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is extremely numerous. But without going into minu. resting objects in situations which perhaps he before tiæ we may remind the transient visitor at Trenton thought barren. The history of a bygone creation is Falls that every layer of the rock is worthy of his exa- thus added to the other objects of attention, and it may mination, and that each one will present him some new prove not one of the least inviting. form. The interest will be increasing, for when once The accompanying illustrations may not perhaps be his eyes are opened to these wonders, he will see inte. I unacceptable to the traveller who visits Trenton Falls.

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We have here representations of some of the more com- departments will become popular, we desire to see it mon forms of fossils found at this place, the collection introduced in such a manner that it may in some meaof which may occupy the mind, employ the time, and sure form a part of the reading which is derived from add interest to the visit as well as vigor to the physical magazines and journals, particularly where the profesnature. Habits of close observation cannot be too sed object is to teach. This can scarcely be done in a strongly urged, particularly upon young persons, and more effectual way than by introducing figures and deif parents who visit such places desire their children scriptions, and connecting these objects with some to become good observers in all their intercourse with place or well known locality. Neither does the intemen and things, they cannot begin by giving a better rest end here, for the same kind of fossils may meet lesson than to direct their attention to these little shells the traveller at distant points and they there come up imbedded in the rocks, or to the kind of plants which before him almost in the light of friends or acquaintan. grow upon the rocky margins of this stream. For it tances, reviving associations of place, of companions, cannot be denied that a good observer of nature in one and all the pleasant circumstances with which we may department is good in others, for his observing powers have been surrounded when these objects first met our have been cultivated; and this cannot have been done eye. A pebble from the shore of the ocean reminds us to any considerable extent without inducing reflection of all its grandeur and magnificence-a plant plucked and improving the judgment.

from the mountain top or from a barren island in the Believing that the study of Natural History in all its locean, is a faithful remembrancer for all future time.

Very walls

BY ATTICUS.

More vivid recollections are thus excited than by all

France and its Financial System. we may have written upon the spot or all we may have

BY E. B. O'CALLAGHAN. heard or read of it before.

The population of this kingdom exceeds thirty-six The grand and beautiful scenery of nature are like millions of souls. Its revenue amounted in 1844, in some perfect productions of art, their contemplation as round numbers, to twelve hundred and fifty (1250) mila whole, fills the mind with delight and satisfaction, lions of francs, equal to $234,375,000. Its public exand not less the study of every part. So amid the glories of Trenton may we stand lost in the dream of its penditure in the same year to twelve hundred and

eighty-one (1281) millions=$240,187,500, leaving a sublimity, with the dark waters at our very feet, now

deficiency in the revenue of over 30,000,000 of francs. lashing in foam, and now eddying amid the rocks a

The sources of revenue are numerous; so much so black still pool, whose very margin shows no ray of that the ingenuity of the government seems to be exlight below its surface, and the overhanging rocks erted rather in discovering new objects for taxation, seeming almost to bend above us as the sound of rolling than in endeavoring to lessen the public burthens. In. fragments from those time-worn cliffs mingle with the deed the minister avows this to be a principle in French rus ng of that resistless torrent. Again we may turn policy; for he has declared the reduction of the public to those mighty precipices and find in their

expenses to have always been an unproductive task in the exquisite forms, the delicate tracery of a perfect France, and one which often failed in accomplishing its structure, the recondite hieroglyphics which, if rightly

object. read, reveal the history of the earth and its inhabitants

The public receipts may be classed under the followin ages beyond the history of time.

ing heads : To a Ship

1. Direct taxes, including tax on real

and personal estate, and on doors
and windows,....

$74,437,500 Far hast thou been thou wandering bark,

II. Indirect taxes,

44,911,312 With thy lofty mast and sail,

III. Duties on registration, stamps, and
Thou hast mocked at the billow's flashing spark,

sales of public lands,..

44,329,291 And dared the whistling gale.

