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The next subject in order, is the state of the Arts and Manufactures. It has already been mentioned, that those which constitute distinct professions, being for the most part hereditary, are all exercised by men: there are others, however, some of which are practised by men, some by women, but which not being considered professional, do not constitute the business of a person's life ; nor is the term toofoonga (artisan) applied to those who perform them. Among these are principally the art of performing surgical operations ; erecting fortifications ; making ropes, bows and arrows, clubs and spears, which are practised by men ; whilst the manufacture of gnatoo, mats, baskets, thread, combs, &c., constitute the occasional employment of the women, even those of rank. We shall give an account of each of the principal arts, beginning with those that are strictly professional.
FO VACA, canoe-building. As it would be impossible to give an intelligible and accurate description of this ingenious and useful art, without referring to well-executed plates, and as this has been already so ably done in Cook's and d'Entrecasteaux's Voyages, we presume it would be but an unnecessary intrusion upon the attention of the
reader to attempt entering into such a description.
here be noticed, however, that the Tonga people have obtained a considerable share of information in the art of building and rigging canoes, from the natives of the Fiji Islands. It has already been observed, that, in all probability, the communication between these two nations, at the distance of one hundred and twenty leagues, began on the part of the Tonga people, who being situated to windward, it is very likely that one or more of their canoes were formerly drifted to the Fiji Islands by stress of weather, although they have no tradition of such a circumstance. It is highly probable that neither of them went out on. a voyage of discovery, or if such an opinion be admitted, there is little doubt but that the people of Tonga first made the attempt, although the construction and rigging of their canoes were at th time far inferior. The grounds for this opinion are, first, their situation to windward; and, secondly, their superior enterprising spirit, in affairs of navigation, which may be said to constitute a feature of their national character. Their superiority in this respect is so great, that no native of Fiji, as far as is known, ever ventured to Tonga but in a canoe manned with Tonga people, nor ever ventured back to his own islands, but under the same guidance and protection. If we look to the voyage of Cow Mooala, related in Chap. 10, vol. I. we cannot but entertain a very favourable idea of his maritime skill. He sailed from the Fiji Islands for those of Tonga, but the state of the weather prevented him making them; he then steered for the Navigator's Islands; and the weather being still unfavourable, he was drifted to Fotoona, where his canoe was destroyed, and his cargo of sandal-wood taken from him. Notwithstanding these misfortunes, as soon as another large canoe was built, he again ventured to sea, and returned to the Fiji Islands to lay in a second cargo.
The Fiji islanders make their canoes principally of a hard firm wood, called fehi, which is not liable to become worm-eaten; and as the Tonga Islands do not produce this wood, the natives are not able to build canoes so large or so strong as those of their instructors. All their large canoes, therefore, are either purchased or taken by force from the natives of Fiji. The natives of Tonga take the greatest pains with their canoes, polishing them with pumice-stone, and paying every attention that they are not more exposed to the weather than is absolutely necessary.
The canoes of the Navigator's Islands are similar to those which were formerly in use at Tonga, but the natives of those islands never venture to the latter place but in canoes manned with Tonga people.
FONO LE, carving ornaments out of whales' teeth for the neck, and inlaying clubs, &c. with the same material. This art, as far as it regards ornaments for the neck, is of Fiji origin; but inlaying clubs, wooden pillows, &c. is their own invention. An account of the ornaments for the neck has already been given, (vol. I. p. 250.) They inlay their clubs with extraordinary neatness, considering the rude tool they employ, which is generally a togi (or small adze), made out of an European chisel, a piece of an old saw, or even a fortened nail, to which a handle is affixed. They
rnament those clubs which are considered
good on account of their form, or the quality of the wood, or those which have done much execution ; to the latter it used to be the custom to give a proper name. Those that make these ornaments are chiefly canoe-builders.
TOOFOONGA TA'Boo, superintendents of funeral rites. These, as the name indicates, have the regulation of every thing regarding burials of principal chiefs. They are generally matabooles, and are always consulted respecting the preparations and forms of ceremony necessary on such occasions, and which are handed down by them from father to son.
TOOFOONGA TA MA'cca, or makers of stono vaults for the burial of chiefs. The general form of these vaults bas been already described, (vol. I. p. 135.) The stones used for this purpose are about a foot in thickness, and are cut of the requisite dimensions, out of the stratum found on the beaches of some of the islands.
JIA COBE'NGA, net-making. This art is performed exactly in the same way as with us; the thread is made of the inner bark of a tree, which they call olongá; large nets, however, are made of plait, formed from the husk of the cocoa-nut.
TOOFOONGA TOTY'ICA, fishermen. All those who follow this profession are sailors; their mode of catching fish is chiefly with the net, though they sometimes make use of the line and hook.
LANGA FALLE, house-building. Every man knows how to build a house, but those whose business it is have chiefly to erect large houses on maláis, consecrated houses, and dwellings for chiefs. The general form of their houses is oblong, rather approaching to an oval, the two ends
being closed, and the front and back open ; the sloping thatched roof descending to within about four feet of the ground, which is generally supported by four posts ; the larger houses by six, or sometimes more. The chief art in building a house consists in fastening the beams, &c. strongly, with plait of different colours, made of the busk of the cocoa-nut, in such a way as to look very ornamental; the colours, which are black, red, and, yellow, being tastefully disposed. The thatch of the superior houses is made of the dried leaves of the sugar-cane, and which will last seven or eight years without requiring repair. The thatch of the common houses is made of matting formed of the leaves of the cocoa-nut tree, and which lasts about two or three years; but being much easier to make than the other, it is more frequently used. The flooring is thus made :—the ground, being raised about a foot, is beaten down hard, and covered with leaves of the cocoa-nut tree, dried grass, or leaves of the ifi tree; over this is laid a bleached matting, made of the young
leaves of the cocoa-nut tree. The house consists, as it were, but of one apartment, but which is subdivided occasionally by screens about six or eight feet high. In case of rain, or at night, if the weather is cool, they let down a sort of blind, which is attached to the eaves of the open sides of the house. These blinds are made of long mats, about six inches in width, one above another, and rather overlapping, and are so contrived as to draw up by means of strings, like our Venetian blinds, and are then concealed just within the eaves. The common houses have not these blinds, but, in