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THE NEW

INTERNATIONAL
ENCYCLOPEDIA

EDITORS

DANIEL COIT GILMAN, LL. D.

PRESIDENT OF JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY (1876-1901)

AFTERWARDS PRESIDENT OF THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON

HARRY THURSTON PECK, PH. D., L. H. D.

PROFESSOR IN COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

FRANK MOORE COLBY, M. A.

LATE PROFESSOR OF ECONOMICS

IN NEW YORK UNIVERSITY

VOLUME X

NEW YORK

DODD, MEAD AND COMPANY

1906

AE

5

No532
V.10

Copyright, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906
BY DODD, MEAD AND COMPANY
All rights reserved

PRESSWORK BY THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, CAMBRIDGE, U. S. A.
BINDING BY BOSTON BOOK BINDING CO., CAMBRIDGE, U. S. A.

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KEY TO PRONUNCIATION.

D

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am, at.
arm, father.

G

H

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eve.

á as in ale, fate. Also see ě, below.

as in the Spanish Almodovar, pulgada, where senate, chaotic. Also see ě, below.

it is nearly like th in English then, glare, care.

this. go, get.

“ the German Landtag, and ch in Feueri "“ ant, and final a in America, armada,

bach, buch; where it is a guttural etc. In rapid speech this vowel read

sound made with the back part of the ily becomes more or less obscured and

tongue raised toward the soft palate, like the neutral vowel or a short

as in the sound made in clearing the u (ū).

throat. ““ final, regal, where it is of a neutral or as ; in the Spanish Jijona, g in the Spanobscure quality.

ish gila; where it is a fricative someall, fall.

what resembling the sound of h in

English hue or y in yet, but stronger. elate, evade.

hw wh in which. “ end, pet. The characters ē, ā, and á K

ch in the German ich, Albrecht, and g are used for ä in German, as in Gärt.

in the German Arensberg, Mecklen. ner, Gräfe, Hähnel, to the values of

burg; where it is a fricative sound which they are the nearest English

made between the tongue and the vowel sounds. The sound of Swedish

hard palate toward which the tongue ä is also indicated by ě.

is raised. It resembles the sound ộ “ “ fern, her, and as i in sir. Also for ö,

of h in hue, or y in yet; or the sound oe, in German, as in Göthe, Goethe,

made by beginning to pronounce a k, Ortel, Oertel, and for eu and oeu in

but not completing the stoppage of French, as in Neufchâtel, Crèvecæur;

the breath. The character K is also to which it is the nearest English

used to indicate the rough aspirates vowel sound.

or fricatives of some of the Oriental agency, judgment, where it is of a neu

languages, as of kh in the word Khan. tral or obscure quality.

r as in sinker, longer. 1 ice, quiet.

ng sing, long. i

“ the French bon, Bourbon, and m in the quiescent. 1 “ ill, fit.

French Etampes; where it is equiva" old, sober.

lent to a nasalizing of the preceding obey, sobriety.

vowel. This effect is approximately 6 orb, nor.

produced by attempting to pronounce odd, forest, not.

‘onion' without touching the tip of " atom, carol, where it has a neutral or

the tongue to the roof of the mouth. obscure quality.

The corresponding nasal of Portu. oi

guese is also indicated by N, as in the oil, boil, and for eu in German, as in

case of São Antão. Feuerbach.

sh

shine, shut. “ food,.fool, and as u in rude, rule.

th " thrust, thin. house, mouse.

then, this. use, mule.

zh as z in azure, and s in pleasure.

An apostrophe ('] is sometimes used to denote cut, but.

a glide or neutral connecting vowel, as in ta'b'l full, put, or as oo in foot, book. Also (table), kāz''m (chasm).

for ü in German, as in München, Otherwise than as noted above, the letters used
Müller, and U in French, as in in the respellings for pronunciation are to receive
Buchez, Budé; to which it is the their ordinary English sounds.
nearest English vowel sound.

When the pronunciation is sufficiently shown urn, burn.

by indicating the accented syllables, this is done y yet, yield.

without respelling; as in the case of very common " the Spanish Habana, Córdoba, where it English words, and words which are so spelled as

is like a v made with the lips alone, to insure their correct pronunciation if they are

instead of with the teeth and lips. correctly accented. See the article on PRONUN. ch " " chair, cheese.

CIATION.

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