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obtained its charter in 1621, and merged within itself the grate of the saw and the click of the hammer, were Amsterdam Licensed Trading Company. It was clothed doubtless sounds which had become somewhat familiar with the right “ to traffic and plant colonies on the coast to the ears of the red warriors, who witnessed, year afof Africa, from the Tropic of Cancer to the Cape of Good ter year, their wild domains more and more encroachHope, and on the coast of America from the straits of ed upon, but without the slightest apprehension, as yet, Magellan to the remotest north.” The almost unlimited of those results that have overwhelmed their posterity region brought thus within the objects of this company, with ruin. The Mohawk hunter, pursuing the deer was embraced principally for warlike purposes-the upon the hills, saw beneath him the sharp gables and suppression of piracy and the prosecution of the im- twisted chimneys of Fuyk,—and, glancing though the pending war, but the results of the secondary object, branches, the gliding sails of the few sloops that plied Colonization, were most important, not only to our betveen it and Fort Amsterdam, not only without alarm particular subject matter, but to the whole State of but as objects appealing to his friendship for protection. New-York. The Company was divided into five bran- The settlement, under the immediate command of Elches; the chief branch residing at Amsterdam, and hav- kans, continued (slowly, however,) to increase until ing charge of the newly discovered district of country 1629, when an event occurred by which its fate was which was beginning to be known under the name of the auspiciously decided. This was the charter of liberties New Netherlands. This tract of wilderness, however, and exemptions granted that year to the Patroons. It did not engage the attention of the Directors until some provided, among other things, that such members of the two years after, at which time they sent out Capt. Corne- West India Company as should, within four years after lis Jacobus Mey, for the purposes of assisting the traders giving notice of their intention, plant a colony in the upon the river; also of confirming possession and of New-Netherlands of fifty souls, should be acknowledged traffic. Mey found the settlers in a destitute condition, Patroons, and have liberty to extend their limits sixteen awaiting the protracted return of a ship from Holland, English miles upon one side of a navigable river, or with the utmost impatience. The gloom of their situa- eight upon both sides. Four individuals availed themtion was enhanced by that of the other settlements. selves of this provision; amongst whom was Killian The English Colony, at Virginia, had suffered a mas- Van Rensselaer, a merchant of wealth and respectabilisacre from the tomahawk; the French of Canada were ty, and a director in the Amsterdam branch of the comtrembling before the Iroquois ; Nova Scotia, or New- | pany. A provision had also been inserted in the charScotland, had but one Scotch inhabitant, and New-Eng- ter, granting permission to any who should extend the land was daily expecting extermination beneath the up-colony to a greater number than fifty souls, to extend lifted hatchets of the Pequod and Narraghansett. In proportionably their limits. Under this latter provision, the vast wilderness, filling the future empire of New- Van Rensselaer acted. In 1630 the first purchase was York, there were but four abodes of civilized man: made by him through the agency of Sebastian Croll, upon Manhattan island, on the Norman’s-Kill height, who exercised the functions of Commissary at Fortat Esopus, then called Wiltwyck, and Schenectady. Orange. This purchase being subsequently extended, These abodes were merely forts, with a few sheds the Patroon possessed himself of a territory extending around, for the purposes of the fur traffic.
twenty-four miles upon either shore of the river, with The arrival of Mey, however, put a new aspect upon the condition, however, that he should commence his affairs, so far as regards New Netherlands. The set- colony with a population of one hundred and fifty tlers were assured that the Father-land had not forgot- souls. He immediately began the transportation of men ten them, and accordingly new spirit was insused. — and goods — the grating of the saws and the beating of The redoubt at Norman’s Kill was abandoned, and a the hammers became more frequent in the settlement, new one, (about the same time with one at Manhat- and the cheerful smile of civilized existence shed a tan,) was erected upon a bend of the west shore, about wider beam amidst the forest region. The Indian traptwo miles farther up the river. That at Manhattan was per looked in vain for the beaver amongst their deserted named Fort Amsterdam-this, Fort Orange. The latter huts in the upper waters of Foxen and Buttermilk was built under the superintendence of Christianse, creeks, and the wolf and bear saw, more and more, who, however, after this year, (1623,) disappears, his their haunts destroyed by the merciless axe ringing its authority of Opper Hoofdt or Chief Commander, being merry music in the solitudes. afterwards exercised by Jacobus Elkans, his former
[Concluded in our next.) Lieutenant.