IV. Customs and salt tax,

33,937,500 Thou hast rode where icebergs cast a shade,

V. Post-office,

8,192,281 Below on the foaming deep.

VI. Woods and furests,

7,131,250 Where many a sailor's form is laid,

VII. Miscellaneous,..

5,615,257 In cold and dreamless sleep.

Besides the above, there is a sum amounting to about Thou has bowed thy high and snowy head

eighty millions of francs, or $15,000,000), raised by speTo the tempest's howling breath,

cial laws for local purposes appertaining to the several When the lightning around its red glare shed, And the billow spoke of death.

departments, which is expended for purposes designed

by law; this does not enter into the general revenue. Thou has glided along on thy silvery way, When music was in the billow,

The public expenditure is classed under the followIn the pure sweet night, when the tropic day

ing chapters :
Had sunk on its crimson pillow.

I. Interest and payments of public debt, $66,197,066
When the strea ners played in the brilliant sky, II. Civil list, expenses of the Legisla-
And lighted the depth below,

ture, &c.

3,042,206 And the ware rollid bright in the varied dye

III. Public service,

141,425,373 of its beautiful rainbow glow.

IV. Expenses of collecting and manag-
Thou has wandered full many a summer day

ing revenue,..

24,700,620 On tho peaceful and sunny ocean, When the sailor merrily sung his lay,

V. Drawbacks, repo ments, &c. ..... 11.495,910 That died o'er the wave's soft motion.

The management of the intricate affairs and vast in

terests of this important country is committed, princiThy flag has floated where the palm

pally to nine ministers of State. These are, 1st. The Bends green o'er the waters clear,

Minister of Finance ; 2d. The Minister of Justice and
Where the pure winds sigh in an air of balm,
And roses persume the year.

Public Worship; 3d. The Minister of Foreign Affairs ;

4th. The Minister of Public Instruction; 5th. The Mi. There is not an isle of the boundless sea

nister of the Interior; 6th. The Minister of Agricul. That purples the billow's foam, But where thou has sailed as wild and free,

ture and Commerce; 7th. The Minister of Public Thou callest the deep thy home.

Works ; Sth. The Minister of War; 9th. The Minister

of the Navy and the Colonies. Woman.-Shrink not from a woman of strong sense, These compose, with the King, the government of for if she become attached to you, it is from seeing and France. Each of those ministers is at the head of a viewing the different qualities in yourself; you may con- separate department or office, and through these offices sult her, for she is able to advise, and does so with the all the public business of the nation is transacted. firmness of reason and the consideration of affection; The allowance to the King, or the “civil list,” as it is her love is lasting, and it will not have been lightly won; called, is twelve millions of francs, or $2,250,000 anfor weak minds are not capable of the loftiest grades of nually. The salary of each of the ministers is eighty passion.

thousand francs, or $15,000 a year.

197

The Minister of Finance is at the head of the most 80,000,000, equal to $15,000,000. One-eighth of this important department of the government. He has to was in gold, and the remainder in silver coin. The superintend the management of the public debt, amount- per centage retained for coining is six francs ($1 12}) ing to 5,554,000,000; of the public revenue and all per killogramme of two pounds weight of gold, and other financial interests of the empire, the magnitude two francs, or 37} cents per killog. of silver. Ten per of which may be conceived when it is known that the cent is deducted for medals and other fancy articles value of the imports and exports combined, amount to struck for individuals. 2,000,000,000 of francs or $375,000,000, and that nearly For the collection of that part of the revenue classed 3,000,000 tons of shipping are yearly entered in and as “Direct Taxes," there are 86 Directors, (one for out of the French ports.

