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SCRIPTURE DOCTRINE OF ATONE
THE OCCASIONS OF OFFERING SACRIFICES, AND THE CEREMONIES USED IN OFFERING THEM.
1. THAT the Jewish religion consisted very much in symbols, that is, in outward material signs, by which inward moral dispositions were represented, is very evidenț. And, as God himself was the author of it, we need not doubt but it was well adapted to the genius of the people, and to the times.
2. A great part of those symbols and figures are of little use to us now adays; and therefore it is of no great consequence whether we do, or do not understand them. But their sacrifices seem to bear such relation to the death of Christ; and are so frequently referred to in the writings of the
8. THE OCCASIONS OF OFFERING SACRIFICE.
New Testament, that it seems necessary to have just ideas of the one, in order to our forming a right judgment of the other.
3. Sacrifices were to be offered in the sanctuary, and in no other place, that being considered as the house, or palace, of God; where his extraordinary presence was signified by the ark of the covenant, and a bright appearance above it. A splendid apparatus of utensils, and great numbers of select persons were employed in the sacred rites. Various were the offerings here presented ; bullocks, rams, lambs, goats, kids, pigeons, turtles, corn, wine, oil, &c. Various were the ceremonies with which, and the occasions upon which, they were offered.
4. 1. The occasions were either general, or particular. General, when no special reason is given for sacrificing; but it seems to have been an act of homage paid to God, as the Maker, Owner, Ruler, and Preserver of all things. Under this head most of the sacrifices before the law of Mo. ses are to be ranked; and they commonly go by the name of burnt-offerings.
5. The particular occasions of sacrificing were three : either for the impetra
THE OCCASIONS OF OFFERING SACRIFICE. 9
tion of blessings desired; or for thanksgiving, when received; or for the removal of some guilt or uncleanness. Sacrifices under the two first heads are called peaceofferings, Lev. vii. 11, 12, 16. Those on the last account are distinguished into sinofferings and trespass-offerings ; otherwise called, in the language of modern divines, piacular or expiatory sacrifices.
6. The sins and trespasses for which they were offered, were generally sins of ignorance, or ceremonial pollutions. See Lev. iv. 2, 3, 13, 22, 27.-v. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18.-xii. 6.—xiv. 1, 2, &c.xv. 13, 14, 15. Numb. vi. 11.--XV. 22, &c. It is added ver. 30, But the soul that doth ought presumptuously, the same reproacheth the Lord; and that soul shall be cut off from among his people. No sacrifices were to be offered for him that did ought presumptuously, i. e. knowingly and wilfully. And yet there are three cases which seem to be exceptions from this general rule. (1.) When a person upon his oath before a magistrate did not utter what he had seen or known, Lev. v. i. (2.) When a man dealt fraudulently with his neighbour, Lev. vi. I, &c. (3.) The vi
tiating of a bond maid, Lev. xix. 20. In the rules for the day of atonement mention is made of all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions in all their sins, Lev. xvi. 21. But those sins must be excepted which were threatened with exçision, or cutting off.
7. II. The ceremonies used in offer ing sacrifices were as follows. The beast, , bullock, sheep, or goat, being without blemish, was brought unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, Lev. iv. 4, &c. Where, whether it was burntoffering Lev. i. 4, or peace-offering Lex. iji, 1, 2, 6, 8, 13, or sin-offering Lev. iv. 4, 15, 24, 29, 33, the offerer was to lay his hand upon the head of it. Then having slain it, the priest sprinkled the blood round about the altar; if it was a burnt-offering, or a peace-offering, Lev. i, 5, 11.-ii, 2, 8, 13. But if it was a sin-offering for the high priest, or for the whole congregation; the priest took of the blood, and brought it into the tabernacle of the congregation; and dipping his finger in it, sprinkled it seven times before the Lord, before the vail of the sanctuary; or before the holy of ho