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ble nature, than it would be necessary to address to the disciples of a spiritual or enthusiastic profession. Accordingly we have them here; first it is promised, that the attendance on the Mass will be considered as a compensation in some measure for the casual neglect of other rites and ceremonies of the utmost importNothing, for example, can be more indispensable to Catholic salvation, than Confession, and the Sacraments of the Eucharist, and Extreme Unction before death. But we are now assured, that he who dies after hearing the Mass, though he shall neither have performed the first, or received the two last, shall yet be taken to have done, and received both. That is to say, as our learned judges sometimes by fiction of law after verdict, so God will here intend that all formalities have been duly performed, and the devil shall not be suffered to produce evidence to the contrary. It is St. Augustin, who reports this "rule of court;" his words are cited:

"Qui devotè interest Missæ, si illâ die contritus moriatur, licet actualiter non potuerit recipere Sacramenta, taman recepisse, et obtinuisse intelligatur."

We presume that the analogy of the rule would hold, if the party came by his death otherwise than by contrition; and that this word is only exempli causâ.

The next inducement is rather of a more disinterested nature at first sight; but this also, after a few doubles, centers in self. It is prefaced with a dreadful character of Purgatory; the poor defunct (i poveri defunti) there suffer torments more bitter than in this world we can see, feel, or conceive. How delightful then to be told, that the Mass is the very "sesame" of this horrible prison; at every celebration of it open fly the gates, and a number of happy souls escape to Paradise.

"Missâ celebratâ, says St. Girolamo, plures animæ exeunt de Purgatorio; and the commentary is*; non solo saranno dagli ardori di quelle fiamme voraci speditamente sottratte, ma fatte libere dalle stesse molte voleranno a godere l'eterna gloria del Paradiso."

Supplications therefore for the dead are not to be omitted, says a saint, and why? because whatever consolation we afford to them, the same shall we ourselves receive in recompense.

"Quantam consolationem defunctis impendimus, tantam vice versâ recipimus."

* They shall not only be speedily withdrawn from the heat of those voracious flames, but being freed from the same, many shall By to enjoy the eternal glory of Paradise.



Hence it is, (and we pray our reader's attention to this uncommouly happy specimen of apposite citation) that David the Prophet in the xlth Psalm*. says, Blessed is he that considereth the poor and needy, the Lord shall deliver him in the time of trouble;" i. e. in the day of judgment, he shall be delivered by the Lord from eternal death. Whether the Psalmist, in penning this beautiful exhortation, actually contemplated Masses for the poor defunct, Protestants may perhaps take liberty to doubt. But n'importe-we are coming to a more choice sentence. If then those, who compassionately assist (we are aware of the imperfect translation of the word suffragano) the souls of the poor dead, derive from God in return so great favours and benefits, what punishment shall not those ingrates receive from him, who, refusing to pay the legacies of their kinsfolk, whose substances they enjoy, not only barbarously deprive them of the assistance due to them (i dovuti suffragj) in not causing to be celebrated the masses bequeathed by them in their testaments, but even refuse to hear the mass for their sakes?

"E se da Dio ne riportano tante grazie, e beneficj coloro, che pietosamente suffragano le anime de' poveri defunti, che gastighi non avranno da Dio quegl' ingrati, che non pagando i legati de' suoi parenti, de quali godono le sostanze, non solo barbaramente li privano di dovuti suffragj, perchè non ne fanno celebrare le messe da loro per testamento lasciate, ma nemmeno per loro l'ascoltano t. Costoro, continues our Editor, sono assai più crudeli degli stessi demonj, perchè questi tormentano solamente i cattivi, ed i dannati, ma quelli addolorano anche i buoni, e gli amici di Dio.” P. 56.

It is hardly worth while to comment upon certain logical inaccuracies of this passage; but may we be allowed to infer from its temper and tenor, that in default of legislative provisions, a kind of practical mortmain law is gaining ground in Italy?

But however efficacious are our Masses for the repose of the dead, they are exactly one thousand times more beneficial in their effects, when offered for ourselves in our life-time. We are now coming to the argument of all others, except the baculine, the most tangible; the logic of Cocker. "More availeth," saith St. Anselm, "one Mass heard in life-time, than a thousand said after death for the same person; and one Mass exceeds the virtue of all other prayers in procuring the remission of sin and punish. ment." And so far from over-stating the matter, we suspect St.

* In our Prayer-Books the xlist.

+ They are much more cruel than the devils themselves, for these torment only the wicked and damned, but those afflict even the good and the friends of God,


Anselm's calculation to be a little too moderate; perhaps, however, he was not aware, or did not recollect, or lived in times anterior to the following important facts, which makes us rate the Mass somewhat higher than his calculation.

"Molte Sommi Pontifici a' tesori preziosi di tante grazie, e virtù della santa Messa hanno voluto (per darci occasione di frequentare con maggior divozione questo santo Esercizio) piamente aggiungervi anche quelli delle Indulgenze, fra' quali Urbano IV. Martino V. Sisto IV. Eugenio IV. concedono ducento anni d'indulgenza per ano, ed Innocenzo VI. trenta mila a tutti quelli, che celebrano, o divotamente ascoltano la santa Messa, che in tutto sono trenta mila, ed ottocento anni d'indulgenza per ogni volta."

Many Pontiffs to the precious treasures of so great graces, and powers of the Holy Mass have been pleased, (to give us cause for frequenting with greater devotion this holy exercise) piously to add those also of Indulgences, among whom Urban the IVth. Martin the Vth. Sextus the IVth. Eugenius the IVth. grant 200 years of Indulgence for one attendance, and Innocent the VIth. 30,000 to all those who celebrate, or devoutly hear the holy Mass: which in all are 30,800 years of indulgence for every time."