each department,) with an average salary each of $926; This department is subdivided, for the expediting of 86 Inspectors, each at $623; and 772 Comptrollers each public business, into several bureaux, each of which at $318 per ann. The salaries and expenses attendant has charge of a distinct branch of revenue. There is on this branch of the public revenue amount to over 15 1st. The Treasury Board ; 2d. Registry and Stamps; millions of farncs. 3d. Woods and Forests; 4th. Customs; 5th. Indirect The registry offices and public domain employ more Taxes ; 6th. Tobacco; 7th. Post-office ; 8th. The Mint. than three thousand persons. These give and revise

Over the Treasury there are seven Directors and one passports ; register mortgages ; grant licenses to indiCashier, each of whom has a salary of $3,750; 1 Ge- viduals to keep arms; have charge of confiscated esneral Teller, $2,512; 8 Subdirectors, each $2,250 ; 119 tates; such as have no heirs, and other public property. Chefs de Bureau, each from $750 to $1,875; 567 clerks The officers connected with all this business are 86 Diwith salaries ranging from $188 to $675, and a number rectors ; 150 Inspectors ; 308 Versifiers; 87 clerks, and of boys as messengers. Over each of the other bureaux 2,655 other functionaries, all of whose salaries amount presides a Director-General, with a salary of $3,750, to very nearly 9,000,000, or $1,653,125. assisted by Deputy Directors and a number of Clerks, The stamps give employment to 253 persons. with various salaries according to their rank. For the of these are stationed at head quarters, Paris. 86 in bureau of the Mint there is also a Director-General, the several departments of France; one of the latter is with a salary of $3,375; a Commissary-General and an charged with the sale of stamps in his particular deAssay M.ster, each $1,875; an Inspector of Assays, partment. The gross expense is about 1,000,000 or $1,313; 2 Assayers, each $938, an Assistant do. $169; $187,500, a small sum when it is understood that all 2 Chief Clerks, each $550, and 6 other Assistants. legal documents and newspapers in the country must he

Apart from these boards there are attached to the stamped. department of the Minister of Finance, 10 Inspectors

For the management of the National forests there are General, each with a salary of $2,250; 12 first class 3,207 employees, viz. : 32 Conservators, 130 Inspect. Inspectors, each $1,313 ; 12 second class, each $938 ; ors, 50 sub-Inspectors, 20 Surveyors, 472 Generals of 18 third class, euh $750 a year ; also several Receivers- Grounds, 12 anprentices, and a brigade besides of 2,520 General, and 55 Paymasters for the department. The horse guards, brigadiers, forest rangers, and clerks. latter are divided into four classes with salaries from 6 There is attached to this section a “ Forest School,” to 10,000 francs.

consisting of one Director with a salary of $1,313 ; The whole financial system is controlled and checked 7 Professors and Inspectors of Studies, each $434, and by a Board or Court of Audit, which is composed of a 5 agents. The management of the woods and forests President, at $1,688; 3 assistant do. each $2,513; 1 costs over five millions, or nearly a million of dollars. Attorney-General, $4,688; 18 councillors, $2,250 each;

The Customs, as may be readily anticipated, is the 1 Cierk of the Court, $2,250 ; 18 first class Referees, most extensive department in France in connexion with each $1,032; 62 second class do. each $150 with fees that of the public finances. Its total expense is stated to each referee of both these classes averaging annually to be between 24 and 25 millions of francs, or from about $900. There are 71 other officers of different four to five millions of dollars, on a revenue of about grades attached to this Court with various salaries,

$31,000,000.* The number of persons engaged in its Having thus given some idea of the system and ar- protection, collection, &c., is an army in itself. It rangements in this particular department by which amounts to 27,000! This army, which includes a numpublic business is expedited and public accounts check- ber of women, consists of 26 Directors, 99 Inspectors, ed, it only remrins to glance as briefly as possible at 97 sub-Inspectors, 165 directors' clerks, 865 Receivers, the various establishments connected with, and dependant on the department of the Minister of Finance

* This sum is made up of import duties : from coffee, f.13, 20,

000 ; olive oil, f.10,504,000 ; cotton, f.11,800,000; wool, 1.6,251,throughout the Empire.

