is first made into plait, which is then twisted into strands, and of these the rope is made. The bark of the fow is made at once into strands. Bows AND ARROWS.

The bows are generally made of the wood of the mangrove, though some few of the casuarina wood. The string is made of the inner bark of a tree they call olonga, and is exceedingly strong. The arrows are made of reed, headed with casuarina wood. Some of these heads have three or four rows of barbs, and,



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