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the accurate use of the new marks, than urging any strong objection against a somewhat too lax expression of the learned editor.
The next improvement in this new edition, and a very important one it is, consists in having introduced into the phrases, a great variety of passages from the best poets, which, being thus brought together, serve materially to illustrate each other, and store the mind of the student with a treasure of lofty sentiments and glowing imagery, clothed in the noblest language.
Whatever was most valuable in the Appendix of Morell, is also incorporated into the body of the work before us, and the whole is enriched in almost every page by the very learned and valuable notes of the editor, who thus silently and unostentatiously has restored innumerable corrupt passages through the whole range of the Greek poets. The same learned notes are perpetually used to correct the errors of Morell's preliminary dissertation on the Greek metres and prosody, and to crown our obligations, this part of Morell's labours is followed by a series of most valuable metrical dissertations, by Dr. Maltby, under the modest title of Observationes de rebus cum Prosodiu conjunctis sed a Morello, brevius tractatis aut omnino omissis.
The preface, after a modest, but, we think, wholly unnecessary apology, for unavoidable imperfections, concludes with thanks to those learned friends from whom the editor received material assistance. They are, Mr. Frere the Master of Downing College, whose Morell, interleaved and enriched with his own remarks, was lent to Dr. Maltby by the Subdean of Lincoln, and Dr. Charles Burney, who furnished him with a tract of Morell's, entitled Index Prosodiacus, relating to the quantity of the doubtful vowels, A, I, Y, and an interleaved copy of the Thesaurus, with additions made by the author while his work was passing through the press. Acknowledgements are also made to the editor's most learned friend and former preceptor, Dr. Parr, for much valuable information, and to Dr. Kaye, the excellent Master of Christ College, for superintendance of the press. And here we may take the opportunity of observing, that the work is most beautifully printed, and adorned with an excellent engraving of the learned editor, by Cooper, from a drawing, by Edridge, and a copy of the original print of the author, by Hogarth.
With reluctance we are obliged to pass over Dr. Morell's prosody, a work of great and elaborate skill for the time when it was written, the oversights and unavoidable errors in which, arising partly from the corrupt text of the Greek poets, and partly from the less intimate acquaintance among scholars at that time with the intricacies of Greek metre, are every where cor
rected by Dr. Maltby with a masterly hand. Not content, however, with having done this, Dr. Maltby has laid Greek scholars, as well as students, under an everlasting obligation, by his own subsequent most valuable treatise on Greek metres and prosody, which we have already mentioned. From this we shall select a chapter on a very important point, and we trust our more learned readers will permit us to make a few preliminary observations, for the purpose of rendering it more easily intelligible to those who have paid less attention to the subject.
Every one at all acquainted with the elements of metrical learning, must be aware that different feet consist not only of different times, but different tone, or accent, and that feet of the same times have often a different and directly opposite accent. Thus au Iambic and a Trochee are of the same time, but in an Iambic the stress of the voice, or accent, is laid on the second, in a Trochee on the first syllable of each foot*. The syllable of any foot on which this elevation takes place, is said to be in arsis, the remaining syllable or syllables in which the voice sinks from its elevated to its natural tone, are said to be in thesis, from the two Greek words, gois and Béos, signifying elevation and depression. Thus in an Iambic verse, the first syllable of each foot is in thesis, the second in arsis. In a Trochaic, exactly the reverse takes place. A tribrach when it is put for an Iambic, has its first syllable in thesis, its second in arsis, and its
*We say each foot, because this is in fact the case, the ictus or accent not being greater, as Bentley supposed, on the first foot in the Trochaic, or the second in the Iambic metre, than on the second of the one, or first of the other; but a somewhat longer pause is made in scanning, at the end of each metre, than at the end of each foot, which may possibly deceive an unpractised or unmusical
We are fully aware of the different significations of gos and Oicis, arising from the elevation and depression of the foot to mark the time, and even the diametrically opposite significations, arising from the use of these terms among the grammarians and former writers on metrical subjects; but as it is rather a dispute about names than things, and as we wish here merely to elucidate the subject, we purposely wave this discussion. The term accent might, perhaps, express the elevation of the voice on what we may venture to call the characteristic syllable, were it not liable to ambiguity from its more general usage in a different signification, and we therefore prefer that of arsis as short and intelligible, but perhaps that of ictus metricus, or simply ictus, is still more unexceptionable, being free from the cavils which might be raised to the term accent as ambiguous, or arsis as disputable. Rev.