000 ; coal, f.2,990,000 ; iron and castings, f.1,713,000 ; linen and There are seven establishments connected with the hempen goods, 1.2,160,000 ; other goods, f.28,246,000 ; French Mint: one at Paris, Marseilles, Bordeaux, Lille, Stras- Colonial sugar, 1.37,757,000 ; foreign do., f.1,450,000 (a); export bourg, Lyons and Rouen. Over each of these, the first duties, f.1,401,000 ; navigation dues, f.3,085,000 ; confiscation and excepted, there are usually four officers. The number fines, 1.1,052,000 ; miscellaneous, f 1,500,000 ; {alt tax ! 157,500,of hands employed in all is between one and two hundred. The hours of work are from 5 A. M. to 10 P. (a) The quantity or sugar consumed in France in 1840 is M. The coin of the realır, and all the National Medals stated officially to have been 314,000,000 lbs. Of this quantity are manufactured and stuck in these establishments. 51,000,000 was the growth of France. This would be a little The amount of money coinc:d in 1912 was estimated at pounds per family of five persons.

less than nine pounds for each person for a year, or forty-five

000.

95 Comptrollers, 816 Visitors, 718 clerks, 271 Captains, prime cost of the staple, is over 25 millions of francs or 514 Lieutenants, 5,438 Brigadiers and sub. do., 18,164 about five millions of dollars. rank and file, 348 ship masters and mates, 1,263 sea The next class of persons interested in this particumen, 33 cabin boys, besides a number of " sub-agents.” lar branch of the public revenue, is the licensed retail

The next branch is what are called “Indirect Taxes." ers of snuff and tabacco throughout the kingdom. To These consists of the excise on wines, cider, beer and secure to each of these a salary equal to the ordinary spirituous liquors, which amounts to the enormous sum

profit of the retail trade, the article is delivered to them of 94 millions of francs or seventeen millions and a half by the government at a price somewhat lower than the of dollars, (equal to forty-six cents per head on large consumer is obliged to pay, according to a certain fixed and small of the population,) licenses to public car- scale. The prices submitted to judges in this country riages, duties on playing cards, on manufactured sugar

are considered exceedingly high. The amount derived and salt, ferries and other tolls, tythes of octrois, &c., by the French government through this monopoly and 50,000,000 ; sale of tobacco 95,000,000, and of powder from intoxicating liquors is equal to a dollar a head on

the population, rich and poor, old and young; a heavy 5,000,000 francs.

tax, it must be admitted, to contribute to the mere gratiFor the collection and management of these several fication of the palate. taxes, there are 8,132 salaried persons, viz : 85 De

The manufacture of gunpowder is another governpartmental Directors, 208 directors of arrondisements, ment monopoly. The quantity sold in 1842 was three 50 Comptrollers of accounts, 140 travelling do., 282 millions three hundred and eighty thousand (3,380,000) city do., 401 Directors Clerks, 1,296 Horse and 771 pounds, valued at $511,347; froin which a revenue of Foot Receivers, 1,297 Horse and 127 Foot additional about a million of dollars was derived. clerks, 110 Comptrollers and Overseers of Navigation,

The Post-office is the best source of revenue which 70 Comptrollers and Clerks of salt works, 3,038 Clerks we shall examine. Exclusive of the central board, aland Supernuinaries, 36 Comptrollers of canals and bridges, 14 minor servants and 207 agents to prevent tion and in the collection of postage, 13,845 persons. Of

ready mentioned, there are employed in its administrafrauds on the tobacco revenue,

these 896 are employed in Paris. The salaries of all The sale of tobacco and snuff in France, is a govern. these officials amount to $1,652,055. In addition to ment monopoly, from which is derived a revenue of these, there are connected with this branch of the pubnearly eighteen millions of dollars. This necessarily lic service 1,015 maitres de poste who furnish for hire has created an establishment, the force of which it is the horses for mail transport; 281 couriers“ estafittes;" impossible to estimate, embracing as it does every inte- 52 packet agents ; 50 officers of packets; 619 seamen rest from the Inspector-General of tobacco leaves to and artizans, which added to the former total, make in the pedlar of penny cigars.

