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lies, where the 'ark and other symbols of the Divine presence were. And moreover, in all sin-offerings he put some of the blood upon the horns of the altar of sweet incense ; and lastly, poured out all the rest at the bottom of the altar of the burnt-offering, which was at the door of the tabernacle, Lev. iv. 5, 6, 7, 16, 17, 18, 25, 30. -v. 9.
8. In burnt-offerings, after the blood was sprinkled, the head, inwards, and legs were separated from the carcass; the inwards and legs washed in water, and, together with the head and the fat, laid upon the fire on the altar ; then the whole body of the sacrifice ; and all were burnt on the altar, Lev. i. 7, 8, 9, 12, 13.
9. In peace or sin-offerings, all the fat upon the inwards, the two kidneys, and the fat upon them, which is by the flanks, and the caul above the liver, were separated from the body, and 'burnt on the altar, upon the [daily] burnt-offering, 'Lev. iii. 3, 4, &c. iv, 8, 9, 10, 19, 20, 35. Moreover, in peace-offerings the breast, and the right shoulder were also to be taken off, and being first waved, or heaved to and fro, were given to the priests to be eaten by them; and the rest of the sacri. fice was eaten by the offerer, his family, and friends, Lev. vii. 15, 16, 30, 32, 33, 34. —x. 14, 15.
10. In those sin-offerings, where the blood was brought into the tabernacle, the carcass of the beast was carried out of the camp* (afterwards out of Jerusalem, the city being supposed to be the camp) unto a clean place, and there was burnt. (Lev. iv. 12, 21. vi. 30.-xvi. 27.) And he, who burnt it, was obliged to wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh, before he returned into the camp, as being unclean. But when the blood was not brought into the tabernacle, all the beast (excepting the parts burnt upon the altar) fell to the priests; and was to be eaten by no other persons, and in no other place, but in the sanctuary, Numb. xviii. 9, 10.
11. In Lev. xvi. 1, &c. are described the ceremonies observed on the annual day of atonement; when, for himself and family, the high priest offered a bullock for a sin offering. For the whole congregation of the people two goats were provided, and lots cast upon them; and according as the
* Heb. xiii. 11, 12, 13
lot fell, the one was for a sin-offering, the other reserved alive for another
use. When the sin-offerings were slain, the high priest took a censer of burning coals from the altar, and a handful of incense; and entering, with the greatest solemnity, through the vail, into the holy of holies; he set the censer down before the ark of the covenant, and poured the incense upon the ccals, at the smoke of it might cover, orobscure,the mercy-seat. Then he fetched the blood of the sin-offerings, and sprinkled it upon, and before the mercy-seat seven times. This done, he took the goat, which by lot was exempted from being sacrificed, and presented it alive before the Lord; laying both his hands upon its head, and confessing over it all the iniquities of the children of Israel, putting them upon the head of the goat; and so sent it away by the hand of a fit man into the wilderness, to be let loose in a desert, uninhabited land. Which man, by attending the goat, was rendered unclean; and therefore commanded to wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh, before he returned into the
THE MEANING, DESIGN, AND EFFICACY OF
SACRIFICES. 12. THESE are the chief sacrificial rites, which we have here any occasion to take notice of. And now, what judgment shall
form concerning them ? Certainly, however they might subserve some political or civil purposes; or contribute to the subsistence of the priesthood, they were of a religious nature; and had a primary and principal respect to God. For,
13. (1.) The tabernacle (afterward the temple) was regarded as the palace and residence of God upon earth; where his pres. ence was signified by the ark, and the shechinah in the holy of holies. This needs no proof. And therefore all approach to that, must be supposed to be an approach to God. And when all the sacrifices are ordered to be brought to this sanctuary, or house of God; all the sacrificial actions to be performed there, and the blood particularly to be partly sprinkled towards the divine presence in the holy of holies, and partly poured out at the foot of the altar, no doubt can
MEANING AND EFFICACY OF SACRIFICES. 15
be made, but those sacrifices had respect unto God; and must have a sense and meaning worthy of him, the great Object and Author of them.
14. (2.) The priests were his servants, and ministered unto him in holy things; and therefore, their solemn actions in the house of God must bear relation to God, whose ministers they were.
15. (3.) Besides, some sacrifices were, and some were not, accepted of God. Lev. i. 4.-xxii. 21, 23, 25. Mal. i. 8, 10, 13. Which shews, they had respect to God's favour and approbation. Psal. xx. 1, 3. The Lord remember all thy offerings, and accept thy burnt-sacrifice.
16. (4.) Again ; they were offered either to obtain a blessing from God; or by way of thanksgiving for favours which he had bestowed; or for the remission of sins, which he alone could pardon ; and therefore, must have respect unto God in very important concernments.
17. (5.) Add to this, that the mind of the offerer was to be well disposed in performing the sacrifice; otherwise, it is frequently declared, That the sacrifice was not pleasing to God. He was always to