It is more easy for a musical ear to understand, than for us to
third in thesis; when put for a Trochee its first is in arsis, and and two last in thesis. In scanning a dactylic verse, the first syllable of the dactyl is in arsis, the two last in thesis, or if a spondee is put for a dactyl, the first syllable is in arsis, and the last in thesis, but in scanning Anapastic verse, the two first syllables of the Anapest, or the first of the spondee, are in thesis, and the last in arsis; if a dactyl is used for a spondee, the arsis is on the first of the short syllables. We may observe that in all these cases where the original foot consists of a long and short syllable, or syllables, the natural place of the arsis, is on the long syllable, but where the syllables are all long, as in a spondee, or all short, as in a tribrach, or where feet combined of long and short syllables, are substituted for the regular feet, as in the case of a dactyl in lambic, or Anapæstic, or an Anapæst in Trochaic metre, it will conform to the nature of the metre in which that foot occurs. In the compound feet the arsis will still preserve its place. Thus in the Choriambus, which is compounded of the Trochee and Iambus, the incipient and final long syllables are in arsis, the two intermediate short ones in thesis, according to the natural places of the arsis and thesis in the simple feet,. In the Antispastus, which is compounded of the Iambic and Trochee, the incipient and final short syllables are in thesis, and the two intermediate long ones in arsis, And if the Iambic is resolved into a tribrach, or dactyl, the first and third syllables are in thesis, and the second in arsis, or if into an anapast the two first are in thesis, and the third or long one in arsis. In like manner if the Trochee is resolved into a tribrach, or anapæst, the arsis will still be on the first syllable, as in the case of resolutions of the uncompounded feet. But it often happens that the place of the antispast is supplied by a double lambic, in which case, if a tribrach or dactyl is put for the Iambic, the arsis is, as before, on the second, if an anapæst, on the third syllable of the substituted foot. From what we have said, we hope it is suf
express, why the ictus falls on the middle, rather than the last syllable of a tribrach or dactyl in Iambic, and of a dactyl in Anapastic verse. The most intelligible reason we can assign is, that in the tribrach or dactyl, the two short syllables are put for one long, and therefore the tone of the long syllable for which they are substituted, is given as soon as possible; because if the ictus were on the last short syllable of the tribrach or dactyl, it would make it sound like an anapæst or cretic. Combining this note with our subsequent observations in the text, the force of the argument will, we trust, be sufficiently comprehended, even by those who have not paid deep attention to these niceties. Rev.
ficiently intelligible that the arsis or ictus cannot fall on a final short syllable of any foot; but as that syllable on which it falls is necessarily pronounced with a greater stress of voice, when it falls on the incipient short syllable of a foot, it will have the power to make that syllable long, or if it falls on a naturally long syllable, it may even make that syllable longer, a circum-· stance which as it materially tends to elucidate some apparent metrical anomalies, we shall discuss, or at least touch upon, before we close this article, but we think we shall still better prepare our readers for it by introducing here a specimen of Dr. Maltby's work.
"Arseos, sive Cesura, vis apud Homerum.
Sed de his hactenus, nobis potius res est cum versibus Heroicis, ubi in primam pedis syllabam ictus metricus proculdubio cadit; et cum Arsi omnium consensu convenit*. Ubicunque vero hoc fieret, ibi vox intendebatur, et mora quædam in pronuntiando obtingebat. Quod si in tali loco syllaba natura brevis locaretur, cum acriore quadam et incitatiore vi proferretur, evadebat longa. In quibus autem locis vocis intentio major, et mora in efferenda syllaba longior, in illis istiusmodi effectum præcipue et frequentius conspici credibile est. Hoc nonnunquam evenit in prima versus syllaba; sæpius autem in medio versus, ubi vox ita dividitur, ut in syllabam a reliqua voce quasi abscissam metricus ictus cadat. Casura nomen inde obtinuit: sed caussam unde Casure vim suam adepta sit brevem syllabam producendi, nullam aliam esse contendo, quam quæ in versus statim initio eundem effectum generet. Hæc vero ictus metrici sive Arseas efficientia in versibus tantum Heroicis, præcipue vero Homeri, discernitur. Est profecto ubi ante unicam literam ę apud scriptores Dramaticos vocalis brevis ita producatur ; cujus ideo suo in loco mentio fiet.
