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BOOK IV.

1.-The Nature Or SANCTIFICATION AND GOSPEL HOLINESS EXPLAINED. --Re-

generation the way whereby the Spirit forms living members for the

myst cal body of Christ ---Carried on hy sanctification-1 Thess. v. 23

opened --God the only author of our sanctitication and holiness, and that

as the God of peace--Sanctification described-A diligent inquiry into

the nature whereof, with that of holiness, proved necessary-Sanctifica-

tion twofold: 1. By external delication; 2. By internal purification-

Holiness peculiar to the gospel and its truth -Not discernible to the eye

of carnal reason- Hardly understood by believers themselves--It passeth

over into eteinity-Hath in it a present glory- Is all that God requireth

of us, and in what sense -Promised unto us-

s-How we are to improve the

command for holiness,

366

II.-SANCTIFICATION A PROGRESSIVE WORK.-Sanctification described, with the

nature of the work of the Holy Spirit therein; which is progressive-

The way and means whereby holiness is increased in believers, especially

by faith and love, whose exercise is required in all duties of obedience;

as also those graces whose exercise is occasional - The growth of holiness

expressed in an allusion unto that of plants, with an insensible progress

-- Renders grace therein to be greatly admired; and is discerned in the

answerableness of the work of the Spirit in sanctification and supplica-

tion-Objections against the progressive nature of holiness removed, 386

III.-BELIEVERS THE ONLY OBJECT OF SANCTIFICATION, AND SUBJECT OF GOSPEL

HOLINESS. - Believers the only subject of the work of sanctification-

How men come to believe, if believers alone receive the Spirit of sancti.

fication-The principal ends for which the Spirit is promised, with their

order in their accomplishment-Rules to be observed in praying for the

Spirit of God, and his operations therein-That believers only are sanc-

tified or holy proved and confirmed - Mistakes about holiness, both

notional and practical, discovered–The proper subject of holiness in be.

lievers,

406

IV.-Tax DEFILEMENT OF SIN, WHEREIN IT Consists, with its Purification.--

Purification the first proper notion of sanctification-Institution of bap-

tism confirming the same apprehension-A spiritual defilement and pol-

lution in sin-The nature of that defilement, or wherein it doth consist

– Depravation of nature and acts with respect unto God's holiness, how

and why called “filth" and "pollution"-Twofold pravity and defile-

ment of sin-Its aggravations-We cannot purge it of ourselves, nor

could it be done by the law, nor by any ways invented by men for that end, 422

V.-Tue Filtu OF SIN PURGED BY THE SPIRIT AND Blood op CHRIST.-Purifi.

cation of the filth of sin the first part of sanctification- How it is effect-

ed–The work of the Spirit therein-Efficacy of the blood of Christ to

that purpose- The blood of his sacrifice intended - How that blood cleans-

eth from sin- Application unto it, and application of it by the Spirit-

Wherein that application consists-Faith the instrumental cause of our

purification, with the use of afflictions to the same purpose-Necessity

of a due consideration of the pollution of sin-Considerations of the pol.

lution and purification of sin practically improved—Various directions

for a due application unto the blood of Christ for cleansing-Sundry de-

grees of shamelessness in sinning-Directions for the cleansing of sin

continued–Thankfulness for the cleansing of sin, with other uses of the

same consideration-Union with Christ, how consistent with the re-

mainders of sin-From all that, differences between evangelical holiness

and the old nature asserted,

436

VI.-TAE Positive WORK OF THE SPIRIT IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS.

-Differences in the acts of sanctification as to order—The manner of

the communication of holiness by the Spirit-The rule and measure

whereof is the revealed will of God, as the rule of its acceptance is the

covenant of grace-The nature of holiness as inward-Righteousness

habitual and actual-False notions of holiness removed–The nature of

a spiritual habit - Applied unto holiness, with its rules and limitations

-Proved and confirmed--Illustrated and practically improved— The pro-

perties of holiness as a spiritual habit declared-1. Spiritual dispositions

unto suitable acts; how expressed in the Scripture; with their effects

-Contrary dispositions unto sin and holiness how consistent-2. Power;

the nature thereof; or what power is required in believers unto holy

obedience; with its properties and effects in readiness and facility-

Objections thereunto

answered, and an inquiry on these principles after

true holiness in ourselves directed-Gospel grace distinct from morality,

and all other hal its of the mind; proved by many arguments, especially

CHAP.