The fort was a block-house, surrounded by a moat It is wonderful how some people make a little knowand palisades of red cedar, mounting the same number ledge go a great way, and how they manage, by judiof guns as the Castle Island redoubt, and garrisoned by cious nods and winks, and the circumspect use of affira sergeant or wacht meester and his guard,
matives and negatives, or by well-introduced hem's or As the fort was named after the Prince of Orange, so ha's to impress other people with the idea that they was the river styled in honor of Prince Maurice, the Mau- (the winkers and nodders) are miraculously endowed ritius, and North river, to distinguish it from the South beings, second Davys as chemists, Byrons as poets, or Delaware river, upon the banks of which settlements Herschells as astronomers, Handels as musicians, and had been commenced. Around this spot was planted Raphaels as paintersSilence will do more for a man's the root of the city of Albany, in the shape of a few reputation in this way than one may imagine, and many dwellings, which cluster was called, from the bend upon a "clever fellow" has won his title by the means we which it was placed, Fuyk i. e. hoop or bow-net. The have just alluded to.
BY E. B. O'CALLAGHAN.
Description of the Plague in Florence, Anno 1348. have heard it from persons worthy of trust. So subtle, [From the Italian of Boccacio.)
I say then, was the poison of this pestilence, in passing from one to another, that not only the man, but
what's more, it often publicly occurred that the matter The years of the beneficent Incarnation of the Son of appertaining to a man afflicted or dead with this malady, God had already numbered one thousand three hundred touched by any other animal not of the human species, forty and eight, when the death-bearing Pestilence en not alone infected the animal, but absolutely destroyed tered the renowned city of Florence, beyond all others it in a short space of time. The proof hereof was of Italy the most beautiful. Sent among mortals either tested, one day, after this manner, before mine own through the influence of superior bodies, or by the just eyes. anger of God for our correction, in consequence of our The rags belonging to a beggar, who had died of this iniquities, it broke out some years before in the East, distemper, lay on the street. Two swine having apwhence, after having destroyed innumerable lives, it proached them, first turned them up with their snouts, as passed from one place to another without delay, shaping is their wont, then caught them between their teeth and its course unfortunately towards the West. Against it shook them. In a short space of time, after having availed neither wisdom nor human forethought, which turned somewhat around, they both fell to the earth caused the city to be purged of much uncleanness, by dead, over the tumbled rags, as if they had swallowed officers appointed for that purpose, by whom admittance poison. was refused to all sick persons, and various wise regu In consequence of these and numberless other cases lations made for the conservation of the public health ; equally, if not more alarming, divers fears and fancies nor yet humble supplications repeatedly offered up to took possession of the minds of the living, and one and God by devout persons, and accompanied by processions all arrived as if at one common, though cruel, concluand other religious ceremonies, for early in the spring sion; which was, to shun and flee the sick and whatof the forementioned year it began to manifest its de- ever belonged to them, and thus each imagined that he vastating ravages in an awful and horrible manner. should best secure his own safety.