all 16,862 persons connected with the post-office deThere are ten Royal Tobacco Factories ; that is, one partment, not including, however, the men employed in in Paris, Havre, Morlaix, Toulouse, Lyons, Bourdeaux, driving the mail stages, nor the central board. Marseilles, Tonneins, Lille and Strasbourg, besides an The allowance to the maitres de poste for horse hire establishment at Illkrich, and five general store houses was, prior to 1842, twenty-five cents of our money per in the departments. Work commences in the factories horse for two leagues in four horse stages, carrying two at day-light, and the men are often obliged to labor all or three passengers. This having been considered too night. So strict is the superintendance, lest the work- low the government raised the price to 32 cents per men should defraud the revenue, that the government horse for stages of one to four seats. The drivers are agents sleep on the premises. The prime cost of the allowed each the same sum per “myriameter,” or two staple manufactured yearly, amounts to about twenty leagues. millions, or $3,750,000. Over the store houses in The entire expense of the French post-office, includwhich the tobacco in leaf is kept, there are in all sixty-ing the Mediterranean and Calais packets, was in 1842, one offices, viz. : 6 Tobacco Inspectors, 21 store keep- the date of the last report we have seen, between 26 ers, 18 Comptrollers and 16 Clerks. Over the ten fac- and 27 millions of francs or about five millions of doltories there are 2 Special Inspectors who are also mem- lars. bers of the government board in Paris, and 2 Deputies, The revenue, which is not quite double this sum, is 10 Managers, 10 Inspectors of the manufactured arti- derived, 1st, from postage on letters, which at the above cle, 10 Comptrollers, 14 Deputy Inspectors and Comp- date amounted to 41,157,300 francs, or $7,716,994 ; 2d, trollers, 10 storekeepers, 6 apprentices, 20 Clerks, and from 5 per cent on all money transmitted by post, $176,50 messengers. There are, besides, 165 other employ- 491; 3rd, from a duty on gold and silver transmitted by ees to examine the quality of the tobacco raised in the the Mediterranean packets, $16,500 ; 4th, from seats in country. The pay of the whole of the above enume- mail stages, $124,125; 5th, from berth in mail packets, rated force amounts to about one million of francs. It $220,000; and 6th, from a tax on the transit of foreign requires two millions more to pay the salaries and wages correspondence, $8,188. Making in all, $8,192,282. of the hands employed in manufacturing and fitting up The law inflicts a very heavy penalty on such as dethe article for market. There is no way of ascertaining fraud the revenue, by the private conveyance of letters. the number of these persons, but it must be considera The above details concerning the finances of France, ble when the lowness of wages in France is compared their sources, management and collection may appear with the large sum expended for that purpose. dry to many; but we have no doubt that they will be

The amount expended in this branch, including the interesting, as they are new, to the greater number of

BY D. PARISH BARHYDT.

our readers. Many points in the French system will be To the New York Young Men's State Association. found pecullar, especially by the people of these States. Here few or none feel, in the common transactions of

Now forward in the glorious cause, life, the action of government. Every man is free to go,

Without a momentary pause, like the wind, “whither he listeth,” and to pursue his

No flagging of your strength or will, occupation or amusement as to himself it may seem

But forward in the march, until best. But in France it is otherwise. The finger of

Throughout the broad old Empire State,

Success upon your arms shall wait; government may be said to be “ in every man's dish.”