"Nunc pauca recenseamus exempla syllabarum per Arsin in Homero productarum, quarum nonnulla in Annotationibus ad Thesaurum tetigi. Vid. Ind. v. Arsis."
« Φίλε κασίγνητε κόμισαί τε με, δός τε μοι ἵππες.” Il. E. 35. 9. σε Συνεχές, ὄφρα κε θᾶσσον ἀλίπλοα τείχεα θείη.” Μ. 26. Ἐπειδὴ τόνδ ̓ ἄνδρα, θεοὶ δαμάσασθαι ἔδωκαν.” Χ. 379. « Ζεφυρίη πνείσσα, τὰ μὲν φύει ἄλλα δὲ πέσσει,” Od.7.119. “ Επίτονος βέβληλο, βοὸς οινοῖο τετευχώς.” μ. 423.
By the arsis and ictus metricus we constantly mean one and the same thing, as the immortal Bentley did before us. They must always be used in the same sense, except by those who suppose with Hare, Foster, and a few of the early grammarians, that the arsis was the silent elevation of the foot, the thesis the depression, or beat, which marked the time, and which according to them would be the ictus. We have already alluded to this in a former pote. Rev.
"Nulla alia de causa ortum puto quod prima in præpositione d porrigatur, II. Δ. 135. Similiter forsan in ̓Απόλλων, A. 36. et ubicunque prima vocis syllaba in Arsi locatur.- .Age vero, ponamus alia, ubi Arsis in Cæsuram, quæ vocatur, incidat :
“ ̓Αμφὶ δ ̓ ἄρ ̓ ὤμοισι βάλετ ̓ αἴγιδα θύσανοέσσαν (nam recte duplicari o, sicuti in editt. exstat, dubitarim.) Ε. 738.
“ Οὔτε θεοῖς, εἴπες τις ἔτι νῦν δαίνυλαι εὔφρων.” Ο. 99.
“ Ξανθέ τε καὶ Βάλιξ τηλέκλυτα τέκνα Πόδαςγής.” 400.
Od. κ. 141.
"Postremo adferantur syllabæ breves productæ, neque in initie versus neque in Cæsura.
“ Τὼ μὲν ἄρ ̓ ἅψοῤῥοι προὶ Ἴλιον ἅ πονέοντο.” Γ.319. Μνηςῆρες δ ̓ ἐν νηΐ παλιμπετὲς ἀπονεων]αι.” Σ. 27. « Πέπλαται ανέφελος (sic enim scribi debebat) λευκὴ δ ̓ ἐπι
δέδρομεν αἴγλη.” ζ. 45.
« Καὶ τὰ μὲν ἑπλαχα πάντα διέμοιρᾶλο δαΐζων.” ξ. 434.
“ Τρίζεσαι ποτέονται, ἐπεί κε τις ἀποπέσῃσιν.” ω. 7.
To this chapter is subjoined a long note, containing some re marks on Professor Dunbar's Greek Prosody, with some, and those the main parts of which, Dr. Maltby fully coincides, while others meet with decided, though liberally expressed, and, we need hardly add, just animadversion. The note itself, especially with the notes upon it, is too long for insertion, but we gladly present our readers with its conclusion, both from respect to Dr. Maltby and the learned Professor, and because it will greatly tend to elucidate our preceding and subsequent remarks.
“ Equidem confido fere, [q? fore] ut hæc a me disputata, non arroganter et aspere, sed libere (uti omnes decet qui in rebus difficiles explicatus habentibus, quid sit simillimum veri, perscrutantur) Dunbarus Távu haud moleste ferat. Operis interea docti et ingeniosi specimen si protulero, gratiam apud nostrates saltem me initurum scio.
"In hexameter verse, the ictus or arsis is always upon the first syllable of the foot. Though we have no other data to guide us in the pronunciation of this species of verse, it appears almost cer