Hemorrhage from the nose was a palpable sign of Some there were who thought that moderate living, certain death; but swellings appeared, in the com- and the avoidance of all superfluities, aided much in mencement of the disease, in the armpits and groins, resisting these misfortunes. So, having made up their both of men and women; these grew, some as big as party, they lived separate from all others, and by colan apple, others an egg-some larger, some smaller. lecting together and shutting themselves up where no The common people called them boils. From those sick were, by good nourishment, delicate meats, and parts these spread, in a short time, indifferently over the best of wines, without communicating or speaking all parts of the body, after which the nature of the dis. with any without, they contrived to live with their ease became changed, and black or livid spots appeared friends, enjoying such amusements as they could comon the arms, hips and other places ; on some large and mand, nor experienced any instance either of sickness few; on others, minute and many. And as the boil or of death. had been, from the first, and still continued, the most Others, having formed an opposite opinion, maintained certain indication of death, so it was with all on whom that amusements, singing, diversions, the gratification it appeared.
of the appetite in every possible way, laughing and For the cure of such a disease neither doctors' skill scoffing at every thing that occurred, was the best menor the power of medicine seemed to be of any effect. dicine against sickness. And as they preached so did On the contrary, whether it was that its nature was not they practise, night and day, to the utmost of their ascertained or not understood by professors of the heal- power ; now in this tavern, now in that; drinking withing art, (the number of whom, in addition to the Fa- out limit and without measure ; acting, moreover, in culty, was immensely increased, as well by women as other people's houses just as they pleased or as their by men totally ignorant of all medical knowledge,) no amusement prompted; for this they were now free to suitable remedies could be applied, and not only did do, since every one, as if he were to live no longer, few recover, but, on the contrary, almost all died on had abandoned his goods, as he had himself, to the the third day after the appearance of the above symp- mercy of the world. Thus was almost every thing in toms; some sooner, some later; the greater number common, and strangers made use of whatever they without any fever or other accident.
came across, as if they were its proper owners; for And the more destructive still was this pestilence, in this afflicting and wretched condition of our city inasmuch as from the sick it communicated to the the revered authority of the law, both human and healthy in the same manner as fire seizes dry or greasy divine, fell as it were into utter decay, and disapcombustibles, when they are too near. And yet greater peared; for the ministers and executors thereof were was the evil, for not only did speaking to or visiting the all, like other men, either dead or sick, or so destitute sick convey infection to the healthy, and cause common of assistants that they could perform no official duty. death, but touching the clothes or anything else that Every one, therefore, was free to do just as he pleased. the diseased had used or handled, seemed to transmit Between the two courses mentioned above, many the sickness. Wonderful to hear is what I am about to adopted a middle plan, neither restricting themselves narrate, which, if it had not been beheld by the eyes in their diet, like the first, nor committing excesses in of numbers as well as by mine, scarcely should I have drinking, and various other dissipations, like the second. dared to believe, much less to record it, albeit I might | They used merely what sufficed to satisfy the appetite,
and instead of shutting themselves up, they went abroad It was customary (as in our days) for the female relacarrying in their hands a few flowers, fragrant herbs, and tives and neighbors to assemble in the house of the despices, of which they would occasionally smell consid- ceased to mourn with the inmates, whilst, on the other ering that it was best to comfort the brain by such odors, hand, the neighbors and citizens collected with the for the whole air appeared charged and fætid with the connections in front of the house; and then, according foul emanations from dead corpses, sickness and drugs. to the rank of the departed, came the clergy, who con
Others there were who entertained a more unfeeling ducted him, raised on the shoulders of his peers, with opinion, albeit it might, peradventure, be the safest. all the funereal pomp of sacred hymns and lighted These averred that no remedy was more effectual against tapers, to the church which he had selected before his all sorts of pestilence, nor so good, than to fly from be- death. But when the ferocity of the plague began to fore them. And in accordance with this view, regard- manifest itself, these customs disappeared in whole or ing nothing but themselves, a number of ladies and in part, and other strange ones supervened in the stead gentlemen abandoned the city, their own houses, their thereof. For people died not only without having a dwellings, their parents and property, and went else- number of females around their beds, but crowds passed where; as if the anger of God, excited to punish the ini- out of this life without one to witness their departure. quity of man, could not reach them wherever they might Fewest of all were those to hom were given the pious happen to be; as if it was designed to overwhelm those tears and sorrowful wailings of their kinsfolk. In place alone who remained within the city walls, or to warn of these came laughter and jestings and social merry all to flee therefrom, for its last hour was now come. makings into vogue, which customs the women, having Though those who entertained these conflicting opinions now for the most part laid feminine piety aside, had, did not all die, all did not, therefore, escape. On the for their health's sake, learned to perfection. Few, contrary, many of each fell sick, and these, (having indeed, were they who were accompanied to church themselves given, everywhere, when well, the example by more than ten or twelve persons ; not honorable and to those who continued in health,) pined, everywhere, esteemed citizens, but a species of grave diggers, sprung away as if abandoned by all.