And you can count for every glen, Scarcely any branch of business can be cultivated, that

A band of young associate men. the track of industry is not closely followed by the sleepless footsteps of the government in the shape of a tax

A band, shall not be bent on strife,

Shall not be leagued for taking life ; gatherer, a competitor or a monopolist. Whoever wish

But in the cause of wisdom just, es to visit a friend at a distance must pay the govern

In God and in yourselves your trust, ment for a passport, and if he uses the stage, pay the

Go forth with zeal, steadfast, intense, government for a seat therein. Should he choose to

To fight the tyrant ignorance ! smoke a cigar, by the way, the government presents it.

Let every district furnish then,

A band of young associate men. self as the tobacco manufacturer, and if he desires to go fowling, the powder he makes use of is furnished also

Your early steps are wisely taken, by the government. The inhabitant of the vine clad

Your purpose yet has been unshaken,

Pursuit of knowledge is your pride, hills of the sunny South is watched by a government

Let wisdom always be your guide ; agent in his efforts to take advantage of the bounteous

Encourage love of learning, till blessings of nature, for every pint of wine removed from

None shall be left untaught, then will his cellar for sale must be guaged and permitted, at the

Each youth have cause to bless again,

The band of young associate men. same time that he pays a tax for the very sugar or salt with which he savors his daily meal. The air of hea

Throw open wide your spacious halls, ven is not allowed to visit his dwelling except through a

Within be heard the free foot-falls taxed window or a taxed door, and if his education

Of poor and laboring youth, there first

Find means to quench the knowledge thirst. prompts him to be inquisitive concerning the affairs of

May all be numbered in your ranks, his country, it is only through a taxed paper that he

Received with welcome, bringing thanks, can obtain the news. Various other are the ways in

And millions bless the moment when which he is made to feel that there is a government.

They joined the young associate men! It is by becoming thus acquainted with the manner in which things are managed in other countries, that

Military Heroism.-In the course of that melee, mathe inhabitants of this can correctly appreciate their ny seats of gallantry were performed ; indeed the eneown happy condition, in a social and political point of my's loss in killed and wounded was far greater than view. By cultivating peace and good will, the one to ours, inasmuch as not fewer than fifty, belonging to the the other; by disseminating the blessings of education; latter class, were brought to the hospital of which we

became inmates. But there was one man in particular, by keeping the lights of an untrammelled industry constantly burning, can the happiness of that condition be who died so nobly that I feel myself bound, as an act of permanently secured and transmitted to their posterity. justice to his memory, to speak of him. His name was

Wilson. I saw him engaged hand to hand with a French Mile.—The following exhibit of the number of yards Dragoon, I saw him—for I was by this time disabled by contained in a mile in different countries, will often a severe wound, and stretched at length beside others of prove a matter of useful reference to readers :

my suffering comrades—give and receive more than on A mile in England and America,.... 1,760 yards.

pass, with equal skill and courage. Just then a French Russia,..

1,100

officer stooping over the body of one of his wounded Italy,

1,477

countrymen, who dropped at the instant on his horses Scotland and Ireland, 2,200

neck, delivered a thrust at poor Harry Wilson's body ; Poland,

4,400

and delivered it effectually. I firmly believe that WilSpain,...

5,028

son died on the instant : yet though he felt the sword in Germany,

5,066

its progress, he, with characteristic self command, kept Sweden and Denmark,

7,223

his eye still on the enemy in his front; and raising Hungary,....

7,800

himself in his stirrups, let fall upon the Frenchman's League in America or England,..... 5,280

helmet such a blow, that brass and skull parted before

it, and the man's head was cloven asunder to the chin. Impudence is current coin in the affairs of life; the It was the most tremendous blow I ever beheld struck, world judges by appearances, not by realities, and he and both he who gave and his opponent who received who doubts his own merit, never has credit given him it dropped dead together. The brass helmet was afterby others.

wards examined by order of the French officer, who, as

well as myself, was astonished at the exploit; and the Despotism can no more exist in a nation until the cut was found to be as clean as if the sword had gone liberty of the press be destroyed, than the night can through a turnip, not so much as a dint left on either happen before the sun is set.

side.- United Service Journal.

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