its relation unto the mediation of Christ–The principal difference be-

tween evangelical holiness and all other habits of the mind, proved by

the manner and way of its communication from the person of Christ as

the head of the church, and the peculiar efficiency of the Spirit therein

-Moral honesty not gospel holiness,

468

VII.-OF THE ACTS AND DUTIES OF HOLINESS.-Actual inherent righteousness in

duties of holiness and obedience explained-The work of the Holy Spirit

with respect thereunto-Distribution of the positive duties of holíness

--Internal duties of holiness-External duties and their difference-

Effectual operation of the Holy Spirit necessary unto every act of holi-

ness-Dependence on providence with respect unto things natural, and

on grace with respect unto things supernatural, compared- Arguments

to prove the necessity of actual grace unto every duty of holiness-

Contrary designs and expressions of the Scripture and some men about

duties of holiness,

527

VIII.—MORTIFICATION OF SIN, TIE NATURE AND CAUSES OF IT.-Mortification of

sin, the second part of sanctification-Frequently prescribed and enjoin-

ed as a duty-What the name signifies, with the reason thereof; as also

that of crucifying sin-The nature of the mortification of sin explained

---Indwelling sin, in its principle, operations, and effects, the object of

mortification-Contrariety between sin and grace-Mortification a par-

taking with the whole interest of grace against sin-How sin is morti.

fied, and why the subduing of it is so called - Directions for the right dis-

charge of this duty-Nature of it unknown to many—The Holy Spirit

the author and cause of mortification in us--The manner of the opera-

tion of the Spirit in the mortitication of sin-Particular means of the

mortification of sin-Duties necessary unto the mortification of sin, di-

rected unto by the Holy Ghost-Mistakes and errors of persons failing

in this matter - How spiritual duties are to be managed, that sin may be

mortified-Influence of the virtue of the death of Christ, as applied by

the Holy Spirit, into the mortification of sin,

538

BOOK V.

1.–NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM THE CONSIDERATION OF THE NATURE OF GOD.

- The necessity of evangelical holiness owned by all Christians-Doctrines

falsely charged with an inconsistency with it – Though owned by all, yet

practised by few, and disadvantageously pleaded for by many-The true

nature of it briefly expressed-First argument for the necessity of holi.

ness, from the nature of God; frequently proposed unto our considera-

tion for that end-This argument cogent and unavoidable; pressed, with

its limitation-Not the nature of God absolutely, but as he is in Christ,

the foundation of this necessity, and a most effectual motive unto the same

end-The nature and efficacy of that motive declared–The argument

enforced from the consideration of our conformity unto God by holiness,

with that communion and intercourse with him which depend thereon,

with our future everlasting enjoyment of him-True force of that consi-

deration vindicated-Merit rejected, and also the substitution of mora-

lity in the room of gospel holiness - False accusations of the doctrine of

grace discarded; and the neglect of the true means of promoting gospel

obedience charged-The principal argument farther enforced, from the

pre-eminence of our natures and persons by this conformity to God, and

our accesses unto God thereby, in order unto our cternal enjoyment of

him; as it also alone renders us useful in this world unto others-Two

sorts of graces by whose exercise we grow into conformity with God :

those that are assimilating, as faith and love; and those which are de-

clarative of that assimilation, as goodness or benignity, and truth-An

objection against the necessity of holiness, from the freedom and efficacy

of grace, answered,

566

11.-ETERNAL ELECTION Á CAUSE OF AND MOTIVE UNTO HOLINESS.--Other argu-

ments for the necessity of holiness, from God's eternal election-The

argument from thence explained, improved, vindicated,

591

III.--HIOLINESS NECESSARY FROM THE COMMANDS OF God.- Necessity of holiness

proved from the commands of God in the law and the gospel, .

604

IV.-NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM God's SENDING JEsus Christ. The neces-

sity of holiness proved from the design of God in sending Jesus Christ,

with the ends of his mediation,

628

V.-Necessity of HOLINESS FROM OUR CONDITION IN THIS World.—

Necessity

of holiness farther argued from our own state and condition in this

world; with what is required of us with respect unto our giving glory to

Jesus Christ,

641

II NETMATOAOTIA.