from the lowest classes, who called themselves underNot only did one citizen shun the other, and neighbor takers. These being hired, crept under the coffin, and disregard his neighbor, and relatives visited each other carried it in a hurry, not to the church which had been seldom or never, and at distant intervals, but such terror, selected before death, but, usually, to the nearest, prein this hour of trouble, possessed the hearts alike of ceded by five or six of the clergy, a glimmering light, women and of men, that brother abandoned brother; the and frequently without any taper at all. With the aid uncle the nephew; the sister her brother, and often- of such a convoy, who did not fatigue themselves with an times the wife her husband; and what is more extraor- overlong or oversolemn office, the corpse was shovelled dinary, and almost passing belief, fathers and mothers into the first unoccupied pit they came to. avoided visiting and attending their children, as if these Far greater was the wretchedness which prevailed belonged not to them. So great was the multitude who, among the lower, or rather among the middle classes. from these causes alone fell sick, that these became These, detained for the most part at home, either by entirely dependent on the charity of friends (and these poverty or hope, sickened daily by thousands, and havwere very few) or on the avarice of servants who at- ing neither servants nor means, all perished beyond tended for high wages, or in consequence of unbecom- redemption. Numbers of these expired, by night and ing importunities, though many would not consent to by day, in the public streets-many more in their houses come even for all these. Unaccustomed, for the most whose deaths their neighbors learnt for the first time part, to such service, numbers of those servants were only by the stench of their putrified carcasses; and of so stupid as to be utterly useless, save to hand what these and of others who died wholesale was every the sick might demand, or to look on whilst they were place full. Prompted, as well by the fear that the dying. Whilst employed even in these services, many corruption of the dead would be prejudicial to themtimes they perished with all their gains.
selves, as by the charity which they entertained for In consequence of the sick being thus abandoned by the departed, one and the same plan was generally neighbors, relatives and friends, and owing to the observed by the neighbors. Either by themselves scarcity of help, that happened which never before or with the aid of porters, when they could be prowas heard of—which was, that no lady, how beautiful, cured, they drew forth the bodies of the dead from or lovely, or gentle-blooded soever she might have been, their recent habitations, and placed them before the hesitated, on falling sick, to be nursed by a man, no doors, where they could be seen, beyond number, esmatter whether he were young or old, provided her pecially in the morning, by whomsoever ventured sickness actually required it, which perhaps caused around, and after the coffins had been brought. Such those who recovered to be less virtuous afterwards. was the want of these that many were laid out on some Besides this, many died who might have escaped had chance plank. they chanced to have had assistance. Wherefore, from Nor was that a solitary bier which bore away two or the want of proper attendance, which it was impossible three corpses at a time, for this occurred more than once. to obtain, and from the virulence of the pestilence, the Nay, it was impossible to count those which positively multitude who nightly and daily perished was so great held the husband and wife, two or three brothers, or the that it was awful to hear tell of, let alone to behold. father and son. And it happened, time after time, that Usages foreign to the early habits of the citizens hence a couple of priests, bearing a crucifix for some particuarosé as if of necessity among those who survived. lar person, were followed by three or four litters, and
The Indian's Lamentation,
BY RICHARD FELTON.
where they thought that they had only one corpse to inter, they would have six or eight, and oftentimes more. Nor were these honored by lighted tapers, or mourners or other followers. Things had come to that pass that no more regard was paid to dead men than is now paid to goats.
