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respecting the use of the brain, unless it be, perhaps, the seat of memory ; (they have a distinct word for memory, manatoo). They derive this notion from the natural action of putting the hand to the forehead, or striking the head gently when trying to remember any thing. The liver they consider to be the seat of courage, and they pretend to have remarked, on opening dead bodies, that the largest livers, not diseased, belong to the bravest men. They also say they have made another observation respecting this viscus, viz. that, in left-handed people, it is situated more on the Jeft than on the right side ; and, in persons
that are ambidexter, it is placed as much on one side as the other. They are very well acquainted with the situation of all the principal viscera. They acknowledge that the tooas, or lower order of
people, have minds or souls ; but they firmly believe that their souls die with their bodies, and, consequently, have no future existence. The generality of the tooas, themselves, are of this opinion ; but there are some who have the vanity to think they have immortal souls as well as matabooles and chiefs, which will live hereafter in Bolotoo. There seems to be a wide difference between the opinions of the natives in the different clusters of the South Sea islands respecting the future existence of the soul. Whilst the Tonga doctrine limits immortality to chiefs, matabooles, and at most to mooas, the Fiji doctrine, with abundant liberality, extends it to all mankind, to all brute animals, to all vegetables, and even to stones and mineral substances. If an animal or a plant die, its soul immediately goes to Bolotoo ; if a stone or any other substance is broken, immortality is
its reward ; nay, artificial bodies have equal good luck with men, hogs and yams. If an axe or a chisel is worn out, away flies its soul for the service of the gods. If a bouse is taken down, its immortal part will find a situation on the plains of Bolotoo. And, to confirm this doctrine, the Fiji people can show you a sort of natural well, or deep hole in the ground, at one of their islands, across the bottom of which runs a stream of water, in which you may clearly perceive the souls of men, women, beasts, plants, stocks, stones, canoes, houses, and all the broken utensils of this frail world, tumbling along one over the other, into the regions of immortality. Such is the Fiji philoso-phy; but the Tonga people deny it, unwilling to think that the residence of the gods should be encumbered with so much rubbish. The natives of Otaheite entertain similar notions respecting these things, viz. that brutes, plants, and stones, exist hereafter (see Captain Cook's Voyage); but it is mentioned that they extend the idea to objects of human invention. Mr Mariner is not acquainted with the notions of the Sandwich islanders upon these subjects. What we have related respecting those of the Fiji people he obtained from Fiji natives resident at Vavaoo, from Tonga people who had visited the Fiji Islands, and from the natives of Pau, when he was there. The human soul, after its separation from the body, is termed a hotooa (a god or spirit), and is believed to exist in the shape of the body; to have the same propensities as during life, but to be corrected by a more enlightened understanding, by which it readily distinguishes good from evil, truth from falsehood, right from wrong ; having the same attributes' as
the original gods, but in a minor degree, and having its dwelling for ever in the happy regions of Bolotoo, holding the same rank as during life. It has, however, the power of returning to Tonga to inspire priests, relations, or others, or to appear in dreams to those it wishes to admonish; and sometimes to the external eye in the form of a ghost or apparition. But this power of re-appearance at Tonga particularly belongs to the souls of chiefs, rather than of matabooles. It was thought that Finow the First was occasionally visited by a deceased son of his, not visibly, but announcing his presence by whistling. Mr Mariner once heard this whistling, as he was with the king and some chiefs in a house at night lying on their mats. It was dark, and the sound appeared to come from the loft of the house. Mr Mariner thinks this to have been some trick of Finow's. The natives believed it to be a spirit. It is to be observed that they consider it taboo to whistle, as being disrespectful to the gods. It has already been stated, that the gods are believed sometimes to enter into the bodies of lizards, porpoises and watersnakes ; but this power belongs only to the original gods, not to the souls of chiefs.
There is no future place of existence for the souls of men but Bolotoo, and, consequently, no state of future punishment--all rewards for virtue, and punishments for vice, being inflicted on mankind in this world, as before noticed. When Mr Mariner acquainted some of them with the Christian doctrine of eternal punishment, they said that it was “very bad indeed for the Papalangies."
The two divine personages, viz. Tooitonga and Veachi, or those who are supposed to be peculiarly of high divine origin, have already been spoken of as far as their rank is concerned. In respect to their habits, we might very naturally imagine that, in consequence of their high rank as divine chiefs, they would very frequently be inspired by the gods, and become the oracles of divine will; but this, as far as Mr Mariner has seen and heard, has never been the case ; and it seems strange that the favour of divine inspiration should be particularly bestowed upon men seldom higher in rank than matabooles. Such however is the case; and, to reconcile it with propriety, we may suppose that Tooitonga and Veachi are supposed to be of too bigh a rank to be the mere servants of the gods, and mere instruments of communication between them and mankind, but rather as the highest and most worthy of mankind, and next to the gods in rank and dignity. These two persons, howeyer high in rank, have very little comparative power. Mr Mariner once witnessed an instance where Tooitonga ventured to advise Finow (the late king) respecting his warlike proceedings against Vavaoo, at the time when his aunt, Toe Oomoo,
revolted. For this purpose he went into the house on a malái, and sent a messenger to the king to say that he was there ; which is the polite mode of telling a person you want him to come, that
you may speak to him. He did not go to the king's house in person to communicate what he had to say, because, being the superior chief, every thing would have been tabooed that he happened to touch. When the king arrived, Tooitonga mildly addressed him on the subject of his aunt's revolt, and advised that he should endeavour to accommodate matters rather than involve the country in war : to which the king shortly replied, “ My Lord Tooitonga may return to his own part of the island, and content himself in peace and security; matters of war are my concern, and in which he has no right to interfere. He then left him. Thus, in all respects, we are to regard Tooitonga as a divine chief of the highest rank, but having no power or authority in affairs belonging to the king It is presumed, however, that when the Tonga Islands were in a state of peace, that is before the people had acquired their warlike habits, that Tooitonga, as well as Veachi, had some influence even in matters of civil government, that their advice was often asked, and
* Ho Egi Tooitonga means, literally, “ thy lord Tooitonga,” in which the possessive pronoun thy, or your, is used instead of my: or, if the word egi be translated lordship or chiefship, the term of address will be more consistent and similar to ours, your lordship, your grace, your majesty. The title, ho egi, is never used but in addressing a superior chief, or speaking of a god; or in a public speech. Ho Egi! also means chiefs, as in the commencement of the speech of Pinow the Second, on coming into power.