OR,

A DISCOURSE CONCERNING THE HOLY SPIRIT :

WUEREIX

AN ACCOUNT IS GIVEN OF HIS NAME, NATURE, PERSONALITY, DISPENSATION, OPERATIONS, AND EFFECTS; HIS WHOLE WORK IN THE OLD AND NEW CREATION IS EXPLAINED; THE DOCTRINE CONCERNING IT VINDICATED

FRON OPPOSITIONS AND REPROACHES.

THE NATURE ALSO AND NECESSITY OF GOSPEL HOLINESS; THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GRACE AND MORALITY, OR A SPIRITUAL LIFE UNTO GOD IN EVANGELICAL OBEDIENCE

AND A COURSE OF MORAL VIRTUES, ARE STATED AND DECLARED.

Search the Scriptures, etc.-JOHN v. 39.
'Εκ των θείων γραφών θεολογούμεν, κάν θέλωσιν οι εχθροί, κάν μή. - CHRYSOSTOM.

LONDON: 1674.

VOL II.

1

PREFATORY NOTE.

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Tue year 1674 saw issuing from the press some of the most elaborate productions of our author. Besides his own share in the Communion controversy, he published in the course of that year the second volume of his Exposition of the Epistle to the Hebrews, and another folio of equal extent and importance, the first part of his work on the Holy Spirit; for what is generally known under the title of “Owen on the Holy Spirit," is but the first half of a treatise on that subject. The treatise was completed in successive publications :—" The Reason of Faith,” in 1677; “ The Causes, Ways, and Means of Understanding the Mind of God,” etc., in 1678; “The Work of the Holy Spirit in Prayer," in 1682; and, in 1693, two posthumous discourses appeared, “On the Work of the Spirit as a Comforter, and as he is the Author of Spiritual Gifts." From the statements of Owen himself, in various parts of these works, as well as on the authority of Nathaniel Mather, who wrote the preface to the last of them, we learn that they were all included in one design, and must be regarded as one entire and uni. form work. In Owen's preface to the “ Reason of Faith,” he expressly states, “ About three years since I published a book about the dispensation and operations of the Spirit of God. That book was one part only of what I designed on that subject. The consideration of the work of the Holy Spirit as the Spirit of illumination, of supplication, of consolation, and as the immediate author of all spiritual offices and gifts, extraordinary and ordinary, is designed unto the second part of it.” Uncertain, as he advanced in years, whether he should be spared to finish it, Owen was induced to issue separately the treatises belonging to the second part, according as he was able, under the pressure of other duties, to overtake the preparation and completion of them. They are now for the first time collected, and arranged into the order which, it is believed, the author would have made them assume, had he lived to publish an edition comprehending all his treatises on the Holy Spirit in the form and under the title of one work. No other liberty, however, is taken with the treatises than simply to number the four of them which were published separately, and which are contained in the next volume, as so many additional books, continuing and completing the discussion of the subject which had been begun and so far prosecuted in the five previous books embraced in this volume. To all of them the general designation IINEYMATOAoria is equally applicable. Thus arranged and seen in its full proportions, the work amply vindicates the commendation bestowed on it, as the most complete exhibition of the doctrine of Scripture on the person and agency of the Spirit “ to be found in any language." As no author had previously attempted to treat “ of the whole economy of the Holy Spirit, with all his adjuncts, operations, and effects,” Owen urges the circumstance in extenuation of any want of system and lucid order in his work. If such an attempt had never previously been made, it is equally true that no successor has been found in this walk of theology who has ventured to compete with Owen in the full and systematic discussion of this great theme. Treatises of eminent ability and value have appeared on separate departments of it; but in the wide range embraced in this work of Owen, as well as in the power, depth, and resources conspicuous in every chapter, it is not merely first, but single and alone in all our religious literature.

The work, as we may gather from various allusions in it, was written in opposition to the rationalism of the early Socinians, especially as represented by Crellius ; to the mysticism of the Quakers, a sect which had grown into notoriety within thirty years before the publication of this work; and to the irreligion of a time when the derision of all true piety was the passport to royal favour. That, during the religious fervours of the commonwealth, fanaticism of various kinds should appear, is no more strange than that when genuine coin is in circulation, attempts should be made to utter what is counterfeit and base. Against such fanaticism it was natural that a reaction should ensue, and certain divines pandered to the blind prejudice of the times succeed. ing the Restoration, by sarcastic invective against all that was evangelical in the creed of the Puritans and vital in personal godliness. Samuel Parker, in his infamous subserviency to the malice of the Court against dissent, and even against the common interests of Protestantism, distinguished himself in this assault upon the doctrines of grace and the distinctive principles of the Christian faith. Owen accordingly adminis. ters to him a rebuke in terms as severe us the calm dignity of his temper ever allowed him to employ in controversy; but the prominent aim in his whole work is to dis. criminate the gracious operations of the Spirit in the hearts of believers from the ex.