The consecrated ground not being sufficient to contain the multitude of corpses which were brought, not only daily but hourly, to the several churches, and it being desirable to appropriate to each a proper place according to ancient custom, enormous ditches were dug in each churchyard, as every place was full, and into these were the dead huddled by hundreds. Here, covered with a little earth, were they piled, like merchandize on shipboard, tier over tier, until they reached from the bottom even unto the top of the trench.
But it is unnecessary for me to enumerate every particular of our past misfortunes. I will merely add that having ravaged the city so destructively, it did not on that account spare the surrounding country the more. Here (not to mention the castles, which resembled the city in miniature) the poor husbandmen and their families died, night and day, in scattered villages, in the fields and on the roadside, not like men, but like cattle, without troubling a physician, and without any sort of assistance. The country people, like the citizens, became, hence, careless, and paid no attention to any of their affairs. On the contrary, all, as if expecting death within that day, exercised their ingenuity, not in preserving the products of their cattle, of their lands, and the fruits of their past industry, but in consuming whatever they could lay hands on. Wherefore it came to pass, that the oxen, the asses, the sheep, the goats, the swine, the fowls, and even the very dogs, the most faithful followers of man, turned out of their houses, wandered wherever they pleased, through the fields, where the grain still remained, not only unharvested, but uncut. Many of them, however, having been well foddered through the day, returned, like rational beings, at night, satisfied, to their folds.
Quitting the country and returning to the city, what more can be said than that Heaven was so implacable and man so hardened of heart, that, between the virulence of this fatal plague and the improper attendance or utter abandonment of the sick in their need, owing to the terror which seized those in health, more than one hundred thousand human beings, for a certainty, perished, from the month of March to the ensuing July, within the walls of the city of Florence! Who would have imagined, before this destructive visitation, that so many dwelt therein ? O how many stately palaces! how many beautiful houses ! how many noble mansions, recently crowded with noble lords and ladies, remained now without the meanest servant! O how many renowned families ! how many splendid inheri. tances! what enormous wealth, was left without an heir! How many gallant men; how many beauteous women; how many handsome youths, whom Galen, Hippocrates or Esculapius would have pronounced in the ruddiest health, dined in the morning with their relatives, friends and companions, and supped on the next evening with their ancestors in the other world!
gaze and the tears of anguish swell, I gaze but 'tis only to bid farewell.
BY ROBERT NEILSON.
The word was spoken, and this green earth
Reapings by a Reader.-No. 1.
M. Passy then proceeds to inquire what change has On the influence of the division of heritable property occurred in the amount of fortunes distributed among on the accumulation of wealth.
the class possessing property. The value of property It is probably the popular opinion that the law of in- transmitted by will or inheritance in 1826, was, heritance adopted in France since the revolution, and 1,345,711,516 francs, and in 1836 it had increased to which divides a man's property among his heirs, has 1,560,320,825 francs, thus showing that the real and had the effect, if not of reducing each man's share al- personal property transmitted by deaths increased nearly most to a minimum, at least of greatly equalizing pro
sixteen per cent in eleven years.
The author concludes by stating that division of inperty. M. Passy has examined this point with the aid of statistical facts, and is induced to question its cor- distribution of wealth, has been overcome by the causes
heritance, far from having produced equality in the rectness.