This is indeed level to the lowest capacity; the man, who hears unceasingly of the horrors of purgatory, attends the Mass, and coming home each day scores up a creditor account of 30,800 years of indulgence in the following items.

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At this rate, one Mass per diem for one year alone, produces, if we mistake not, a saving of eleven million two hundred and forty-two thousand years of Purgatory. Seriously, is there any thing more absurd in the Hindu doctrine of self-operative prayer, than the unqualified language of such a passage as that which we have just quoted?

This spiritual and speculative passage is followed by a string of miraculous interpositions in favour of those, who have diligently attended the Mass; this is not the least entertaining part of the book; the miracles are of all sorts, and performed towards all classes of people. The first, we have, is on the authority of a great man (but to these deponents utterly unknown) Cæsar Cam


pana, and shews how the fortress of Agra, in Hungary, was main tained inviolate, and 150,000 Turks and Thracians killed before the walls, not by the vigorous sallies and hard knocks of the Christian garrison, but by the Masses, which by order of a council of war they daily attended. Ma non è meno raguardevole, but not less remarkable, says our compiler, with great truth, is the story of Eusebius, Duke of Sardinia, whose capital having been surprised in his absence by Eustorgius, Duke of Sicily, was retaken principally by the unexpected assistance of a numerous and well appointed (body we can hardly say) of cavalry in white armour; the said cavalry being in truth neither more nor less than so many happy souls, whom the Masses of Eusebius had freed from purgatory, and who had gratefully "volunteered" from Paradise on this "particlar service." St. Antoninus, Archbishop of Florence, vouches the next story, which is rather well told, of three companions travelling, who were suddenly overtaken by a thunderstorm; two of them in an instant were reduced to ashes, while the third heard a voice resounding in the air, which angrily cried kill! kill!—the dæmon replied, I cannot kill, for this man hath heard this morning verbum caro factum est, the concluding words of the Mass. Vicarious Masses are not always, it seems, applied to the good of departed souls in purgatory; for we have a well authenticated story of a poor miner who was buried alive by the falling in of the rock. Providentially he was unhurt by the ruins, but without food or light, a lingering death seemed his only prospect. His wife, however, who concluded him dead, was anxious for his soul, and contributed a weekly Mass for its benefit, bringing always with her as an offering some bread and wine, and a large taper. Nothing could be more suitable to the relief of the poor man's real situation; the taper was lighted, no matter before whose picture, or graven image, and presto, an invisible hand, conveyed it with the good things to the poor man's prison. In this manner a whole year passed away, and the weekly arrival never failed except once, when the good lady forgot her Mass, and the prisoner was on banyan allowance with continual curfew for seven days. At the end of a year the mine was re-opened, and he and his story came to light, fresh and well conditioned, as an antediluvian toad from the centre of a stone. But enough of this trifling.

Such is this precious exhortation, of which we solemnly declare we have given a simple unexaggerated account; we leave it to the reflections of all considerate people, without a needless comment. It is followed by thirty-six short prayers, to be used by: devout Christians during as many different operations, which the Priest goes through in the celebration of the Mass. We do not observe any thing in them, which demands particular notice; but

their titles are somewhat curious, as they explain the numerous and inconsistent parts which the poor priest has to perform in this grand pantomime; sometimes he represents our Saviour, sometimes he stands for our Saviour and the Disciples; sometimes he is Pilate, Herod, the Jews, the Roman Soldiers, Judas -any body. But if one person, from the scantiness of the corps dramatique, does many parts; so also in some instances, different persons or things do the same part; thus our Saviour is represented in different places by the Altar itself, by the Cup, by the Host-by one moiety of the Host, and finally by that part of it which the priest eats.

The closeness of the symbol too, to the thing intended to be expressed, is not a little worth our notice. We take at random the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th Prayers, which are thus entitled *.

"The Priest kissing the Altar, which represents our Lord Jesu Christ when he was betrayed by Judas with a kiss, you shall say this, &c. The Priest going to say the Introitus, which represents Jesus Christ when he was made prisoner by the Jews, you shall, &c. The Priest beginning the Introitus, which represents our Lord Jesus Christ led to the house of Annas, and buffeted there, you shall, &c. The Priest saying the Kyrie Eleisons, which represents our Saviour conducted to the house of Caiaphas, where he was denied by St. Peter, you shall, &c. But these are not equal to some that follow; uncovering the cup is the stripping him of his raiment; covering it again, the crowning him with crowns; the Priest praying for the Living,' is Christ weighed down by the burden of his cross; and the placing the hands upon the cup, is his meeting with St. Veronica with her handkerchieft. In the course of the celebration, the Priest washes his fingers twice; the first time, he intends to repre

"Baciando il Sacerdote l'Altare, che rappresenta nostro Signor Gesu Cristo, quando con un bacio fu da Giuda tradito, dirà la,


"Andando il Sacerdote per dire l'Introito, che rappresenta Gesu Christo, quando fu fatto prigione dagli Ebrei, &c. andando "going" refers to the circumstance of the Introitus being said by the Priest not standing in front of the table, but at the south end of the princi pal (the western) side. It may be as well to observe here, that all the movements of the Priest are regular, and significant of something"Principiando il Sacerdote l'introito, che rappresenta nostro Signor Gesu Cristo condotto, e schiaffeggiato in casa d'Anna, &c. "Dicendo il Sacerdote li Kyric cleison, che rappresenta Gesu Cristo condotto in casa di Caifasso, ove fu da S. Pietro negato, &c."

In an enquiry of this sort, it should not be forgotten that il Santo Sudario, the sacred handkerchief is still preserved in the principal church at Turin, has a costly chapel of black marble dedicated to it, and performs miracles as copiously and as effectually as ever.


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