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cesses of fanaticism on the one hand, whether as it appeared in the ruder sects of the age, or in the more genial mysticism of the Quaker, elevating his subjective experience of a spiritual light to co-ordinate authority with the objective revelation of God in the word; and, on the other hand, from the morality which, springing from no gracious principle, scarcely brooked an appeal to the only divine code for the regulation of human conduct.

This comprehensive treatise abounds in more than Owen's usual prolixity;—a feature of the work which may, perbaps, be explained by the consciousness under which the author seems always to labour that he is prosecuting an argument with opponents, rather than dealing with the conscience in a treatise on practical religion. He moves heavily, as if he were panoplied for conflict rather than girt for useful work. As he proceeds, however, the interest deepens; weighty questions receive clear elucidation; practical difficulties are judiciously resolved; and momentous distinctions, such as those between gospel holiness and common morality, and between natural and moral inability, are skilfully given. Indeed, many points which he brings out with sufficient precision, when stripped of the wordiness which encumbers them, are found to be identical with certain modes in the presentation of divine truth which have been deemed the discoveries and improvements of a later theology. No work of the author supplies better evidence of his pre-eminent skill in what may be termed spiritual ethics,-in tracing the effect of religious truth on the conscience, and the varied phases of human feeling as modified by divine grace and tested by the divine word; and his reasonings would have been reputed highly philosophical if they had not been so very scriptural.

It is in reference to the following work that Cecil, an acute and rather severe judge of books and authors, has observed, “Owen stands at the head of his class of divines. His scholars will be more profound and enlarged, and better furnished, than those of most other writers. His work on the Spirit has been my treasure-house, and one of my very first-rate books." A good abridgment of it by the Rev. G. Burder has appeared in more than one edition.

In 1678, Dr Clagett, preacher to the Honourable Society of Gray's Inn, and one of his Majesty's chaplains in ordinary, in “ A Discourse concerning the Operation of the Holy Spirit,” etc., attempted " a confutation of some part of Dr Owen's work on that subject.” Mr John Humfrey, in his “ Peaceable Disquisitions," having animadverted on the spirit in which Clagett had dealt with Owen, Clagett published another volume, and promised a third on the opinions of the Fathers respecting the points at issue. The manuscript of this last volume was lost in a fire which consumed the house of a friend with whom it had been lodged. Henry Stebbing published, in 1719, an abridgment of the first two volumes. The principles of the work are not evangelical; a tone of cold pedantry pervades it; and the author seems as much influenced by a desire to differ from Owen as to discover the truth in regard to the points on which they differed.

ANALYSIS. The Fiest Book of the treatise is devoted to considerations of a general and preliminary nature. The promise of spiritual gifts contained in Scripture is examined ; and occasion is hence taken to illustrate the importance of sound views on the doctrine of the Spirit, from the place it holds in Scripture; from the abuses practised under his name; from certain pretences that were urged to inward light, inconsistent with the claims of the Spirit of God; from many dangerous opinions which had become prevalent respecting his work and influence; and from the opposition directly offered to the Spirit and his work in the world, chap. I. The name and titles of the Holy Spirit are next consid. ered, 11. The evidence of his divine nature and personality follows, from the formula of our initiation into the covenant, Matt. xxviii. 19; from the visible sign of his personal existence, Matt. jii. 16; from the personal properties ascribed to him; from the personal acts be performs; and from those acts towards him on the part of men which imply his personality. A short proof of his Godhead, from the divine names he receives, and the divine properties ascribed to him, is appended to the argument in illustration of his personality, in. The work of the Spirit in the old creation, in reference to the heavens, to the earth, to man, and to the continued sustentation of the universe, is fully explained, iv. The dispensation of the Spirit is illustrated in reference to the Father as giving, sending him, etc., and in reference to his own voluntary and personal agency as proceeding, coming, etc., v.

In the Second Book, the peculiar operations of the Holy Spirit under the old testament, and in preparation for the new, are considered, such as prophecy, inspiration,

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