Among the special causes operating against it in tending to inequality, and a tendency towards concenFrance, he refers to the very unequal number of chil- the last thirteen years eight per cent, wealth more than
tration has resulted. The population has increased in dren born to a marriage in the different classes of so- sixteen per cent, and if the classes of proprietors have ciety, and the fact that the rich class has the fewest of
seen their fortunes augmented, the working classes have all. Fra 1826 to 1836, the average number of legiti
also seen the fund which remunerates their toil increase mate children born annually in France, was 904,702, and as the average number of marriages during the same
more rapidly than the hands which divide it. period was 256,927, it follows that the number of births
Buttons from Clay. to each marriage has been 3:52. The thirty-nine prin The principle of forming mosaic tesseræ by the prescipal towns of more than 20,000 inhabitants, contain a sure of dry powder has been applied to the manufacture population of 2,634,525, and the annual average of births of various kinds of buttons. They are called agate has been 65,290, and of marriages 21,374, giving only buttons, and are made of kaolin, or China clay, brought 3.05 births to a marriage. The average of births in from the neighborhood of St. Austell in Cornwall. This these towns is thus less than that of the country by 0:47. kaolin is the same as the celebrated pottery clay of the It appears therefore that the average of the births is least Chinese, which is obtained from disintegrated granite. in those of the towns where the inhabitants live upon The buttons are pretty and clear in appearance, and their means, and is greatest where the working class is very hard. They are manufactured in all shapes and
sizes, plain and ornamented, and as compared with the The truth of this proposition is still more strikingly cost of mother of pearl, are said to be about one-third verified in the city of Paris. The most opulent families the price.-[Chambers' Journal. in France congregate there, and the marriages show fewer births where the population is richest. Thus in
Cast-Iron Buildings in China.
Letters from Rev. Mr. Gutzlaff state that the art of the four first arrondissements united, which are the four where the richest families reside, the number of chil constructing buildings in cast-iron has been known for dren to a marriage is 1.97, while the average of the four
centuries in China. He has found a pagoda entirely poorer is 2.86.
composed of cast-iron. It is covered with bas-reliefs The prevailing opinion that riches diffuse themselves
and inscriptions, which, from their forms, characters and pass from the hands of their possessors amongst the
and dates, show that they are as old as the dynasty of mass of the population is based upon the incontroverti- Tang, which was upon the throne as far back as from
the fifth to the tenth century of the Christian era. It ble fact of the gradual multiplication of the subdivisions of the soil. Thus 123,630,328 subdivisions are now
is in the shape of an octagonal pyramid, is forty feet in admitted in France, and it is argued that this parcelling
height, and eight feet in diameter at the base. It has out of the soil would not have occurred without the seven stories, each containing extremely curious his. number of landed proprietors having immeasurably
torical pictures. M. Gutzlaff represents this monument augmented. But what is the fact? In 1815, there were
as being strikingly elegant, and surpassing in this re10,083,751 names registered as landed proprietors, and spect, every thing of the kind he had previously seen in 1835, there were 10,893,528, giving an increase in
in China.-[London Athenæum. twenty years of eight per cent of proprietors. The
Thunder Storms and Lightning Rods. population stands thus :
St. Martin's church (London) was struck by lightIn 1815, 29,152,743
ning on the 28th of July, 1812. The spire is a light In 1835, 33,326,573
hollow structure, forty feet high, standing on an open Being an increase of fourteen per cent, and proving that cupola, and surrounded by ornamental columns and instead of increasing in equal ratio, the number of landed arches. The floor of this cupola is covered with lead, proprietors is diminished, by the difference between and there is a massive framework of wood and iron fourteen and eight per cent. It was moreover computed resting on it; the spire terminates in an iron rod formed in 1815, that France contained one hundred fixed capi- into a spindle at its extreme point for the support of the talists in every two hundred and ninety inhabitants, but vane, four to five inches square and twenty-seven feet in 1835, only one hundred in three hundred and five, long ; its extreme point being about two hundred feet showing that the number of proprietors, as compared from the ground. Beneath the cupola is the dial room, to the rest of the population, has decreased two and a containing the iron spindles of the clock faces, and these half per cent.
are connected by an upright spindle with the clock